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a r. -^ 





~ 7™ '^H^ VARIOL'S DEFiBTME/TS^^^— 



un or uaa* *m> raxt tol. i 



Hi ; 





ilVraOB or *■ THB BI810BT OW TOS BBti^UOire IN SCOTLADTD, " &C 


VOL. I. 







James's Ancesti7**HigBfatt«]i4lDAuicy 13 

' OH A P. 11. 

Education — Early youdi'^JtortoD's Regency«-A8- 
cendenof of the iaTouritet Lennox and Arran — 
Execution of Morton 46 


Raid of Rathven— Arran*s Govemment-^Retum of 
the banished Nobka— Jamea's first Literary effort 77 


The King's conduct regarding hit Itfother at her 
Execution 110 


Jameses Marriage — Hia arrival with the Queen from 
Denmark— Their reception .135 


Turbulence of the Earl of Bothwell and the Clergy 
—Poetical Exercises— Death of the Earl of Moray 156 



TurbttkBce of Bothwell and the Clergy continued- 
Plots of the Catholic Lords— Bothwell restored— 
And forfeitedF-Battle of Baltinnea— Death of 
Chancellor Maitland i • • • . IM 


The Octamna— Tumult of the Seventeenth of De- 
cember — Publication of the Baailicon Doron • 216 

The Gowry Conspiracy • • • . • 236 


intrigues p te para t o ry of the Succeasion-^Death of 
Eliaabeth 278 


I HAVE little to say In laying this work be- 
fo re the public, except that I have eodeor 
voured to make it as amusing as the nature 
of the subject might lead the public to ex- 
pect. Several years ago> the grotesque ued 
familiar character of King James the First 
seemed to me so likely to suit the style of 
writing I was most accustomed to pracdse* 
that I resolved, as soon as other engage- 
ments would permit, to make it the subject 
of a book. An opportunity having now oc- 
curred, I lay my labours before the publie ; 
hoping, with the usual earnestness of an au- 
Aor's hope, that my selection of a theme 
will not be deemed unfortunate. 

Edikbubgh, Jday 19, 1830. 







At'THOUdH tbe whole hifltoiy and character of 
James the First is peculiar and remarkable, it ma;^ 
perhaps be asserted, that nothing about him is 
tiiore so than the strange contrast which he pre* 
seats, in our associations, to his parents, and to 
tlie time, place, and other circumstances of his 
birth. When we consider James by himself, wb 
think of him as of a timid, good-natnred, some* 
what pedantic, old man ; possessed of some sense 
and mnch learning ; who bnmt witches, and be- 
eame the chronicler of their mis-deeds ; who was 
Very weak in the legs, and much giyen to leaning 
on the shoulders, and twitching the cheeks, of 
young gentlemen ; who was at first King of the 
poor bat ancient kingdom of Scotland> and after- 
vox*. I* A 

14 LirE OF 

wardsi by a fortunate chance, soyereign of ail the 
three realms forming the British empire; who was 
▼ery foolish, bnt very fortunate ; liked hunting 
and the Church of England ; was much afraid of 
assassination, as he had too much need, and nerer 
could bear to see a drawn sword or a cocked pis- 
tol ; who was, altogether, a droll, bustling, fidget- 
ting, incomprehensible old genUeman, moie like 
a schoolmaster than a king, and, ten to one, cal- 
culated to wield the ferula with more dignity, and 
also better effect, than the sceptre. In oppositiiHi 
to this train of ideas, upon the whole so ridiculous, 
we find that the mother of James was Mary Stu- 
art ; that name of tears ; that most admirable and 
hapless woman ; that word to conjure up all that 
a poet can dream of beauty, or a historian quote 
of misfortune ; for whom the highest adrantages 
of birth and person procured but the extreme of 
misery ; who seemed only bom for a throne that 
she. nnght perish on a scaffold. Side by side with 
this idea, and equally opposed to that of King 
James, we hare Damley, his bey-&ther ; the tall 
young kttigbt who rede for a time la gilded ar- 
naour by Mary's side, alike ready to fondle and 
protect— who afterwards fell a preyi in his nnsua* 
pacting puerility, to a band of fullrgrowa traitos% 
in whose hands he was as the lily is to the wiivl- 
wind. Equally opposed to James himself, are lua 
aiieestofs ; on the one side, the series of chivakie 
kings who held sway over Scotland finim a time 
•ateeedent to all anthentie history ; on the other^ 
the fine of the stately Plantogenets, and the wav- 
Mke Douglases. * Nor is it less curious to yiesr 

* Periiaps a genealogical note may here be necessary- 
James was descended, by both his parents, ftom King 


tke proeperow and tUt-world tenmr of bis long 
fotvnate life, md the gay aouthem scane in whick 
the lietlor part of it was spent, in contrast to the 
dark and stormf era of his birth, the scene of that 
•vent» and the people amidst whom it took plaoe. 
James's history properly commeoces before he 
entered the world. The well-known incident of 
RizEio's deathi which took place upwards of three 
monthe prior to his birth, as it is supposed to have 
^oifaiced some effect apon both his physical and 
uoral constitu^n, seems entitled to the fiivt no* 
tioe in these Memoirs. It is needless, of cowseb 
to enter into any detail of the drcomstaiiees which 

Henry VIL of England, trho, being binuelf tbe repre- 
sentative of the Lancaster branch of the Plantagenets, and 
marrying Elizabeth of York, the descendant of the other, 
united in Ms duldven, as it was said, tbe pretensions of 
both the Motet. Heniya eldest daughter HargaraC^ was, 
by James IV. of Scotland, the mother of James V., who 
in his turn was, through his daughter Mary, the grand- 
father of James VI. Queen Margaret, by a second mar- 
riage to ArdiibakI, Earl of Angus, was the mother of 
lady Margaret Douglas* who, being married to Matthew^ 
Earl of l^ennox, became the mother of Lord Damley^ 
fii^r to the sutgect of our Memoir. Damley and Mary 
Were thus second cousins ; and perhaps, but for inheriting 
die claims of both the children of Queen Margaret, James' 
would never have become King of England ; for the dril-* 
dren of Margaret Douglas, by virtue of being native 
English, might have had a preference, by the laws of 
England, over a Scottish claimant with better hereditary 
right ; a good reason, by the way, for the marriage ot 
Mary and Damley, though, after it turned out unhappily* 
it was eidaimed against, as the result of an imprudent 
attachment. In consequence of the failure of tbe mala 
issue of Henry VTIIm only son of Henry VIL, Queen 
Mary became the heiress presumptive of Elisabeth, hia 
last surviving daughter ; and to her, accordingly, aa aha 
died without issue, James eventually succeeded. 


led to tbat horrid transaction, or even of ^he inci- 
dent itself, since they are already so well known. 
iAn allasion to the condition in which Mary was 
at the time, and the effect which it might be sap- 
posed to have upon her and her of&pring, is alone 
necessary in this place. It wonld appear as one 
of the most flagrant proofs of the barbarism of 
even the best class of society in that age, that 
Damley (who, it must be remembered, was edu- 
cated in England) and his associates shonld have 
chosen to execute the murder of their victim in 
the Queen's presence, and while she was in such 
a peculiar condition. Entering, as it must be well 
recollected, her small supper- chamber, where she 
was sitting with Rizzio and one or two other per- 
sons, they bent their eyes upon him with a threat- 
ening expression, and, on his taking refuge behind 
his mistr^, immediately proceeded to seize him. 
Mary, at various periods of her life^ showed that 
she possessed an intrepidity of spirit not i^nworthy 
of her gallant lineage. But in that terrible scene, 
when her supper-table was overturned, the lights 
almost extinguished, and a bended pistol present- 
ed to her breast by one ruffian, while another stabbed 
Ae man who clung in despair to her person, she 
gave way to a sensation of alarm, which it appears 
(Jie did not forget even after the birth of her child. 
It was her own fear^ on that dreadful night, that 
her child could scarcely survive the agitation into 
which she had been thrown ; and among the in- 
vectives which she launched against Lord Ruth- 
ven, the chief conspirator, one referred to the evils 
he might have thus brought upon bis country. 
Fortunately, the misfortune which she apprehend- 
ed, did not ensue. But it was always supposed. 


ky the coatemporttries of her o&pringf that he 
owed the weakness of his limbs, ami his antipathy 
\o the sight of arms, to the agitation into which 
\ns mother was thrown on the night of Rissio's 
slaughter. * 

The dissension consequent npon this event, be* 
twixt Mary and Damley, was partially stilled aS 
the time when she was about to give burth to 
her child. On this acconnt, when she retired to 
IBdinburgh Castle, (which she chose to make the 
scene of her accouchment, in consideration of the 
security it afforded her), he was admitted to 
lodge in the same fortress, along with her ap« 
proved friends, the Earls of Argyle, Atholl, Mur- 
ray, and Mbx, In a palace which she had re* 
qently built within that place of strength, and 
which still exhibits the initials of her own and her 

. * It was latterly insinuated against James, by the less 
prominent claimants of the English throne, that he was the 
child of Rizzio, and not of Barnley ; a scandal to which 
asuw events of his mother's life, and the view which one 
party took of her character, gave a certain degree of coun* 
t^nance. So lately as the time of the Commonwealth, an 
enemy of the roysd family ingeniously remarked, in adlu- 
fioon to his nickname of ** the British Solomon,** that he 
taiinently deserved that tkle, seeing he was the son of Da- 
pid ths Fiddler, and the father of Rehoboam^ (meaning 
Charle$)f who had the kingdom rent from him. But that 
Mary was guilty with a man described to have been so 
{Ad and unamiid>le as Rizzio, is what no historian, save 
the aalignant Buchanan, has ever imputed to her. Nor 
(loes chronology allow of such a supposition :**-The mar- 
riage of the royal pair took place less than eleven months 
before the birth of fheir offspring ; and it is quite incon- 
ceivable that ^e Queen could have commenced a guilty 
QpnnsctioB, so soon after her union to a man whom die 
Hsnaly ioved, and with whom, indeed, she had noquanti 
tiU after she was far advanced in pregnancy. 



bnsband^fl namesy mingled in the loving shape of 
a cipher over the door-way, she was delivered of 
her son, between nine and ten in the morning of 
Wednesday, the 19th of Jane 1566. The roont 
where this event took place is so extremely small, 
that it is yet the wonder of every one who sees it, 
how it could have afforded the proper accom- 
modation. Indeed, there never perhaps was a King, 
eten among those who have risen to their thrones 
from a plebeian rank, who was bom in an apartment 
so limited in dimension, and so humble in appear- 
s^ce, as that in which the first monarch of Great 
Britain was ushered into the world. It measures 
no more than the length of two ordinary walking- 
caues in any direction ; and it is somewhat irre- 
gular in shape. That Mary should have selected 
so narrow a room for her retirement under such 
circumstances, certainly gives a curious view either 
of her character, or of the manners of the age and 
country in which she lived. * 

About two o'clock that afternoon, J^rd Dam- 
ley came to visit the Queen, and expressed a de» 
aire to see the child. *< My lord, " said Mary, 
as her attendants presented their precious charge 
to his arms, *^ God has given you and me a 
son. " Damley stooped and kissed the child, 

* Yet it is not perhaps so strange as that she should 
have permitted the guns of the castle, within a few yards 
of her bedt to be fired off immediately after the birth* 
They were fired as a matter of course, for the purpose of 
announcing the event to her subjects in the city below, 
and as a token of public congratulation. Dunng the 
evening, bon-fires were lighted on the neighbouring hills; 
and as the intelligence spread throughout the country, it 
.vas received everywhere with similar testimonials oi the 
popular satisfaction. 


a blnah maatling 0& his cheeky as the noTel ides 
pf paternity rushed to his mind. Mary then 
^ok her son into her arma, and» withdrawing 
a. cloth which partially covered his face, said 
to [her husband, " My lord, here I protest to 
God, and as I shall answer to him at the great 
day of judgment, this is your son, and no other 
man's son. He is indeed so much your son, thai 
I only fear it wiU be the worse for him hereafter." 
Xhen turning to Sir William Stanley, Daroley'a 
principal English servant, Mary added, " Thia ia 
the son who, I hope, shall first unite the two king- 
doms of Scotland and England. " Sir William an- 
swered, " Why, madam I shall he succeed before 
your Majesty and his fisuher ? " << Alas ! " Mary 
only answered, and the answer was expremive 
enough ; '* his father has broken to me. " Dam- 
ley, who still stood near, heard this with pain. 
5* Sweet madam I '* said he, *' is this your promise 
that you made, to forget and forgive all ? " — " I 
have forgiven all, '* said the Queen ; ** but will 
never forget. What if Fawdonside's pistol had 
had shot ? What would have become of him and 
me both ! And what estate would you have been 
in ? God only knows. But u^ may suspect. " • 
** Madam, " answered Damley, *^ these things are 
all past. " << Then, " said the Queen, ** let them 

* The Queen here alluded to the conduct of Andrew 
Ker of Faldownside at the death of Rizzio. He had pre- 
sented a cocked pistol at her breast ; and it is also record- 
ed of him, that he separated Rizzio from her, by.bending 
back his mid-finger, till he could no longer hold her wust 
for pain. 

t This curious anedote is iVom an abridgement of a 
history of his own times, written by Lord Henries. The 

80 iiFS OF 

ThnAej would tbmmt appMr, from tbe etrcttlD'- 
etancet of this interview, to have been a man of 
filler and mora tractable spirit, than is generally 
•nppoaed of bim* Tbe blusb wbich came upon 
lus cbeek as bis cbDd was presented to him, the 
kiss be imprinted on its lips, and bis soft an* 
swer to the Queen s irritating remark regarding 
Rimo's murder, are all traits of an amiable na*- 
tore* Perhaps the fcdlowing anecdote of him, now 
printed, like the preceding, for the first time, will 
deepen die faTonrable impression we thus receire 
of bis character. 

Damley had an imcle in Clydesdale, — ^GeorgO 
Douglas of Todsholesy otherwise called * of Park* 
head ' — a personage noted in Scottish history for 
baring inflicted tbe first wound upon Rizzio, and 
who was generally known by the epithet of the 
Posmlate of Aberbrothwick, from his baring It 
prospect of erentoally enjoying the temporaU- 
ties of that rich abbacy. Though this man was 
only a natural son of the Earl of Angus, father to 
Pemley^B mother, Damley always styled him 
<< Undo ; " and the royal pair occasionally risited 
bim at Todsboles. One day, about the time when 
tbe quarrels of Mary and her husband first be- 
came pnblidy obserred, Damley was fishing on a 
lake, near Todsboles, thoe bebg no other indi- 
vidual in tbe boat but Rizzio. Douglas bad per- 
ceived, or been informed, that the Italian was the 
■ole cause of bis nephew's troubles ; and, with that 
fatal disposition common to all Scotsmen at the 
time, by which the interests of a,kinsman were held 

origUial is in tbe Scots College of Douay, and tbe abridge- 
meat in the Adfocates' libiaiyt Ediaburglk 


aapenor to all other considerationd, he made a ngik 
to Darnley for pennission to throw the Secretary^ 
into the water, where, in all probabiUty, he wovld 
have instantly perished. Darnley, however, would 
not allow the Postulate to make this sacrifice of 
life for his sake, however little the risk of detect 
tion. No donbt, he was afterwards provoked, not 
only to consent to the murder of Rizzio, but also 
to take a part in it. Yet it is certainly so much 
in his favour, that, at a period a little earlier, be 
shrunk from sanctioning such a crime, although it 
might have then been committed much more con- 
veniently, and without the least share of that risk 
of disagreeable consequences which eventually at^i 
tended it. * 

On the day after James's birth, the inbabitanlBi 
elergy, and nobility of Edinburgh, met in St 
Giles's, the principal church of the city* and re* 
turned thanks to the Almighty, for blessing them 
with an heir-apparent to the crown. The Gene- 
ral Assembly of the church at the same time met, 
and agreed upon sending a message to the Queen» 
congratulating her upon her delivery, and request- 
ng her to permit her offspring to be baptized and 
brought up in the Protestant faith. The person cho- 
sen to carry this message was Spottiswoode, the 
Saperintendant of Lothian, a venerable churckr 
man, the father of John Spottiswoode, the distin- 
guished Archbishop of St Andrews. When Spot- 
tiswoode expressed the wishes of his brethren re- 

^ From ft MS. memoir of the family of Dalgleiah, which 
has been placed in my hands by Captain Stoddart, R. N. 
Beflvue Crescent, Edinburgh. It appears to haTe been 
written by a member of the family about the beginning of 
the last century. 

gaidiBg the edncadon of Ae prinee, Marjr miiM* 
and wn silent. She otherwise received tlie eccle<^ 
eiMtieal visitor very gracimuly. She commanded 
die child to be broiight into her room, and shown 
ts the cfaurdimaB. He took the precious infant 
in fail ems, and, falling upon his knees, nttered an 
oanieat prayer, appropriate to the occanon; to 
which Mary fisteiied with respectfol attention. 
Whm done, he good hamonredly asked the child 
to say Aooen, as an expreasioo of assent to what 
had been said ; and it is reported that the child 
did nttar a mnrmur, whidi Spottiswoode interpret* 
ed into the sound of the word required. Mary, 
aarased at the pious warmth of the old man, con- 
ferred upon him the nickname of " Master Amen,** 
which James, in his after years, is said to have 
eeotinnad to him, honouring him at the same time 
mth a Tory friendly regard. * 

* QpDttiswood^'s Church HuCoiy. W« are so amch sc- 
customed to assodAte the idea of Mary vith that of grie^ 
that the slightest anecdote of a facetious character, which 
can now be recorded respecting her, is apt to be appreci* 
atwi above its deserts. From this conviction, rather thaa 
any thing else, I yeature to preseot the following to thfr 
reader for the first time. 

There is preserved in the Advocates' Library at Edin- 
burgh, a manuscript entitled * Rolment of Courts, * being 
Ml account of the laws, oonstitiition, and antiquities of 
Scotland ; the author of wiuch, Habakkuk Bisset, is stat- 
ed, by a note on the first leaf, (written in adifierent hand,} 
to have been endowed with his Christian name by Queen 
Mary. The father of Habakkuk was caterer to that Prin. 
cesi, and took the liberty, when on the way to have his 
child baptised, to ask her Majesty to assiffn a name for hhn. 
She being then about to go to mass, saul she would open 
the Bible when in the church, and the first name whid& 
should strike her m, the would asnga itfbr adesignA- 
taon to^the child. The first name she cast vp waa that of 


AmoBg die preparalioB* which Mary bad made 
for her acconchnent, there was one of a yery im- 
portant natniie. She had engaged her interim ae* 
cratary, Mr Jaaoes Melville, (afterwards Sir James) 
to be ready at a mom«it a notice to monnl hia 
horse aad carry the tidbgs of her deHvery to the 
Qneea of £ngl«nd. She was mow en friendly 
temia with Elisabeth ; and as her prospects of soe- 
ceeding to that sorereign were at the time keenly 
agitated by the friends of both, and had recently 
been a snl^ect of correspondence between thepaiv 
ties themselres^ she natnrally felt anziens to cob»- 
mnuicate the earliest information regarding the 
event to the English Coart. For this pmp e ee, 
she had previously written aad signed a letter te 
Elisabeth, complete in every respect^ and ready te 
be despaitched, except in the statement ol the cfaildfs 
sex. For some time before^ says Sir James M^ 
Tille in his Memoirs, * I lay withitt the Castle of 
Edinhs£§^, pnying night and day fev her Mi^ss- 
ty's good and happy delivery of a frnr son. This 
prayer bemg granted, I was the first who was 
thereof advertised by the Lady Boyne in her Ma- 
jesty s name, to part with diligence ^ 19th of 
Jnney 1566, between ten and eleven in the mona* 
iag. By twelve of the clock, I took hoese, and 
was that night at Berwick. The fourth day ^ero^ 
after I was at London, and did fint meet with my 
brother l^r Robert, who thi^ same night sent and 
advertised Secretary Cecil of my arrival, and of 
the birth of the Prince,, desiring him to keep it 
^piiet till my coming to coart to shew it myself mt* 

the propbet Habakkuk, which was accordingly bestowed 
upoa the future author of the < Rolmeut of Courts, * 


to her Majestf, who was for the time at Green- 
wich, where her Majesty was in great mirth danc- 
ing after sapper. But so soon as the Secretary 
Cecil whispered in her ear the news of the Prince s 
birth, all the mirth was laid aside for that night. 
All present marvelled whence proceeded snch a 
change ; for the Queen did sit down, patting her 
hand onder her cheek, bursting oat to some of her 
ladies, that the Qaeen of Scots was mother of a 
fair son, while she was but a barren stock. The 
next morning was appointed for me to get audi- 
ence ; at which time my brother and I went by 
water to Greenwich, and were met by some friends, 
who told us how sorrowful her Majesty was at 
my news ; but that she had been advised to 
•«how a glad and cheerful countenance ; which she 
did in her best apparel, saying, that the joyful 
news of the Queen her sister's delivery of a fair 
aon, whidi I had sent her by Secretary Cecil, bad 
recovered her out of a heavy sickness which she 
had been under for fifteen days. Therefore, she 
welcomed me with a merry volt, and thanked me 
fat the diligence I had used in hasting to give her 
that welcome intelligence. All this she had 8ai4 
before I delivered to her my letter of credence. 
After that she had read it, I declared how that 
' die Queen had hasted me towards her Majesty, as 
one whom she knew, of all her friends, would be 
most joyful of the glad news of her delivery, al- 
beit dear bought with the peril of her life, she 
being so sore handled that she wished she had ne- 
ver been married. This I said by the way, to 
give her a little scare from marriage ; for so my 
brother had counselled me, because sometimes she 
boasted [threatened] to marry the Archduke 


-CiuaieB of AuBtria, when any man pressed her to 
name a second person. Then I requested her Ma- 
jesty to be a gossip to the Qneen, to which she 
gladly condescended. Your Majesty, said I> will 
now have a fiBur occasion to see the Qaeen, where- 
of I have heard your Majesty so oft desirous. 
Whereat she smil^, saying, She wished that her 
estate and nSem might permit her ; in the mean 
time, she promised to send both honourable lords 
and ladies to supply her room. ' 

The great mind of ]Slizabeth is here found pin- 
mg at her own hopelessness of issue, and bitterly 
grudging the advantage which the Queen of Scots 
derived from her infant heir as a claimant of the 
English throne. She had previously found great 
difficulty in repressing the claims of Mary to he 
declared her heir, urged as these claims were by 
B large party of her subjects ; and she now con- 
templated with much vexation the strong addi- 
tional daim which the Scottish Queen must thin 
have upon the affections of the English people. 
' Mary remained in Edinburgh Castle, with her 
flwm, tiU the beginmng of August, when she took 
BhipjMng at Newhaven, and sailed up the Firth of 
Forth to AQoa, the seat of her trusty friend the Earl 
of Mar. Here she lived for a week or more, 
during which Monsieur Malvoisin came to her, as 
ambassador from the King of France, to congra- 
tulate her on the birth of her son ; an event whidi 
had ^ven that monarch the greatest joy, as wdl 
as all the other Catholic sovereigns of Europe, 
lending as it did to fortify her pretoasions to the 
English crown against Elizabeth. Malvoisin ex- 
lerted himself at Alloa to reconcile her to Lord 
Damley, and waa so successful in his efibrts, as 

TOL. u B 

26 XTF£ Of 

to induce diem to tpead two nigkts tofjjnlliiiii 
FVtim Alloa, the whole court fioeeeded to Megp^ 
itt Tweeddale, to enjoy tbo reoreatioii of huntHig,'; 
OB whidi ei^iedition Darnley aiscompMrned the 
Queen, along with BoCfaweU, Moiray, wmd otheniy 
who had offended her Majesty by their concern in 
Rizzio'e nmrder, but to whom, as to Darnkfr, iahe 
had recently been in a great wmemasm neoonedad* » 

Knox and Buchanan, whom refigiOQB yafejudwiw 
induced to become the enemies and calnmaiatom 
ef this iU-staiTed prinoess, r^maent her conduct 
at liiis time as flagitiocM to the last degree. lb 
particular, the latter writer accuses het ef having 
already commenced a criaiinal oorrespendence with 
the Earl of BothwdU It is not the fMBonace #f 
'the present writ^ to become the defender of Mary 
(Stuart; idthongh he beHefes that aauoh miglit yet 
be done to enase the impressions which those able 
4>nt unjust men hskte made upon the pablio nund 
^vegardiag her conduct. It may be {neper, howeiwry 
for the respectability of the subject of this meaioiC<» 
"to remind the reader, that the whole oi the scan* 
dais which Buchanan has detailed in ngand ilo 
this particular era of her life, ane dispBomi by 
State docmnents, disdosed oriy to the present ge« 
neretiott. * The celebmted story, for instance, af 
her journey to yxsit Bothwell at the HemitBge 
Castle, upon which Buchanan lays eo much straosi 
is now found to have been a Tory simple diplo« 
matic transaction, and to have occurred ^uite as a 
matter of course in puUie business. 

The baptism of the young prince took place at 

• lathQ daboiatt ni vslnshl^ work ef Mr Gseiis 



StuB^ OB iim 17th of December, in A style of 
|Mnnde and magnifieenee, ittther tnited to the im* 
portance of ihe infant ae heir-presumptiTe to the 
erewn of Englandt than to his character aa the son 
of dw Queen of Scots. Mary had, at the yery 
first* requested Qneen Elizabeth to stand as sponsor 
or gossip ; and she had at the same time taken cam 
to hmte ambassadon from all the firiendly powers 
abroad to be present at the ceremony. Before the 
^pointed day, the Earl of Bedford arrived, with 
a retiniie of e^hty gentlemen on horseback, as am* 
bassador fioas Elizabeth, bringing with him a 
lout of gold to be employed in thcf ceremony, as a 
piesettt firom hb mistress to Queen Mary. The 
aficurate Stowe informs ns, that this grand piece of 
fiate cost the sum of one thousand and forty-three 
penads nitteteen shillmgs ; while a more homely 
Scottish chronicler of the day has recorded, that is 
was * twaetane wecbt' * Large as it was, howeyer, 
Eliaabelh entertained apprehensionB that it would 
be loo smaU to cdntain die person of the infant 
|irince ; aind die had g^yen Bedford instructions^ 
among pnatet BBNittevs, ' to say pleasantly that it 
Wks made as soon as we heard of the Prince's 
birth, and then 'twaa big enough for him ; but now 
he, being grown, is too big for it ; therefore it may 
be betted uaed for the next childf proyided it be 
christened before it outgrows the font. ' f The 
Earl also brought a ring, * estimate worth ane hun- 
dMh merits, ' to be presented to the Countess of 
Argyle, Marys natural sister, and a Catholic, 

* ^tkmatotk^ Hktory of ScotUvnd, M.S«, Adroeates' 
f Imtructions, apud Keitb*t HisMry, p. 956, 357. 


whom Elizabeth had appointed to represeni her as 
gossip at the baptism. * Nearly about the same- 
time arrived the Connt de Brienne, as ambassadinr 
from the King of France. Mary also expected an 
envoy from the Duke of Savoy ; bat, though she 
postponed the ceremony for two days, to allow 
him time to come forward, he arrived too late, f 

The older historians, ever more attentive to the 
trappings of history than to its moreUe, have sup* 
plied us with a most minute account of the bap* 
tism ; part of which, as in some measure illnstra* 
tive of the manners, and also the politics of the. 
time, may presented anew. The prince, ia 
the first place, was borne out of the chamber he oc** 
cupied in Stirling Castle, to the ai^acent royal 
chapel, by the French ambassador, the Countess 
of Argyle, and Monsieur Le Croc, (a French re* 
sident, who acted on this occasion in place of the 
lagging deputy of the Duke of Savoy). After 
these proceeded the Earl of AthoU, beanng * ano' 
gret serge of war, ' the Earl of Eglintoune bearing- 
* the salt-fat, ' Lord Sempill bearing * the.cude,' 
and Lord Ross ' the basin and ewer, ' which were 
to be employed in the ceremony, j; A multitude 
of nobles and gentlemen followed, each bearing in 
his hand a ' large pricket of wax ; ' the time requir* 
ing such illumination, as it was at five in the afterw 

* Johnston's MS. History. 

f It may be interesting to local antiquaries to know, tba^ 
the English ambassador, on bis arriyal at Edinburgh, 
lodged in the Duke of Chateleniult*s house, in the Kiilc 
of Field Wynd, where the College now stands ; and that 
the French ambassador was bestowed in < Henry Kinloch*^ 
Lodging in the Canon^te. *— JMfulffn's M& HiUorf/^ 

I Johnston's MS, History. 


.Aoeft tltal tiie soledniity comoieDced. At the mit^ 
^of the ehi^l, all who had Bcrdplet of coudenee 
4iB aoceoat of the Catholic tuitnre of the ceremony^ 
withdrei^ firom the procesnon ; among which nam- 
her #exe die English raabanador and his train, 
who hftd orders to that effect from their mittreM. 
A much m<»re inorportant person than these failed 
to Gonnteoanoe the baptism with his presence. 
TUs was Dandey. The dissenBiaas between him 
and the Qaeen ha?ing now broken oat again as 
tioltfatly as erer, he wart absent, eidier on account 
«f hi6 own obstinate foUy^ or in consequence of 
precaotiotts which Miiry had taken to that effect* 
§ot the sake of decent appearsaces. * 

The ceremony was performed by John Hamil- 
ton^ Archbishop of St Andrew s, a prelate whose 
fote it was, only fiye yean iLfter, to be hanged np^ 
on the neighbonring bridge over the Forth, a tio- 
thn to the fierce party-spirit which then tore the 
bowels of the niUaon. On the present occasion, 
in splendid nnconscionmess of his fate, Hamilton 
appeured in fail pontificals, staff, mitre, and crosier, 
and wlis assisted by the Bishops of Dunkeld, Don- 
bkne, and Ross, with a ftildtitade of humbler of^ 
ficit^, aH of them in their ^propriate attire. He 
performed the whole of the ceoemonies of the s»- 
cnunent of baptism^ in exact conformity to the eas- 
tern of the Ronush cfaordi) except * the spittle, ' 
which was emitted at the request of the Qaeea. 
Ahia th^ sldemnity, the child's name and titles 
were thrice proclaimed by the heralds, under sound 
of trumpet: ' Charles James, James Charles^ 

* He lemafned. during tbe time bf the ceremony*, in 
Ibe lod^Bg ef the Sub-dean of the Cbapel Roy^L, witbin 
the town of Stirltiig.^>n/o^ni^on'< MS. Hi^wry. 


Prince and Steward of Scotland, Dnke of Hotbaajr, 
Earl of Carrick, Lord of the Isles, and Baron of 
Renfrew. ' * The whole ceremony was condnd- 
*ed with * singing and playing of organs. * f 

' This done, they passed to the great ball to 
the sapper, qnhereat sat the Qneenis grace ; at 
the mid-bnird the French ambassadour ; at the 
rycht hand the English ambassadour ; at the left 
hand Monsieur Le Croc And to the Queenis 
Majesty^the Earl of Huntlie was carver, the Eail 
of Mnrray capper, and the Earl of BotbweU 
sewer; to the French ambassador, the Earl of 
Mar canrer, the Earl of Cassilis capper, and the 
Earl of Athole sewer ; to the English ambassador, 
the Earl of Eglingtoune canrer, the Earl of Rothes 
capper, and the Earl of Crawford sewer ; to the 
Dake of Savoy's ambassadoar (jmhamhassadory^ 
-the Master of Maxwell carver, the Lord Boyd 
capper, and the Lord Levingston sewer. The or- 
dour of the in-bringing of the mess was, the her- 
aalds, trompettis, and messengers, with three mas- 
ters of household, in rank ; namely, the Laird of 
•Finlater in the middis, Seignor Francis de Bastian 
at the rycht hand, and Gilbert Balfour at the left. 
Afier them came George Lord Seyton alone ^and 
-after him came ^the Earl of Argyle alone; and 
ilk ane of them ane fare whyte stalf in bis hand. 
And the rest of the lords, baronis, and gentlemen 
bore coursses in great abundance, and weill or- 
dourit. And, after gret dancing and playing, al 
partit to thair lodgings./ % 

* Johnston's MS. Hist. 

f Keith, 360. The principal name, James, was in 
honour of the Queen's father. James Y. The weond was 
in honour of Charles IX. King of France. 

I Johnston's MS. Hist 


8ach is the report of one simple annalist* ' It 
is reportit ' sajrs another, f ' by persons worthie 
of credit, that that day the Prince was baptiaed, 
there was sitting in the entrie of the Castle, ane 
pair man asking alms, having a yonng child on his 
knee, whose head was so great that the body of 
the child could scarce bear it up; which, when a gen* 
tleman perceived, he conld not defend himself from 
tears, for fear of the evil he judged to be portended. ' 
This affords a curious view of the state of things 
m Scotland at that time ; princely revels within 
doors, and at the very threshold a scene of poverty 
and wretchedness appalling to the senses. 

Two days after the baptism, the Queen enter- 
tained her court and foreign guests at a grand ban- 
ket, which was preceded by an exhibition of fire- 
works in Stirling churchyard. During the ban- 
quet, an amusing quarrel arose between the French 
and English. It appears, that the various repre- 
sentatives of these antagonist nations beheld each 
other, on the present ocassion, with a good deal of 
&eir accnstomied suspicion and hatred. The French, 
for- one thing, thought the English more &voured 
by the Queen than was their due, and that they 
^mselves were too little favoured : it appeared 
to them that her Majesty was disposed to pay less 
court to her old and assured friends of France, than 
to her new and less secure allies of England. It 
so happened, that the amusements of the evening 
were chiefly conducted by the Queen's French ser- 
vant, de Bastian ; a name disagreeably memorable 
in her history, as it was on his marriage night 

t Calderwood*s Church History, MS. Ad. Lib. vol iii. 


ihtH Dfltokywas inurdered* According to the 
grMctsqae ta»te of tfaitt Bge^ tbe Uble^eovtaiiiiiig 
the meat was mored into the bdl by cMlfeeided 
machkiery, preceded hf a mmfoer of men draaeed 
Uke satyrs, and accompanied by * mMcmnt, ctoth^ 
Od like maids, and playing on all aorte ctf inatro* 
menta/ The baaineaa of tbe aatyra waa to ma;k4^ 
way for the adfancing table through the gneats aa* 
aembled in tbe hall. It pleased theniy however^ 
to perform an extra««ffieial dnty, by eeusing tfa^ 
tails behind, and wagging them ia ike iiaeea of the 
crowd. ' The long^tailed EngUafa' waa an «pi« 
thet of contempt applicable to that intion from tho 
daya of King David tbe Second^ when we know 
it waa applied to a party of lliem by Bhuk Agneai 
St the siege of Donbar. Of coarse, it was ni|* 
taral for them, on the praaent occaaion, to conceivo 
that the ladicrooa gesture of the ntyra waa a atadie4 
inanlt deiiaed agifinat ihem by the French maator of 
ceremoniea ; and under this ioapreaaion, the grent* 
Or part of them were foolish enough to expreaa thoif 
raaentment, bjr sitting down i^on the floor behind 
the table, with their backa tornod to^ ftitif^ 
scene* Mr Hatton, one of the priniapal tnoft 
among them, oven went the length of telling Sit 
Jamea Mdville« tliat, bat for the Qneeti'a pteaenc^^ 
he would hiive *^ put hia dagger iOto tho heart of 
that knate De Basdan." Mary^ who was sitiuig 
at the time irt converaataon with tho Eail of filed* 
ford, tsmed about on hearing the tamak 9 but it 
eoat both her and the Earl a good deal oC paina to 
riiasaare the Engfish, and domposo the m\^tf 
quarrel which distracted the assemblage* * 

• Sir James MelyiU'i Memoirs, 151. 


Haying' soon afiter this dismissed the foreign am- 
bassadors, Mary remained with her son at Stirling 
^1 the 13th of January, when she removed with 
him to Edinburgh. Damley had in the meantime 
gone, in a very discontented state of mind, to visit 
his father in Glasgow, where the small-pox was then 
^;aging. This unhappy young man — for unhappy 
he may well be called, though unfortunate in no- 
thing but his mental imbecility — caught the con- 
tagion immediately after his arrival at Glasgow.. 
1^ Queen no sooner heard of his illness, than she 
sent her physician to attend him. Towards the 
«nd of the month, she went herself to visit him at 
Glasgow ; his extreme distress having once more 
induced her to forgive him. It was then deter- 
mined that he should be brought to Edinburgh^ 
for change of air, and thither he was accordingly 
Qonveyed in a chariot or litter, about the end of 
January. Having, been placed in the house of 
the Provost of the collegiate church of St Mary in 
the Fields, which was properly fitted up for his 
reception, he lay in a convalescent state, attended 
with due care by Mary, till the 10th of February, 
when, in consequence of a conspiracy entered into 
for that effect, by the Earl of Murray, the Secre- 
tary Maitland, and other flagitious men» he was 
assassinated in a manner too well known to require 
particular description here. 

' Geoi^e Buchanan, who belonged to the party 
•of the conspirators, has relieved them, of the whole 
blame of this infamous transaction, and thrown it 
4ipon the Queen. His tale is a plausible one ; 
and as it appeared in a work which continued, for 
:two centuries, to be the most popular history of 
tthe coqntiy, and which appeals, moreover, to the 

d4 LIF£ Of 

nHSf^tmM prejuAeeB «f the {Mtfffey it htt ttf en 
deep root in tke pabKo nted. UnforttmstiAyv 
however, for his repatation, and that of bis firienday 
llie whole storjr haa been lately proTed> by refers 
ence to originiJ and unerring doeaments, to haw 
been not only nntme, bnt ittpoasible* The ex<^ 
plaaation 6f the mystevy of Darnle/e murder, ia^ 
that it was projected by the men whose names aff» 
mentioned in the last paragraph, and execnted by 
their instrament the Earl of Bethwell. Mary^ 
Aroughont all the subsequent transaetiona of her 
life, was the yictim of these men» and of one offaaf 
grand leader of the Protestant interMi EliaabeA 
Queen of England. 

The murckr of Darnley was but a part of the 
ebnspiracy whidi had been formed agnnst the 
Queen^ The chief part was what came afitea* 
wards, her abduction by Botfawell, and the bAii* 
my which they contrived to threw upon her on 
Ihat account* In one word, it was calculated by 
these designing men, that, if she could be pre^ 
tidied upon to marry the supposed murderer of 
her husband, the popular odium would be so strong 
against her, that there would then be litde diffioid^ 
ty in transferriag the government itfto their oWA 
iHteds. The wMe plot was developed csactly la 
the maanev whieb had been concluded oil. 

About the 20th of March) when James was nin0 
meefChs old, he was transferred boek from Edm- 
btfrgh to Stirling Caatle, and th^e placed for lis 
edacation under the tutelage of John Earl of Mais 
a nobleman in whose fomily the eustedy of the ith 
fonts of the r^iyal fondly had almost become hers* 
ditary« Mary sttw him there for the kM time tk 
the SSd «f April In retuiniag^ aazl.diqrr^nM 


SiMmg Oaade ImwcU Edkrinngft, dw ms aeisMl 
Vy BothweQ at C^Bmood Bridge, and liamed off 
lobb iaprngnaUe iostiem of Dnnbor. On tbo 
ISnk of May, aha wm induoed, fMtftly by the ao^ 
liintetieiis of BotbnrdUy pertly by the recomneiir 
dalton of the aMmbeiB of the coaapisacyy and 
partly by a wiik to repair her character ae a ma- 
traoy to Bony thie ia&iaaiie nobleman; of whose 
aoaeem in the aasaaBioaitioa of her hoBband. be k 
teouiiikBd, Am was in all probahilky igaofant, or 
aft least incrednlons ; for, at that tune, it wae only 
aaapeeted by liie pec^ that he waa gailty, and, 
0f all peEBona in the reahn, ahe una the least like- 
ly to be aeqnamted with the popalar nuaooia. 
fin anani^ie had eoancely been teaaaacted tlaae 
.daya, when, in proaecotLoa of the oaaapiracy, her 
eBemiea aaaemfaled with their nMsala, and made a 
haatile aBoveaiieDt against her. She was now caaa- 
fkletely in Sheir toila. Haring gathered a jconaidaf- 
aUe iaroe at Danbar, ahe aao^ forward jon the 
l^di af Jane to Garbery, near Maaaelbwigh, whcae 
the eanapiaateffa met kn with nearly an eqotd Ioogo* 
The two anaiea lay eppoaite to each other daring 
the whole af a long aooMMer day, while a pvopo- 
aal waa agitated by both to aetde the matter in 
Pupate, by a aiagle oembat betwixt Bothwell and 
aoaae ehaoapion among 4he coaspuatora. At length, 
ai eveoing declined, Mary waaandaoed, by the de- 
mency of her diapemtaon, and the lair profesaioDa 
af her enennea, to ooaunit ber penon into their 
'Caatbdy, w4iile fiothweU ratised to Danbar, and 
her «aay waa diaaoWed* 

Im malaiig thia lerignation af her person, it is 
oirident that the uafortanate Queen 'Bappoaedhepr- 
aalf oalydbaamf^^rataadonof tio^oM lor 


that of another party ; whidi was quite a oatiirsl 
and proper transaction in an age when royalty 
coold only be upheld by an association of nobles^ 
or by onfi leading man among them. Though the 
promises of the rebels were to this effect, their in? 
tentions were in reality very different. They had 
no sooner got the Queen into their hands, than 
they began to treat her as a captive criminal. Ftir 
Toured in their base designs by the prejudices of 
the populace, they led her to Edinburgh with ere^ 
ry circumstance of degradation. The crowd which 
collected in the streets as she passed through them^ 
was so great, that she and her guards could only 
move one after another in a string ; and thus she 
was closely environed by a rude mob, who assail- 
ed her with a thousand varied insults. One of the 
plans taken by the party to inflame the people 9f 
gainst her, was the exhibition of a standard^ con- 
taining a view of Damley*s body, lying under a 
tree> with the infant prince on his knees, uttering 
the words, *^ Judge and avenge my cause, Oh 
Lord ! " This was repeatedly presented to her 
eyes. Horror-struck at her situation, the unhap- 
py Queen shed abundance of tears ; and thus, as 
the day was exceedingly hot and dusty, her face ai 
length became begrimed to such a degree, as to he 
scarcely recognisable. To increase the ridici^ of 
her appearance, her capters obliged her to go 
through the procession, without changing the dmt 
and miry little riding-habit whidi she had worn in 
the fields, for any more dignified garment. Thi^ 
enclosed her for the night, without attendance of 
any sort, in a small apurtment of the house of the 
provost ; where, next morning, she was seen at a 
windowi using the most violeot gestures which ex- 


tratoe grief can suggesti and with no cohering to 
tki iqpper part of her body, but the wild tresses, 
wMch, in her distraction, she had permitted to 
escape from their nsnal restraint. She spent the 
whole of the 16th of Jane in this situation, her 
earn regaled, during a part of it, with the noise of a 
skinnish which took place in the street betwixt the 
retainers of two hostile nobles, and her mind haunt- 
ed with the most appalling fears regarding her des*' 
tinatioii. At length, after a confinement of two- 
and^twenty hours, she was taken forth about eleven 
o'doek at night, and hurried away to the little 
islet fortress of Lochleven, where she was put un- 
der the charge of Sir Robert Douglas ; who, being 
related to Morton, and connected by marriage with 
Murray, seemed the most trusty jailor that could 

• It is one of the most grievous discounts from 
royalty, that the relations which give to private 
life its sweetest grace and best enjoyments, are, in 
that loftier station, often sacrificed to political cal- 
voh^ona. Had Mary been bom in a humble 
apfaere of life> her child would have probably been 
a aolaee to her i^ove all others ; and scarcely any 
contingency could have occurred to render him a 
BOQTce of misfortune or regret. But in the high 
{^•oe whidi she was ordained to fill'in society, her 
child was rendered the means of danger and an- 
noyance to. her, even before he entered the world; 
and he no sooner saw the light, and it was pro- 
'dakned, as the simple language of scripture ex- 
•pnsflea it, * that a man child was bom,' than he 
became unconsciously her most conspicuous enemy. 
It was an ob^ous idea, <m the part of the no« 

VOXm I. c 

99 UFC OF 

bles wiio deposed Mary^ to take her infaii wader 
tbeir protectioni and make ham their noaHBal to- 
Tiermgii ; for not only waa he the next heir to the 
crowui aod the peiwm whoi at any nite» anist htam 
OTentnally eocceededy bat hia IcAig mioortty pco^* 
niaed them a dontioii of their ill*aeqiiirod poarer* 
and Uiey covld eakdate 14^011 edot^Ung him m 
they pleaaed« AccordiBiplyf a aacttidi had aeardelf 
elapsed after the incaroeratioR of the Qaeeoi wh^ 
a deputation of the insofgeata appeared befiMO hdr 
ia her priaony aad, by <tiat ei threata^ and per- 
aonsi nc^eaees eompelled bef to Mgn a deed rO« 
aigniog the aoToreigaty into the haada of baf 
aoa. Fortified by tbia docaoieaty they proioeodv 
ed to Stirhng ; aad^ oa the 29tb of Jidy» whm 
Jamea was oidy thirteen montha mid tea daya oH 
he was crowned and proclaimed as King Jaraaa the 
Sixth. The Earl of Manay waa thea abeeal ia 
Fraaee ; bat he retamed» aboat ten day* after the 
eoroaatioo, aad was ahnoat ianaediately appointod 
to die office irf Ee^sat* The character of MnnaQr 
ia well kaowa— nghteeoa aad aoMahle t» M itbo 
did not mterfsFo with hia ambiuoaa yiiewis* baty i» 
the proaecation of theses crori and anpriacipiodi 
a nan who, if he had not hid tho good fottaaa 
to profess and advaaeo the ProteaMnt ftdth«-er 
ladier, if that had aot been hia beat laetaea-^ 
for adbody in hia aeaaea coald aappoae anch a asaa 
fliaceie— ^onld have been recorded by hiatory aa 
a aaarper aad a parricide^ 

In the Boceeediag May, by the aaaistanoe of the 
brother of her keep^, Mary escaped from Look* 
levea,aad iBiaiediatelyanceoededi& raiaiag aa amy 
anioBg tho naiaereoa Yoasab of the fitfaily of Hamit- 


tMl ; MoifoiniAtciy, «pigi|Epmg]ii ftfHii r&oenktn 
witibthe troqpB of the Earl of Mwny, «fc LaDgtida^ 
near Glftsgocir, sbe wai dolbated, and ooapelled to 
talw to fligiit. Seeing bo refoge for herself in SooC* 
hod, she now adofiCed the resololion of flying lo 
cktei ihe protection of the Queen of England^ 
which eemmtaf ahe entered, for that paipeea, with* 
ie the week of her defeat. Her teianre, her iaa^ 
pmenmenfty and her erentval destraetion hf thaA 
pnncen, are hcta which need not hero he giren 

By the reatiuiift knpoeed upon Mary m £b|»* 
Isad, the Earl of Mnmiy was ceniraied in hie re* 
geney, with no odier drawback to his power, than 
the eceoiiooalehaUitioas of the Qaeen'e party, and 
the sohmiBaion which he was ohiiged to pay^to 
£lizahe^, who, from the infloence the p e s oo a aed 
«rer the Ptoteatant interest in Seodand, ai^ht al«- 
Biost he temed his coaatitiient. His gofemipeni 
iff gSBetaUy allowed to have heen mild and coBeii> 
Hating ; faiit he happened to give niortal offence td 
a gurtleinaB of the name of HaasiltOD, one of tha 
^i)y which fonned the principal part of the fae^ 
^ eppoasd to Inm* That person, ui|ped by pri» 
vvta reaeBEtmeBt to nndertake a duly wfaioh hie 
^odB peisiiaded him to think pablic, deliberate- 
ly shot the Regent ndtfa a harqnebuss, irom the 
^viiidew of n honse in Ltnlith^w, January 23, 
lttiL.70, aftsr he had goremed little more than 
two yearn. The Scotcbh parliament then selected 
Matthew Eaii ef Lennox, the fethor of Daraley, 
and giandMier ef the^iafafU; Kmg, to act as Re- 
gent in his place. '^ l^cnnox was a leeble, though 
^y no meaMi a had m«i3 and hia aeseinion to an 
office whiah H laqmred all the taknta and vigour 


of Murray to execute properly, wu the eigiial for 
a renewed attempt in favour of the Queen. Her 
iiriends now began a struggle with her enemiesy 
distinguished by a peculiar ferocity, and a total 
want of all those amenities which in general tend 
to smooth the aspect of civil war. The Castles of 
Dumbarton and Edinburgh, besides others belong* 
ing to the Hamiltons in Clydesdale, still held out 
for Mary. Indeed^ the capital itself was entirely 
in the hioids of the Queen's party ; and to increase 
her hopes, the castle of that city was now. held for 
her by Kirkaldy of Grange and Maitland of Le- 
thington, two men of the greatest importance, and 
who had till lately been her enemies. Stirling* 
the second fortress of the kingdom, naturally be* 
came the head-quarters of the King s party, who 
alsoy on one occasion, established themselves in 
the Canongate, one of the fauxbourgs of £din» 
burgh* and there held a parliament in oppositioa 
to one which was assembled in the name of Maiy 
within the city. So keen did thb struggle at 
length become, that both parties began to hang all 
prisoners who fell into their hands, while the two 
rival parliaments fulminated attainders against each 
other, with a regularity of discharge almost equal 
to that which was exemplified by the guns of the 
castle, and those of the batteries which assailed it* 

The young King, in the mean time, grew up 
under the care of his faithful and affectionate go- 
vernor the Earl of Mar, and that of his equ^y 
faithful and affectionate nurse the Countess. One 
anecdote of his infoacy has been preserved, with 
ludicrous care, by the contemporary historians. 

The Regent Lennox having called a parliament, 
^erwise a meeting of his own party, at Sdrling, 


PH thef 28di of Atgwt 157], the Inby King was 
condoeted thither oa hoiBebAck, in voyil robesy ta 
preside orer the aaaanhly. It ww in the town* 
house of Stifling that this parlieiDent was held; 
and the accoomiodatiens of the place had proba^ 
My beea better befofe the commencement of theae 
ndnoiia tronbles. The rtiffoMa carried before Jama 
on this occasion, and placed on the table at which 
lie aaty were of hrass orer-gilt, because the real 
aymbola of royalty were kepi in Edinbnigh Caitle» 
which was in the hands of his mother's party* 
The honse, however, was in a ccmdition still lesa 
tummiral^ to the cfaaimcter of a Scottish parlia* 
meiit, there being a large hole in its roof. JameSy 
lrti9 was now fire years of age, was struck at once 
by the multitnde of the aasemblage around him> 
and by the faceaeb which he obserred over hia 
head ; mid he ai^ed his goTemer, what matter ii 
was which be was now engaged in ? Being In^ 
'formed that it was the parliament, be remarked, 
with infontine simplicity, ^ I think there be ane 
hole in the parliament." * 

There was nothing but infantine umplicity m 
the otcpreasion used by the yonng monarch. Yet 
the erenta of the snhseqnent wedc were such as 
to elevate it^ in the eatimatien of the eonntry, iai 
to something like a prophecy. Before that brief 
space had e%Aed, a real and very grievons hrewA 
wss made in the public body or er which the King 
h^d prestdad. It was in manner aa follows :*— 

* By a^tb^r v^mion of the SI017, i^e Me w^a not in 
the roof of il^e hall, but in the ' clotli qf estate * which co- 
tered the t^ble ; and Jumes made the remark, as he reachi 
ed for& his hand to manipulate the edges of the torn dra- 


42 I/IFE OP 

KirkaMy, the goyernor of £dinlrargh^ Castte^ 
being informed that the King's friends at Stirling 
lay in sach security as not even to keep a watcb> 
projected an enterprise, by which he hoped to give 
them a complete surprise. On the evening of the 
2nd of September, having seized all the horses 
which appeared that day in the Edinburgh market^ 
he mounted two hundred of his best soldiers ; to 
which number adding three hundred of his best 
foot, he placed the whole under the direction of 
Captain George Bell, a native of Stirling, who un- 
dertook, from his local knowledge, to lead them 
to their prey. The men were chiefly Borderers, 
under the command of the Laird of Buccleuch ; 
and, to preserve the secret, it was given out thai 
the enterprise was destined for Jedburgh, to com* 
pose some differences which had lately sprung up 
betwixt the citizens of that town and their power* 
ful neighbour, the Laird of Femiehirst. They left 
Edinburgh at night-fall, by the way towards Jed« 
burgh ; but as soon as they got to a little distance, 
they turned abruptly to the west, and mardied 
with the utmost haste to Stirling. The foot were 
mounted behind the cavahry for the greater expe- 
dition ; while such as could not be thus accommo* 
dated, seized horses for themselves from the coun« 
try people as they marched along. Bell led them 
into the silent streets of Stirling, a little after mid^* 
night, not so much as a dog barking at them as 
they passed. He immediately proceeded to denote 
to his followers the houses occupied by individuals 
of distinction; and, a guard being placed upon 
each, the whole were simultaneously attacked. 
They had previously agitated among themselves 
the propriety of killing all the men of rank with* 


« • • • » 

Vot exception; but althongh Lord Claud Hamil- 
toDy brother to the late Archbishop of St An- 
drews, advocated this unsparing measure, as a pro- 
per tribute to the manes of his kinsman, it was fi** 
nally settled, that as many as possible should be 
taken prisoners, and brought away alive. The 
attack took place to the cry of, ** Think on the 
Archbishop of St Andrews ; " and in a few mi- 
nutes, almost every man of name in the town wad 
seized, brought out, mounted behind a trooper, and 
made ready to march to Edinburgh. Lennox at- 
tempted to defend himself; but, the assailants pre- 
tending that they had placed some barrels of gun- 
powder beneath his lodging, which they threaten- 
ed to blow up, he was persuaded to yield, on a 
promise of his life. Morton alone stood out; and 
his obstinacy became the salvation of his party; 
The -assailants were now only waiting for his sur- 
render^ before they should leave the town. Every 
othefr enemy was in custody; every horse was 
bfonght out of the stables by the ^Borderers : these 
redoubted heroes had even got a considerable quan- 
tity of valuable moveables out of the merchaUts* 
shops, which they were determiUed to carry away, 
as their own most natural share of the profi1» of 
the enterprise; when a little accident proved the 
ruin of the whole ' raid, ' hitherto so well con- 
ducted, and 80 (Completely successful. There waii 
a large house, belonging to tl)e Earl of Mar, which 
commanded the whole length of the principal street, 
and upon which they had neglected to place a 
guard, for the simple reason that it was uninhabit- 
ed, and indeed only in the process of building. 
bto this edifice Mar' led a party of sixteen of his 
own Boldiers, whom *be haid brought down from 

44 U9V OF 

tbe oMtiey mi lemving what vw ginng on in ibe 
town. They hanng fired one effective Tolley froqi 
their harqudmasei of jomnd^ the invading party 
was completely eonnter-inrprisedy and at opce 
thrown into the utmost confnsioB* Witbeat wait** 
ing a moment to ascertain the strength of the 
rescuing party, they thronged peU«mell out at thp 
narrow pass^e which lipids from the principal 
atreety where many were overwhelmed in the 
press, and trodden to death under foot. Mar'a 
party, pouring one by one from a narrow doorrway 
of the unfinished building, now attacked them in 
rear, and were soon joined by others, who escaped 
from their captors. A considerable number of the 
leading men among the Queen's party surrendered 
At discretiim to the very persons who had been 
committed to their charge, and mounted behind 
them aa prisonenB, but a few mipvtes before* la 
the midst of the confnsiim, a wretch of the name 
of Calder deliberately shot the Regent with hie 
pistol, from a wish to make the enterprise not aI^ 
together ineflbctual; and Davi4 Spena of Ormia* 
ton, who had the custody of this importaiit per* 
aonege, waa at the sfune time struck down by pne 
of his own party, for attempting to defeikd bis 
cbaige* The Queen'a faetion et last evacuated th# 
^wp, wfth the loss of tharty-eight men t but it if 
calcnlated that they would havo suffered miidi 
more, if the Borderers bad left any horses to th<| 
enemy, on which to continue the pursuitt 

The upibrtunate Regent wm carried to Stjirliiig 
Castle in a dying state, remarking, ef be went, 
that '^ all was well, if tk^ habt^ was well ; " by 
which be mean$ the )Ung. He pe4e a piovyi end 
next 4aya le^mnineptttng tfae jPWiig ¥ifW^»V^ tO 


Aliiiigfaiy protection, and desiring those who were 
about faim to bear his love '' to his wife Meg ; ** 
for by that familiar name he always designated the 
grand-daughter of Henry VIL, and grandmother of 
King James VI. 

This singular enterprise caused the common 
people to designate the parliament during which 
it took place, " the Black Parliament ; " as also 
to interpret the childish observatioQ of the King 
Regarding -the ceiling of the Parliament faouae» into 
» prophecy. 




■vcT OP na tAjaniMtB uotkox axb ABAAM^-yxacinM 

or MOllTON. 

James was vnfortmiate in all the droiinstaiices o( 
his early yean, even in those in which men of att 
stations are commonly alike fortnnate. We leamr 
from Dr Mayeme, his physician in latter life, * 
that he had a drunkard for a wet nnrse, from 
whose vitiated milk, althongh weaned within twelve 
months, he contracted a feehle constitution ef body, 
which rendered him unable to walk till his sixth 
year — ^though perhaps this was partly the result, 
as already stated, of the fright which his mother 
received before he was born. His whole organi- 
zation was imperfect and peculiar : he inherited, 
for instance, from his grandfather James V., and 
his mother Mary, a certain narrowness of jaws, 
which rendered swallowing difficult. 

Perhaps, however, he was not mwe unfortunate 
in any thing than in his preceptor, the celebrated 
Buchanan. As the greatest scholar of his age, 
and one who was perfectly eligible in the score ef 
politics and religion, this personi^ naturally oe- 

• £]lis% Letters, 2d ser. iii« 199. 


eaned t* Jaitaet's yHiMw, « m» ereiy w»j 
worthy of beeembig lot tvtor. He wm, therefone, 
cidled away fron lua office of IVincipel of tlie Uni- 
▼eraitf of St Andrewsi k opder to undertake the 
managemeat of the royal education at Stirling. 
. If #ie riiece poaieanoa of raet ehNsical leaniingy 
or a tarn liar writiBg elegant Latin, coald hareqaa* 
Mad any man for aaaaming this knportanfe plaoe^ 
Bvchaaaii was oertaii^y qnafified. It may he ques- 
tumedy however, if he possessed the real reqniaites 
of the oAoe. la the rery first place, his age, ad« 
traced towanb aereiHy, was a serious disfoaKfi* 
cation, i^liad aa it was to the still niore aerions 
enea of a broken tediper*— the anctural resah of a 
hng Me of liSeiary hardidup and disappoiiitmeflt--* 
aad the peenliar habits which must alwa^fs movs 
or ksa chaiacteriae si^tary old age. Besides, the 
laere posassrioa of learning does not kn^y the fii* 
coky of teaching; and Buchanfta had alt his life 
l|eeB a learner^ not a teacher. His rsfsMicaft 
priaci|i]e8| and the sinceve hatred whidi he etfter^ 
tained for kangs, although qualifies Aat woidd 
H^pear eKeelleat to his ^oastitnents and to a ksga 
modem party, saiely did not add to his pvwers of 
aoniiHandmg the aftetioaa, and &dag 1^ atteii- 
tioii of a princely papil. Nor was he the better 
qualified for takaag diis endsariug piaee ift nfkh 
tiou to the son, tibat he was dA«dy the euefiiy, 
and designed to become the esMJigfter, of the m^ 
tker. TWs wai, to say the least of it, a g«sttt 
deal ai bad taste displaysd by the regeiicy, in te- 
iag upon the Mend of the Earl of Mnnay for the 
preceptor of the son of Maiy. A less learned and 
jmmgar man, one of mom gentle teuiper, aad sM- 
tial ia lagard to thfi( kite tHmhles, #*ttM 


if odiflrwise qualified for the office, have heen bet^ 
^r than this nDgraciona anchorite, whose only re*' 
commeiidation, after all, in the eyes of his constii*^ 
tnents, was, that he was essentially their own ciea** 
tnre* * 

Buchanan, however, was not single in his charge* 
He was only at the head of other three instractora^ 
Mr Peter Young, and the titular Abbots oi Ctaa^ 
buskenneth and Drybnrgh, both of which last wera 
Erskines, of the family of Mar. These men are 
stated, by various writers friendly to Buchanan, to 
have formed a mean contrast, in theiriconrtly and 
gentle treatment of their pupil, to the stem de-* 
meanour of their superior. But this assertion i» 
only of a piece with the general blindness of would* 
be reformers, whose besetting fault it is to theoriaa 
en high principles, without allowing for the deficient 
cies of the materials on which they have to wofk; 
James was a child, and not. a n^n ; and as it was te 
•be supposed that .he possessed the same' passiofis^ 
and was characterised by the same imperfecdona 
aa most boys, it was necessary to employ, expedi*- 
ents of the most practical kind* To tesMch , chiid^ 
ren, one most himself ' become as a little diild./ 
The mere exhibition, of knowledge before the eyea 
of young people, will not .make them learn. The 
nmple statement of rules will fail to impress them. 
They must be reasoned with. Their facuhieay 
auch as they are, must be interested. Knowledge 
must be presented to them, not in masses, norinita 
primitiye shape ; it must be rendered a pulp, and 
administered in mputhfuls. Above all, it mnat 
not be presented, with such, a frown as to maim 
them fear it to be poison, instead of salutary diet. 
. Nowy the true diflfereace between Buchanan <aod 


888oeiAte8 wa8» that, the former lendered 
kistnictions nnpalatable, at once by the rigour of 
diedpline which accompanied them, and his failing 
to reduce them into a sufficiently practical shape ; 
while the others, with less distinction m learnings 
hot more comm<m sense, accommodated them- 
Belies and their knowledge to the character of their 
papily and,, perhaps showing him less, commoni-, 
Gated more* James himself seems to have long 
remembered Bnchanan with a feeling of horror^ 
He used to say of one of his English courtiers, in 
the latter part of his life, that he never could help 
trembling at his approach, he brought him so much 
itt mind of his ^^ pedagogue." * On the other hand* 
Mr Peter Young continued oyer after a favourite 
with' the monarch, was employed by him in fo- 
reign embassies, honoured with a pension, and 
enmtually knighted. 

Some change must have taken place in James's 
domestic circumstances after the death of Lennox, 
ivben his governor, the Earl of Mar, was selected 
by the nobles of his party to be Regent ; an office 
idiich caused his Lordship to reside chiefly in the 
neighbourhood of Edinburgh, in order to carry on 
the mege of the Castle. Mar was one of the 
purest characters of that dreadful time, and one 
of the most peaceable. He endeavoured, by all 
meansy to procure a cessation of arms between the 
King's and Queen s factions ;. but he waff not snb- 
cessfnl. After a turbulent government of little 
more than a year, he. died on the 18th of October 
1573, it was supposed of a broken heart. The 
Earl of Morton was chosen to succeed him. 

* OsborD*8 Advice to a Son* 19* 
voir !• ' . D 

50 ]|^IFB OB 

One of the nhit aiM of Mofton § goi^^nnnenty. 
trad HA ordinance ^ for continuing ^ Kkig in tbe 
Cdfetle of StirKng, under the c&re of the ^dow of 
the late Eail of Mar, ca to his fmndh, and Ifie Or- 
viering of his person ; hat to continue under his 
present pedagogues ; and die Castle to be kept in 
ihe name of the Eaii of Mar. * * 

The new Earl of Mar was a boy of eleven years 
«kt the time of his father's dealfi ; consequently, he 
Was four years older than the King. Notwi^ 
standing this disparity of age, which wfts consider- 
able at such a period of life, the two bo3r8 were 
intimate friends. James, who had idl lib life a 
liabit of conferring nick-names on those about hiln, 
gave young Mar the epithet of the Sloven^ which 
ivas afterwards changed into the unmtelligfbte one 
of Jock o* Sklaitts, Their sports, which they per- 
formed in company, are stated to have been bows- 
and arrows, the foot-ball, catch -pole or tennis, 
schuk'the-hrod (shovel-board), billiards, and ctdlr. 
'^e-guse. James also played a good deal at cards, 
when a little further advanced hi life ; but he never 
was addicted to dice. 

His studies, as the minutely inqiiinng Chalmers 
has shown, were commenced at a very early pe- 
riod of his life. In the books of the Treasurer of 
Scotland, under the date of May 157.8, when be 
was only finishing his seventh year, ^ere is a 
charge of 3/. 10s. ^ for nine paper buikis to the 
King. *' In the ensuing October, there is a charge 
of 8iL 8s. to Peter Young, * for certane buikis to 
his Grace.' In February 1573-4, when seven 
and a half years old, 13/L 12s. is paid for repairing. 

•• C^ftlmezs^s Life of QH?»n Slfury, i. ^4i. 


^e Kiag'fl i^Mdie^ ftr making a tua^r iriadoWy and 
other necesiiaries. * 

These various mattere certainly iodicate aa ad- 
vancement ia leai»uig ]^ey(Ot|id what ipight baFe 
heep expected from his years. His p^;>er hooks 
laqst ha^e been osed for the w:ritiog of themes in 
translation from Latin. Books and' a stiidy under 
eight yeai9> are also wonders in their way. Yet 
]t js probable, that aU tlie learoing he had then 
acquired was of a kind but little suited to his nn- 
.derstanding or to his necessities.. Japies Melville, 
I(m: instance, rec(»ds in his Diary, that, on visit- 
mg Stirling, in October 1574 (when James was 
eight and a quarter), he beheld in his Majesty 
* the sweetest sight iu Europe for extraordinary 
gifts of ingyne» judgment, meiQory) and language. ' 
-^ I heard bu9i discourse,' says this writer, 
*- walking xx^ and down, in the auld Lady Mar s 
hand, of knaimMge cmd iffxu/rance, to my great 
marvel and aat^nnisbmeot. ^ Surely any disqni- 
aition which suoh a young person could utter on 
the subject of knowledge and ignonuioe, must have 
been perfectly alien to his own mind — ^must ha^e 
4>een 'placed there en imssehy his iostmctorsy and 
-only dellFored by rote. 

Two or three ^anecdotes of James'? sdiool-boy 
•days are related by Dr Irving, in bi^ Life of Bu- 
^baulMii, on the credit of Dr Mackenzie, author of 
,tbe Lives of Scottish Writers. < The I^ing hay- 
<ing caught a ffancy for a tame spa^ow, which be- 
.bnged to his playfellow, the Mastar (afterivards 
JEarl) of Mar, solicited him witihout effect to< 
lRansfer>his right ; and iibendaaimtuffwg %o wrest it 

» JUfBLof <%Deen JMftfSf, i. ^•^ 

52 LIFE OF ' 

out of his hand, he deprived the poor little anitbal 
of life. Erakine having raised dae lamentation for 
its untimely fate, ihe circnmstanoes were reported 
to Buchanan ; who lent his yoang sovereign a hox 
on the ear, and admonished him that he was him- 
self a tme bird of the bloody nest to which he 

' A theme, which had one day been prescribed to 
the royal pupil, was the conspiracy of the Earl of 
Angos and other noblemen daring the reign of 
James the Third. After dinner he was diverting 
himself with Mar ; and, as Buchanan, who in the 
meantime was intent on reading, fonnd himself an<- 
noyed by their obstreperous mirth, he requested 
the King to desist ; but as no attention was paid to 
the suggestion, he threatened to accompany his next 
suggestion with something more formidable than 
WOTds. James, whose ear had been tickled by the 
quaint application of the apologue mentioned in 
Uie theme, replied that he would be glad to see 
who would bdl the cat. His venerable preceptor, 
who might have pardoned the remaric, was perhap 
offended with the mode in which it was uttered : 
he threw aside his book with indignation, and be- 
stowed upon the delinquent that species of schol- 
'astic discipline which is deemed most ignominious. 
The Countess of Mar, being attracted by the waO- 
ing which ensued, hastened to the scene of his dis- 
graoe ; and, taking the precious deposit in her armsp 
■be demanded of Buchanan, how he presumed to 
lay his band on the Lord's anointed. ' To this 
interrogation he is said to have replied in a very 
unceremonious antithesis, which does not admit, in 
this delicate age, of the distinct specification which 
it received in the less scmpulous days of Dr Mac- 


kensie. ' A man, * conclades Dr Irnngf * who was 
no stranger to polished society, can hiurdly be sna- 
pected of such impoliteness to a lady ; imless we 
suppose her to hare assumed a degree of insolence 
which rendered it expedient to convince her, by an 
overwhelming proof, that he disowned her antbori- 

^ One of the earliest propensities which James 
discovered, ' says Dr Irving at another place, * was 
an excessive attachment to favonrites; and this 
weakness, which onght to have been abandoned 
with the other characteristics of childhood, con^ 
tinned to retain its ascendancy dming every stage 
of his life. His facility of complying with every 
request alarmed the prophetic sagacity of Bn- 
chanan. On the authority of the poet's nephen^ 
(%ytrsBU8 has recorded a ludicrous expedient which 
he adopted for the purpose of correcting his pu- 
pil's conduct. He presented the young king with 
two papers, which he requested him to sign ; and 
James, after having slightly interrogated him re- 
specting their contents, readily appended his sig- 
oatore to each, without the precaution of even a 
Gorsory perusal. One of them was a formal trana- 
fisrence of the royal authority for the term of fi^ 
teen days. When Buchanan had quitted the royal 
presence, one of the courtiers accosted him with 
his usual salutation : but to this astonished person 
he announced himself in the new character of a 
sovereign ; and, with that happy urbanity of ha- 
moorfor which he was so distinguished, be began 
to assume the high demeanour of royalty. He afteor* 
wards preserved the same deportment towards Jamea 
huDself ; and when the latter expressed his amaae- 
msat at tacb extraordinary conduct, Bochauan 

54* ZlTt -OF 

fidmonifibe'd him of bis bayii^g'fesigilkdL A6 crown. 
This teply did ndt tend t6 lesfien tb« moosrcb's 
sarprieie ; for be now began to ftn9()ect bis prec^p- 
tor of mental derangement. Bncban&n then pro- 
duced tbfl^ instmment by Whi^^h be was fbtmaltf 
invested ; and, with tbe antbority of a tntor, pro- 
ceeded to remind him of tbe absardity of as*- 
senting to petitions in so rash ft manner. ' 

This anecdote seems to confirm tbe general im^ 
pression which has been entertained regarding 
James's character in boyhood. He wv» of m 
easy, nnsnspicions disposition ; apt to take men at 
their own showing, and equally disposed to «r* 
pect that his own conduct would be constnie<l aft 
he meant it. He had a great deal of that indo<^ 
lent good nature, which is so often found in men 
of studious and literary habits. He also, Hke 
miliiy men of good intellect, knfew better what 
ought to be done, than he possessed force of cha^ 
racter to put it in practice. 

Some more certain information regarding. Bu- 
chanan's relation t6 James, hi to be gathered front 
two dedications which the teacher wrote to bk 
pupil. It is particularly rem^kable, froni theM 
compositions, that one of Bttcbanan's chief objects 
in his system of instruction, was to inspire the 
King with a hatred of tyranny, and a senile of its 
inexpediency. In tbe dedication to a short Latin 
tragedy, entitled ^ Baptistes, sire calumniffl tra* 
gttdia, ' which was written in November I5T6, 
when James was just ont of his twelfth year, he 
says, < But this more especiaHy seeilis to belongs 
to you, which Explains the torments and miseries 
of tyrakits, even when they ^Mm to be in the 
moat flourishing state, whifeh I ^ste^nrnM ioAf 


iid¥BBtag«««9^ kntl etm Beeeswry fw yo<i new' t^, 
imdenilMiid} lka( yoi» may begin ei^rly to bf^$Q 
what yott tboidd always ^rpicl* I desire also thali 
this bo^ may be a witnessi tp posterity, that^ if a( 
any time yoo act atherwise, by the iofluenoe Qf 
wicked ecmii^lcirsi er the waBtoaaeBd of fiower; 
gettifif tbe better of educatm, you may imfmte 
it Bot to yoar fireeeptorty but yenvself, tbat slight* 
ed their good advice. God gnmt you a bettet 
fate, amd (m jowjavaurite Saliusi has it) render 
beaeficeaca natural to you by custom) which I 
sincerely wish and kspe with viaay others. ' A- 
gua> in tha dedisatioa of bis more celebrated 
work> entitled ^ Da juoe regni apad Seotos, ' which 
was written three years later» be says be thought 
gead to public it, that it might be a ^taadiug 
witaees of his afibcAion towards him» and admo* 
aish him of bis duty to bis sul^ects* ^ Mauy 
tbiagSf \ sayii the wiiter^ aud i^e infonpatiou is 
Taluable, us pnmog the uaturally good character. 
ofKiag Jaipea, < pcorsaaded me that this my m-' 
di^aroiir should uot be iu yain ; especially your 
age. Hot yet eorrupted by prave opiuious, and iu* 
diaatiou te above your yeirs for uudertaking all 
heroieal. aud noble attemptsi spontaneously making 
haste thereunto ; and not only your promptitude 
ia obeying your iastriictors and governors, but all 
such as give you ^omwl admoniliqn; and your 
judgment and diUgeace ia eiaminiag affairs, sq 
that no man's authority aan have much weight 
with yiwi mless it be eaafirmed by probable rea^. 
SOB. I do perceive alsa»' eontinues Buchanan, 
' that yoBi by a cet'Uun oatnial instinct, do much 
abhor iaMetyt wliiDh is the nume of tyfanay, and 
a most grievous plagBC of a kingdom f so us .yo« 

56 Lira of* 

do faate tlie tovat toledsmsandbarbariiiinf notei^ 
than those that seem to consnre all elegancy dv 
love and affect such tblngs, and every where im 
discoiuBe spread abroad as the sauce thereof, those 
titles of majesty^ highness, and many other nn* 
saronry compellations. Now, albeit yonr good 
natural disposition, and sound inst^ctions, where»^ 
in yon have been principled, may at present pie^- 
vent yon from foiling into this error, yet am i 
forced to be something jealous of yon, lest bad 
company, the fawning foster-mother of all viees,- 
draw ashle your soft and tender mind into tha 
wont part ; espedally seeing I am not ignorant, 
how easily om: other senses yield to seductioiK 
This book, therefore, I have sent to yon, toba 
not only yonr mmitor, bnt also an importmuita 
and bold exactor, which, in this yonr flexible and 
tender years, may conduct you in safety from the 
focks of flattery, and not only admonish yon, b«l 
idso ^eep yon in the way yon are once entetad 
into : and if at any time yon deviate, it may ra* 
prebend and draw yon back» the which if yoe 
obey, yoH shall, for yovrself and all yonr snbjeiBtB» 
teqnire tranquillity and peace in life, and eternal 
glory in the life to come. From Stirling, January 
10, 157». ' 

It is strange that, while the sincerity of them 
attempts, on Buchanan' s part, has been generally 
admired, no one has thought of pointing out the 
vanity with which he must have been inspired, m 
supposing that his political dreama were to have 
the power of directing his pupil in a novel and ia^ 
praedcableline of government. The second dedica- 
tion was written after James had, in reality, asaaoK 
cfd the manngemeBt of the kiB^gdom* 


While ibese pasrages prove tiie amiable diqwa^ 

by which the yocmg king was early diatingmsh- 

tfdy odier circaniBtancea manifest the notoriety whidr 

ham accomplishments in learning had acquired for 

Una at the same age, not only in his own country and 

Soglandy but ako dnonghout Europe. His fame^ 

aa a noted example of precocity of intellect, is paf» 

tfenlarly mentioned in a paper of Renunuiranca 

Whirii was afterwards presented to him by bia 

aoblea* when his addiction to iuTOurites had begoa 

Q» dond the hopes originally entertained of him* 

There is yet extant, moreorer, a paper, bearing data 

July 1576, and endorsed ' The Kingis Majesties 

Bnikia : ' it contains a list of ninety-two different ar* 

tfcles, of which the titles, all except two, are in La- 

fbif suggesting chiefly well-known classical authon 

and books of diyinity. * At this time James was 

just ten. Unquestionably, any knowledge he might 

then hare attained beyond ^e mere elements of 

leaniing, could scarcely be well digested, . or of 

amch account in forming his mind. Neither was 

a proficiency in' literature the. qualification moat 

aeoessary to him in the very difficult situation he 

had been called to. * Yet praise must neyertbelesa 

be allowed to him forataste sosuperior to his yean» 

and for his having displayed at least the dispositiea 

tevarda intellectual employment. 

Whatever were his school-day aspirations, James 
was not destined, more than the generality of stu- 
dents, to remain long-in enjoyment of them. Those 
ddidous dreams which all scholars experience 
in the morning of the intellect, were in him disturb- 
ed even earlier than they generally are in men of 

' • See Prefkce to new edition of 'fhe RevUs and C««« 
telis of Poeoe, ' by^MrjC F. GiUiet. 

LirB M 

iaferier riiiki Tht profeaBWM^ taak wkiofa ddled 
'this 8ebfMil<bey from his books* was no less ihfloi to^ 
re-«dif7, as it wen^ the Scottish moourchy^ which, 
had now lain for fivsNand-thirty years in roins^ 119* 
der the feeble rale of women and iegeats^ And; it 
was hi* fu^t doty to wrest hie sceptre from th«i 
baad of Mortosi ! 

It fata beea already mentiafted, that this power-. 
frinoblemaB becaine Regent in October 1573, after 
the death of the Earl of Mar. The Queen's pwty, 
which had stood out against all the three foroner 
Regents, soda periled before the forceful mind' 
of Morton. He» in the irst plaeoy prevailed npoa 
the Harailtona and other friends of Mary tbroi^b* 
ottt the eonntry, to snbmit to him ; then be kid 
wege to Edinburgh Castle, in which Kirkaldy and 
Maitloul w»e ensconced. To assist him in thk: 
enterprise, Qnton Elizabeth, with whom he was in 
terms of the closest friendship, and who support*- 
ed him as chief of the Protestant inteimH^ in Se0(r 
land, sent a body of men from Berwick^ along witb 
a train of artill^. Morton caused these guasi: 
the greater part of which had been taken from 1m 
eenntrymen at Flodden, to be planted against the 
fortreaa ; and after a gallant resistance of t^birty-fewr 
di^ Kirkaldf fl^itnlated on the promise of life*. 

Kirkaldy was adcnowledged to be the fe/ey hm% 
floldier of bis time in Seotkmd* He bad serred 
much abroad in his yontk ; and Sir James Melnl- 
iitforais OS, that he had once seen Henry II« of. 
Kance point him ont, and say, '< Yonder is one of 
the moat raliaat men of oar ag^. " He is deserib** 
ed as having been * a losty, strongs and well-prO-- 
porlionadpersonage« hardy» and of amagnanimpas 
coorage, secret and prudent in all bis eAteiprieoar 


90 ihaAneTttr one tbaft he iniide or devised misgave 
wbere he was present himself. ' His enemies al* 
le^d of him, in e&yy, that he set himself up as 
* another Wallace ; ' but if be did entertain an am- 
bition so great) he as certainly possessed the qvar- 
lifications whTch entitled him to do so. He was a 
constant enen&y to the oppressor, and firiend to the 
poor. He was * hnmble, gentle, and meek like a 
lamb in the house, bat like a lion in the firids. * 
He did nothing for the sake of money or office ; 
his only motive was good principlo, his only oljed 
honest fame. 

This tmly noble person ftll a sacrificed his own 
honourable . feeling. Morton, on his accession to 
the regency, resolved to make no genera) treaty 
with the Queen's party. Tliat would have left 
them still respectable in strength, and placed no pro- 
fit to his own personal account. His plan was te 
treat with either the eastk or the eoimJtry part of 
the finetion separately, and, having given good terms 
to the one, to fell upon the other and make it his 
prey. He first proposed this to Kirkaldy ; but that 
gsnenras soldier rejected every offer which was not 
extended to his associates in the country. It was 
then laid before the country party, and accepted* 
Kirkaldy, eonsequeiftlyi left to himself was easily 

It was to the English Embassador, and not to 
Morton, diat KirkaMy and his friends professed to 
Burtender themselves ; aftd accordingly, they were 
kept several days in the lodgings of that personage 
in the town, previous to thehr being cvried into 
England. Morton, however, found means to get 
thmi into hisownpower; and he then caused Kirk- 
•Uyte be hanged, like Acomnea folon, attho ei^ 


cross. He was tbe more able to perform ttuA viof 
lent action, that the cap^ve was odious to the citi- 
zens on account of the damage he had done to the 
town in carrying on his defence, and also to the 
dergy for some offence he had gi^en to the late 
John Knox. The people of that mde age beheld 
his amiable qualities, fall-grown intellect, and ac- 
complished reputation, all perish before their eyes, 
without the least regret, merely because he had in- 
jured a few of their house-tops, and remonstrated 
against the licentious tongue of one of their preach- 

After the reduction of the castle, Morton bad 
not a single armed enemy in the country, the whole 
nation then agreeing to transfer their allegiance 
from the imprisoned Mary to her son. He carried 
on his government for some years with all the ▼!- 
gour which was to be expected from his character, 
and from his strict alliance with Elizabeth* His 
mle very much resembled that of his celebrated 
aDy. It was a despotism of the most lofty and 
rigorous kind ; but, being exercised in behalf of 
the popular religion, it was mudi more agreeable 
to the people than the most lenient reigns, which 
wanted that saring and sanctioning clause. No* 
thing, for instance, could equal Morton's treatment 
of the clergy, so far as temporalities were concern- 
ed. He is said, by various modes of exaction^ to 
have reduced them almost to starvadon. Yet 
because he professed to be the head of the F^ 
testant interest, and defended their frdth in the 
abstract, they exclaimed very little against him» 
nothing being valuable in the eyes of this-ringular 
and most self-denying race of men, in comparisoii 
with the protection of what they esteemed iim 


true ndfgion. Tbe same redeeming qnality iiih 
daced the people to express fiEU* less indignrntioii 
tbaa they might otherwise hate done, at his de- 
basement of the national coin, although that mea- 
sure was prodnctire of serious misery to them» and 
was only designed for his own benefit. 

The character of Morton is altogether one of 
the most frightful of all those produced by his i^ 
and nation. An age of reformation will ever teem 
with such flagitious characters, and the Scottish re- 
f(xmation was certainly no exception from the ge- 
neral rule. But Morton was decidedly the worsit 
of them all*' Moray's character is relieved in its 
lengthy catalogue of vices — ingratitude, dupiicityy 
miu^er, and ambition— by that strange lore of 
justice and latent worth, which procured him tbe 
popular epithet of goodL Maitland had wit and 
sense to redeem his exquisitely fraudulent cha- 
racter. Bothwelly wretch as he seems to ha^ 
beeuy was perhaps too much a mere adventurer^- 
too much a vain-glorious fool, to occasion unquali- 
fied disgust. Morton's, however, is a portrait 
without a single light ; it is a thorough WiKottetfe. 
His character is to this day treated with some le- 
mency by our historians on account of his reli- 
gion. But this is entirely the result of ^ posteriori 
reasoning. The religion which enlightened and 
ripened the national mind through a succession of 
ages, and which now commands esteem from its 
known g^d effects, had no benign influence on tl^ 
character of any man at the time of its institution- 
It does not appear to have been embraced by a 
single public personage of the period for its own ix^ 
trinsic merits. Such persons adopted it merely 
at the best* meuoB of acquiring a power over the 

62 I»?FB OF 

fopuhee^ or a Abm of die spoils. «f tliA cUer 
icfavn^. It IB a Teiy natnral feding whidi caooee 
-tti te look back wkb gratilnda to aqy one wbo 
4ms oven aniiiteiitioxiaily done as good ; but surely 
it Is one which reason should endeaFoar to ooBft- 
bat, or at least control. 

Morton's character seems to faaye at last ap- 
proadied to something like the ogre of nnrs^y fo- 
ible or the giant of- romance. He was ji dbort b«t 
handsome man, dark even to the extremity of the 
-family hue of the- Douglases ; his fratnres were 
all in masses, connigated and knotty 4 his eyes 
'gleamed keenly over a pair of high cheek-bones ; 
and his month, as Been imperfectly through a black 
ba^y beard, had that prominent and ferocioi|s as- 
pect which in savage life indicates mere animal 
enpidity, but in the ciyili^ed, condition betokens a 
' propensity to all. the lower passions. Although be 
was not the chief of the Douglas family, his gneat 
abilittes and eminence in public lifie, together with 
the cirenmstanoe of his nephew the Earl of An- 
gus being a minw, had long placed Ae wiiole 
•^wer of that clan in his hands^ Thus, Jie had 
a large foBomnffy as it was caUed, of adrenturous^ 
dependants, who, regarding his will as a law, 
would have scrupled to execute no measure he 
•ehose to dictate. He had also taken great pains 
40. fortify various castles throughout the country, 
'for the recep^en of -his immense gains, and the 
'protection of his person. His chief residence was 
•the castle of 'Dalkeith, six statute miles from. 
'Edinbm'gh. That house he had fortified in so care- 
'fol <a manner, and with suoh complicated strength, 
'that the common people, remembering his charao- 

as^ the inhabitant^ tesmed it the laenU Dmh. 


jbi ib W9ffd$ of a quaint okl mitefi ' be- eroetod 
that palaoe of Dalkeith to hiB no email cbacge, 
^idoraittg it with tapestry and incompar^e pieoee 
•of arty so that its splendour soars almost to a ma- 
jeeticall statelinesse. ' * He also ce-bailt the- 
castle of Edinbaigh from the rained state ia wluchv 
the siege had left it ; and to show how much he 
rconaidered it a house for his owa ase^ he caused 
the architect to place his own arms above the Scot^ 
tiab lion which overhung the principal gateway* 
As if even these fortresses in the metropolitan part 
• of the kingdom were not sufficient for his protec- 
tion he began to build a prodigioas castle ^i the- 
-iqxlaadB of Tweeddale, apparently designing it as 
hk last retreat when all others shoold have failed 
•him» it being in a place where no artillery could, 
have been broag^t to annoy him, and where 
a body of bewegers would have subsisted with 
difficulty. This strength (Dtochils Ca»tle) ho 
did not live to finish ; but the traveller thcoi^gb 
*liioee lonely regions .still sees with surprise an im- 
mense pile of stose-work rising from the bleak 
•idUofiide near his path, a monument of the wealth 
and tenific character of this singular man, 
' Among all the sins of Morton, his cupidity, per- 
•hapa, was the most dangerous to himself) both be- 
eanse it was the vice he could least controly and 
because it was apt to exeite the most implacable 
•'sort of hostility agsinst him among the people., 
•ile is stated by rthe old writer last quoted, to have 
once been reproved for this bis besetting sin, by 
•one of the professed jesters of bis household — for 
Morton, with ail his lofty diaracteristics, was not,. 

•■ S%fi B. Buchanan's Scotia Redi^va,,!. 388. 

M I.IFE OV . . 

superior to this folly of his age—- and the .maaiiflr 
was thus :— Some beggars one day applying to the 
Regent for his alms, Patrick Bowie» the peiaonage 
mentionedi called to hia Grace by all means to bam 
these fellows honied to death. *^ What I ** ex^ 
claimed Morton, ** and are ye so wicharitable m 
to refuse merey to those who so earnestly seek it ? * 
^ Why, '' answered the fool, <' although ye i^eae 
to commit these men to the flames to-day, yoa 
could, ere the snn ran his course to-morrow, make 
as many rich men beggars. " 

His immoderate exactions at length excited m^ 
general a disgust, that the nation seemed only in 
want of a head to rise against him. This was sup- 
plied by the Earls of Argyle and Athole. Theas 
two noblemen baring quarrelled regarding a High- 
land robber, and being on the point of commeneii^ 
hostilities against each other, Morton caused theqt 
so be summoned to his presence, for the pmpoes^ 
as ^y suspected, of being subjected to a fine for 
their disturbance of the peace. Their common dan* 
ger caused them to unite i^;ainst him ; and, Alex<^ 
ander Erskine, undo of the minor Earl of Ma^ 
and his representatiye, as keeper of the Kiogj^ 
penon, happening, at the same time, to conceive 
a grudge at Morton, they found, through his meeua^ 
access to the King, whom they wished to inteneak 
in their cause of complaint. 

Morton, strange to say, had paid little attentioa 
to his interest in this important quarter. Seldom, 
risiting James, he continued to consider him as a 
mere boy from whom he had nothing to apprehend. 
He had even lost the affections of every indi« 
vidual around Jameses person, without a thought 

KING JAAlISS *tllti FIRST. 65 

^flfe iAkchi^'t6 wliieh he tbereby 'etpMed him-" 
fH^lf. Bachaftan he had offended iiteconcilabty, 
if^'We fire to believe Mr Jilmes SielWII, hy with- 
iolding an amblhig nag, which the pedii^ogae had 
kist during the civil ware, and whidi Morton had 
tfvett bought. ' The Laird of DmmqnaBel, who was 
governor of the yonng King's household, also cbff- 
detv^d mortal haftred at the Regent, for the yery ex- 
cellent reaison that all the lickings of his office Were 
to U c ip atied « by tTiat voracions pereohage. Alet-' 
sader Erskine had his own cause of wrath ; tmd so 
had ^very other person, high and low, -who at- 
flmded upon; the King. Morton was at length- 
made conscious, by a friendi of the danger whibb" 
llD^tftened ' him in this *qn)a'fer, and saw ' fit ' to 
bestow a few doucenrs npon the ' varions persons' 
he had formerly 6ffended. * But this' was rendered 
of * little avail by the penetration of the ydnng 
Khigi Wl«Bnevet any of the reformed servants' 
began to speak' favourably of Morton, JamesT at 
oftce reminded thiem of the different tone in Vhich 
thlby had talked of him' before, "and asked how 'they 
had come to change their coats. He' had himself 
so rei^n to regard Morton favourably, but wa« 
ratheif induced to wish his power brought down,* 
that he might himself assume the government) for 
which, young as he was, some of his companion! 
bad already persuaded him' he Was fit. ' 
^ Alesrander Erskine having secretly admitted the 
Earls of Argyle'and Athole to James's presence, it 
was now resolVed that lettere should be despatched 
to all the 'nobles whOnf they knew to be hostile to 
Mtn-teur calling them to a- convention at Stirling, for 
the purpose of deliberating on an alteration of the 
government. Tina being done* wiA prudence and 

YOL. I. B 

09^ IIFIB ow 

eqiiBditioB} a* m^iity of the gnnd^M fcod ni«l ti^ 
procnre Morton's downfiJ, b^ore he was bimadit 
awaro of any design agsoist him. Being qait% an* 
prepared, sad finding no adequate party at hand 
vo support him, he Burpriaed the eonyeiitioii in hia 
lOfDy by sending them an offer of his anneador el 
authority. This the King aeeeptedy cammandiDg 
him at the same time to deUymr up the castle eif. 
Edinburgh. Morton then retired, as an old wnfear 
expreeaea it, * to Lodileren Caa^, to make tbi^ 
watka of hia gafden e?esi» hut hia mind atill eee«K 
pied in crooked patha;'* wUle Jamea, at Hm 
age of twelve, aaaumed Ae aovereigii power, nadai^ 
ibe controul of a oonneil of noblea. 

The lord% howoT^f werei alter all, mona ia* 
debted for tida change to MerUm'a wa»t ef piOF 
pamtion, than to any thing dae. A yery lifttle 
time enabled bun to rally hia frienda and Ua eo^ 
rage ; and throe montha bad acaroely elapaedi eia 
be found bima^agahn aealad in een^derable andicK 
lity at the King'a «onnc]14ioerd, within Stiriin^ 
Cfliatle^ Saeing the neeeaaity of now p^fing eeeil 
10 the yoiui(g mona^» be applied himaelf aaaite^ 
oualy to that taak; and he eeon auoceeded ao w^ 
^ to procnra hia oonaent to an ambaaaage to Bug* 
kmd. The noUea agam took alaraa, and psqparad 
to auppreaa ham a aecond tiaas. Sot aa he had 
aurronnded hjmaelf wilii three ar four tbooaaad el 
hia aephew'a reta»nerB» the taak was now one of 
greater diffii^lty. Contrimg» neverthekaa^ ft 
taise an army of magmtnde equal to hia oiA^ 
they marched against hun ; and a meeting teek 
plaoe betweea the two hoata on the baaks of tha 

• air Jsmaa MahijyU 

KING JAMg$ ^p)9 FIB8T. &lf 

ilmm, imtwim Pidkiifc jwd S^m. By A^ 

«f 1^ Aiiemy thoidd b9 ^dmitt^d into tbe K40g!(| 
4»oti«fli «^ n (Goiiiif0rH«mse kp iu». own «atl).0Dtf, 
Xh« gi»v(Bi?MBW( im ;^fterw»cd8 dimifid pn IfMr 4 
oomdimnble tm^ m this modified pW* 
. Jmi^s ftppe«p9 tp h9!v» cowdncted hiioMl^ dw» 
iag )thoa» strogi^et, witb » AogiBe of ji^iwrtUlilg 
aad iSRHtaoa ii^vo w)i»| ww to 1^ i^a^cted bw^ 
Ua boyisb ymrs* Jr » ^pcM^ wbkhbi^ inad^ ^ 
tbt 0«sAe«di9g pivtion «i^r 4h9 jnu^calioiv be 
|irofa9«»d lo TOi^ ^QHk wUb tbji a^ptioiiL dnil 
feom 41 ison^pcb to Im cbiof opbility^ fM^d iwro^st* 
l|r iiep«ifttftd» ABiE«pial Mmoib Uwit bk ^7 with W9§ 
t» ioe Awn wiitcid i» m^ Aioodlir icmmil womi 
hiii^ ft noow i i jto^ hm^ iffim voiy .49^7 p9r«HBi?«4 
ti^ J«ici«fW ibst ^ .«4»}|9:«i iu^ ipigfBiixff^ wodo of 
Aontel yraft ^ ^idy 000 Jt>|r fidiicb 1^ cmidd bopf 
Itj^nitft bkgO)FOlw«(Bi)lb «s b^wofild i^iqf^elf bsx)^ 
md» m pi^Go or iCQipfopt^ XM^d^ -^ 4ie ;p9tia^ 
iMi»:0«i tW.9i|bjopt of i^eUgio|9,; Wuself disU»Pl»4 
faMriit ^bo fv^, wiiicj^ b«d bUhpifi9 $0vei3f^e4 
hmt and dM ivjucb was ipqjiviAd hwK^pnb^ 
m^ bim ; at oaoe iObUgod IP go^ani a tcoimtrj 
MKaod tP F^bTtariaiiifyw, and ji^ to apt iuancb 
a way a* noti to «o|fead tbe £piA<>p|^iaa ki^gdop^ 
vbiob bo i^ispoaied to wbaci$,i ij^ jbko^ i^y bo cci9^ 
ifivfid ibat im 9i&i|aticta 190 a niloi:: wnfs one of c^ 
IMM0 di^ioii)^* 3^ ^998 b» » jioonarpb wbo war 
oMM^WMoaUy ^^ ^iramwafi 1^ bi^ by ft 
iflbery .andffirbo jM9,a.fatit> jcbaUsad oiit b^&lf 
Un« Hia patmioiuid laoaareby, poor at the yery 

itfik «0 ^c^nqpnaed mik f6itex% wsm» 19 ito)bi^ 

48 ' tint OF " 

Gains' «TeDL kt the moment when he, fern isftuit of 
thirteen months, had become poesesaed of it. Atf 
hfl^grew np, he. found his right of rule p«rtlf 
il/iQ^»ed by the nobles, who had necessarily as-^ 
ibnmed the direction of affairs during the miborities 
of his mother' and himself, and partly denied' Mr 
scoffed Sit by die people, whose opinions on that 
subject were now modiilated to the hnmour of a 
6harch decidedly repabh<^. It was his task' to 
retrieve a little of the authority which was thus 
sitoangely impignorated ; and, in mtddng the at- 
tempt^ the utmost caution was necessary* 
' Whatever wish he might possess to have thtf 
friendship of the. nobles, he either did not attempt 
to secure it, or, if he did attempt it, he did not 
succeed in gaining his end. In his youih, w^ find 
him abandoned almost entirely to the guidance of 
two individuals, neither of whom belonged to that 
iiiflnenlial dass— James Stuart, a aedond son of 
liord Ochiltree, and Esme or Amatus Stuart, a 
cousin of his Cetdier, and nephew of the late 
Earl of Lennox. The first of these men was a 
military adventurer of peculiarly bold temper, aad^ 
it is said, of flagitious life, but vwy much attach- 
ed to the person of the young monarch, and in- 
clined to stick at 'toothing in doing him sisrvice. 
Esme Stuart was a penton of gentler, and in every 
Respect better -diaraeter. T!he first had been in- 
troduced to James's friendship in the capacity of a 
latptain in his body guard. The other came to 
"Scotlaiid, to prosecute his vlaima on the Lennoac 
Peerage and estate. James's attachmmt .to them 
hfy been stigmatised as fovouritism ; and the vices 
uf the first, and datholidsm of the second, have 
lieen aUke friutfolaidgecta of inveptive, to iheir 


'ftonteiAp0rarifi6 and ta madam hislomns, Bnti 
laying the youtfaof- James out of the ijaestion al* 
together^ it -was sorely allowable, in so tumnltnoiia 
^d difficult a scene, te seek refuge in the bosoma 
af two friends* about' his own age, who professed 
a friendships for his awn sake.* If we look back 
npon the history of Scotland for a century before 
bi» time, we find erery king endeavouring to form 
a personal guard of friends^ around* him, distinci 
from- the 4erritorial( powers. ' Sach were Cocluan^ 
,ind*other8 tQ James III*, noch. the clergy and the 
cofKOBons to James Y., such ^e French guard to 
the Queen Eegent» and sneh. was Rizzio to Mary, 
As it would thus appear to have been rather a 
measure of necessity th^ any thing else, we are 
led to believe .that James's adoption 4>f these two 
youthful favourites was a much more excusable 
matter than it is generally represented to have 

' One of the first services of a public nature which 
the two Stuarts performed for him, ^ was their pro^ 
icurmg the ruin of bis formidable minister, or ra* 
iher mastery the Earl of Morton. James Stuart 
was the most active and apparent agent in this af- 
lair. Entering the Council-room one day, he fell 
down upon his knees, and accused the Earl of 
Jiloiton of being concerned in. the murder of the 
JUkte King Henrys (Lord Datnley.) The Earl 
.was inmiediately seized, and committed to Edin* 
buigh Castle. He bad procured an act of coiincil 
and parliament, on the demission of his regency, 
aiSBuring.bim that he should never be afterwards 
.blamed for any deed committed before that time. 
* But it was not one of the maxims of state in Scot- 
Wd lit this period) to pay attep^<m,to a claiin un- 

$0 Uft&P 

enforced hf irCftngtb «f aHAs <tf dbeir'MtteikeA 
Of all such weaUB of defence Morton was now 
AeiBtitute, tbe party of hia fnenda being Weak cotn^ 

Cwitk that; wbieh wished Ms destmetidtf* 
bietb, who felt bef own interest at stake Witlk 
Ms life, int^ered, it is tme, with all her influence t6 
ptfB9ietv^ Mas, and, when embassies failed, eren t&*> 
Mttod to the measore of gathering an army on ^ 
bptdeM to hktitttiditttf the King. Bnf this last adi 
dnly insured die death of her fHend ; for an anny 
being necess«ii!y rtdsed to^ defend Ae ftoatka^, 
James ttsed It aiH gated to tionrey Morton to tbift 
aeatffold, when be coald not perhaps bate aeconH 
|ilisfaed his bold undertaking by other means. 

In exact proportion as we regard the dmtwsM 
d the livhig and reigning Morton with the aw^ 
dne to majestic yillany, so do we contemplate tb6 
ISb^ninstanees of bis deadi with feeHngs of an ^* 
tating and painful natm«. The mind, indeed^, 
#hic£ bas for any length of time stndied the life 
Of this man, in all its drcnmstances of powei'^ 
tident, ferocity, and pride, is apt, when it comes td 
look ttpon him in his degraded condition, to woih!^ 
der bow inen were fonnd to manacle and gnafd, 
bow jtiron wens found to condemn, and how tA 
etecntioner was found to behead him. He waa 
kept fof aeteral months before his trial in Ddfi^ 
barton Castle, the propefty of his cMef enemy, 
Esme Stuart, who was now ct^ated Duke of Lei^- 
nox. During the interval, his other grand enemy 
Captain James Stnart, waa created Earl of Arran, A 
title just tacated by tlte attainder Of the powerM 
bouse of Hamilton, tidiich Morton is said to bav^ 
furthered before bfa aeeusation, in consequenco of 
% propliecjr liHkldl foretold that the hiaft (bib 


^c^^MBsea) dhosld Ml hf the niiMh 6/ Amtn. 
When the precept airiTed at Doobwton Cattle 
for tnmepartiDg Inn to £diiib«igh»he was startled 
aft eeeing the £ail of Anaa nentioaed in it aa one 
«f the two. who abonld command his goanL la- 
i^pttfiBg of the keeper of the cattle who this Arrta 
WBtf and being infonned that it was Stnart, he 
ipae etmck wHk tnrprite. ** And it it to ? '* he 
e^dd; ** 1 know> then, what I may look for. " Jt 
waa enppoted that he looked upon this acddenttl 
Te-appeaiance of the dreaded name^ in connection 
¥rith a twom enemy^ as a certain proof that thfe 
pn^hecy should hold good. 
• Hit trial took place at Edinbiugh on the first 
of Jane 1581. As he himself obscnrved, it did not 
ngnify whether, in the matter chai^d to him, he 
was as innocent as St Stephen, or as gnilty as Ju* 
das. His death was determined Ob, and he was 
accordingly condeamed. On the morning of the 
aacceeding day (that of his ezecntion), he was 
waited on by some of the ministers of Edinburgh, 
lo whom he uttered a lengthened c(mfe6mon of 
his concern in Damley's murder, aaaoontbg to nd 
mora than the guilt of fore-knowing and conceal* 
mg it. He also joined them id some doTotional 
aTorcisen, and entered into a discussion of the state 
of his mind on the score of religion, and his hopes 
of immortality. When, that was done, he invited 
his ghostly counsellors to breakfest with him; which 
they consented to, although ftr less disposed to 
eat than the unhappy culprit before theiaa. Me 
ata his breakfint with great cheerfnlnesB, talking 
All the dme. 

One of his remarks on diis ooeasioft supplies ua 
Iritfaa Tory carious p^fchologiwal bct» ** I aoi« 

78 -^'i "UF£0y 

obsem^ '^ sidd he, " 'tfatt there is e gnat dttbifc 
-enee between ankan whois occnpied with the 
cares of the world, and him that is free from themi 
the night before mj aoensatioB) I eonki get no rest 
for care ; anxiety to prepare propep answers for 
any charge which should be pat to meoi^ths 
morrow, kept me awake the whole nightt: Lasi 
night, on the contrary, when I knew lonlyhasi 
to die, I nerer slept better in my life. '- William,^ 
he added, taming to Captain William Stwirt of 
the gaard, " yoa ean bear me record ef tins ? '^ 
Staart answered, ^'it'is true, my Lord, "> and 
confirmed the belief of the hearers in a circnm^ 
stance which they might otherwise have qoestion- 
ed« •■) 

* Mr Walter Balcanqnal, a minister, now said t» 
him, *< My Lord, I will drink to you, on condition 
that yon and I shall drink' together, in the king* 
dom of heaven, of that immortal drink which shall 
never suffer us to* thirst again; " He answered 
^ Truly, I will pledge you, Mr Walter, on the 
same condition. " Having then taken up a cu^ 
he said to John Dnry, another of the cleigymea 
in attendanoe, ** John, I will* drink to you on the 
same condition ; '•' to which proposal John asseni* 
ed ; and the whole three then drank this singuiat 
toast. He* afterwards* retired to the soHtndeof aa 
inner chambeiv where he spent the hours of the 
forenoon. I 

Early in* the afternoon, the clergymen vetaniedl 
and in a still greater number. Morton, singling ool 
Mr John Ferguson, whom he'had not seen at break* 
Ast, embraced him very cordially. '^MrJohbi H 
isid he to this individual, *^ you onoe wrote^ aiit* 
tie ittolragaiaat me ; bat troly, LnevermeaBtevii 


ftMrnds yw in my 'miBd t tcr^ve yM ine, wmkJ, 
(Bkgm yon.'' This behavioar moved Fergnsoii' te 
Imvb; He then sat down to dinner. Daring lui 
lIMftiy the el^rgymien, learning that the King had 
veceivedsn erroaeona aecomt of hia confessioiH 
k wafe resolved that three af then^ shoidd go td 
iiofyroodhoaie, where bis Majesty was now ra^ 
JMding, and give him n more oerrect report of i^ 
ao tbftt the Ex- Regent might die with a aatisfr* 
ttd mind on that score. ' They did so, and the va» 
snlt was an order that ho should he beheaded- at 
tsncei without the preliminary ceremony of hang« 

' When the clergymen returned with this order, 
the jailor informed him that he must now proeeisd 
io the scaffold. '* Seeing they have troubled ma 
aa moefa to-day/' said he^ H with worldly things, I 
ihonghtthey would have given me a night beside, to 
iiave advised- ripely with my God." The keeper 
IMtswered; << All things are now ready, my Lord; 
and I think they will not stay." " I praise ny 
God)" said he, '^ I am ready also," and immedi* 
iMely passed towards the gate. 
* Here- a strange scene odmrred. Arranr nd# 
eame mffltng up, and, having led him back to tha 
ehamber, requested him to tarry till his confassioM 
slibuld be put in writing, and signed wiith his namai 
*^ Nay, my Lord,"' said Mbrtoa, ** trouble me no 
more, i pray yon,^ with these things. I nn now 
at a'point^to go to my death, and have a mneh 
uohler thing to muse on— to prepare formy God. I 
eannot write in the state wherein I now am. All 
these honest men can testify to what I have spoked, 
b that matter." ^ 
'^ Aitaoi touched perhapa^ l|y the gresignatianf of 


jklto Maa fe M petsMdted fea death, BOW 6Xfmi994 

ai^wiih to part with him oo good tetsns. *^ Mj 
JjOfd/* he said^ ^' you will be reeonciled tQm%t 
I assiire yo« I hare done nothing agaiftst yoa fro9 
mf parttenlar gradge, but in the awce oonne of 
my duty to the King." Morton replied, '< It ia 
DO tune BOW to tetnember quarrels i I hayo BO 
qnarrel to yonnoraay other t I forgivo yoB and uU 
otheflh 88 I will you foigiye me/' This whoio im 
terview certainly puta ^e bad Uuie of tba B^eiB 
a atrikiag poial of view* 

Morton then pasaed towards the aeaffold. Il 
was remarked of him, aa a very unexpected things 
thati being solicited for charity aa he went along 
by s mnhitnde of beg^^ars, he had bo money of hia 
own^ bBt was obliged to hare recourae to a friend 
Irho acfXHdpanied him^ before he could perfenoa 
the diatrfbatioB of Ida own decu^cMei w> it waa 
eaUedy in the atyle expected from a culprit of hii 
link. The people were thas perplexed more thaii 
overi as to the fate of the immenae loade of goU 
Hidch he had teaaaed during lua govenunetit* 

When arrived at the last fatal atage, he addceaat 
ad tha people. with a firm countenance and Tdc% 
BMire than once uaing the expression-^*' Sure I ami 
tbe King ahall loae a good serraat diis day."-— ^< I 
asatify before God/' said he, <* as I professed tba 
f o apel which this day is taught and profesaed ia 
Sootlaad, so also I willingly lay down my life ia 
the profeasion thereof; and, howbeit I Imve nol 
WaiU^ thereunto as J ought, yet I am assured God 
Will be merciful to me. Iprayyouall, goodChria* 
tiana, pmy for me* I diarge yon all in the namo 
of God that are professors of the go^I, that ya 
JtontiBttaiaithetmeproCMrfontheiWi aiidmi^« 


fdtkil t4 foia pwirer, «» I shoitkl-hAiwdMi* (Qoi 
m^Ling) willh mj lilb,' kuida, arid gpoodiy aye VBfi 
tf Idw a« I had lircd; whidi^ if yon do/ I aiMH9 
yoti God iriU be vmnaM t» yoik Bnt if fM d« 
It ndlf %e «««» lite vengeance of Ood thatt lighl 
ifft ^tC) Iwdy snd sbnL 

Aa MuiMSt fnftr ^vas th«ii ibad* la bit hJuU 
by* dfie 0f the aitcnd^t eler^y ; dwriiig wUdb 
MoilMl ky proMintte on hi» f&tB^ giving maAifflil 
«ig«flr, by the i«b<MUidiiig of kw lM>dy fcMa Ik* 
90iiflMd, fts wefl aa by audible s6b% of the e&al 
«^eli it Imd ufMii bia IMiagpii. Wbenlhatwaa 
aooe, a number of pei^o^a catte, like AMtmif 10 
be reconciled to him. All these he reoeiyed with 
t%k!{>r^otis 6f kindn€!lsfif« He Uien adraneed with 
& placid countenance to the block, laid down his 
bead, and began to utter such devout ejaculation^ 
^ ** Lord JesiiB, feceiv^ Iny aoid 1 lato thy faand% 
l^rd, I commit my spirit ! " which were only m* 
terropted by the descent of the axe. * 

To increase the public excitement which attend- 
ed Morton's execution, it was performed by a noT«l 
iftstmment, which he himself had introduced into 
Scotland, and v/hich had an uncommonly dread* 
^1 appearance. This instrument he copied from 
<>tie he had seen in his youth in Italy ; but, thongk 
be caused it to be constmcted some time during 
^ government, it had never been used till now» 
when, probably in consequence of the remissicm 
^ that part of his sentence which condemned Jhim 
^0 be hanged, it was applied in his own favour. 
It almost exactly resembled the modern Frendi 

* MS. Account of Morton's confession and last mo- 
y;^nt8, in Matthew Crawford's Collections, Advocates* 

a ' LIFE*t)F 

gaillotlM ; and It sUH exista. The epithet of '< di# 
Muden/ by which it ia now so well known, wna 
confetred npon it by the popHlaee, in metaphori* 
oal allusion to the ciromnatance of Morton haying 
been the first that submitted to ita embraces. * •: 

During the whole of that long aummer after* 
noon, Morton's body lay on the public acaffold» 
covered only by a beggar^s bine gown, no man, out 
of all the thousands who had formerly waited 04 
ilia nod, now daring to give it buial. It waa «l 
length conreyed by porters to the place where cri* 
mihala were usually interred. His head waa next 
day fixed on the tolbooUi. f 


: • This is stated distinctlj in « nPONOIA, or BeBMrlET 

iMe Instsncet of Dvnne IVondence,' » curious manu* 

script of the reign of Charles IT,, in the Adyocatei' lAj 


• f Spotiiswoode's piurch History, 914* 



V » . . . » 


MjonaHMSi voMAs— ^AJCBs's riafft ucbbaat Bnroac 

*■ ■ ■* 


£rou the yery fint} James waa li^pr^ategS of Elicit 
botby who wished in him to rear a Scottish mo- 
UBTch^ that ahoold add the support of his kii^ 
dom to rthe Pr^otestant bulwark which ^he waa. 
boildbg up against the Cath<dijCS| and an heir to 
her own longdom, whose religious principles should 
give no ccHuitenance or cause of hope to that par- 
^y« Throughout all his early years, she had 
contriyed to further these objects, by having huoa 
utd'hiB kingdom under the control of Regents, 
who were subservient to her interests. Now, how'^ 
^^ when he had attuned to nearly a mature age» 
tad Was himself in possession of the govemment» 
Ae found her task a somewhat more difficult one, 
^ikssmuch as he showed symptomsof a wish to be- 
^nk and act for himself ; and even seemed inclined 
to lend a favourable ear to the solicitations with 
which he was plied by the Catholics and other friend* 
of Sis mother, who pri^posed to him a scheme for 
Sfisociating her in: the government with himself. 
Zbera was indeed grea|.re$u|oii for £liubeth to 

78' . . - - . xins 09 . 

fear that bis fint emotioiiSy oa attaimog to ihm^ 
link of manhood, should dispose him to tegui 
his mother, and consequently her religion and her 
party, with a degree of faroar inconsistent vritb 
the interests of the Refonnation. And he really 
seems to hoFO given her some occasion to belieme 
this fear well-groonded. All the discipline of 
Buchanan, and aU the rigoors pf the Cidyinisti& 
theory in which he was educated, had &iled to 
wake him what was wanted* like many other 
yontbawhojuse^oocars^t^edacaled, he S(aemeddi»^ 
posed to baulk entirely the wishes of his friends. 
His surrendering Ins affsctions to Lennox, wha 
was a Catholic, and appeared as an emissary of 
tfm French king^ was en almosi deoisMie proof 44 
his dispomtien to shake 'off his ^goed'ooaam.ttidl 
^Sster of England. ' Finally, she cevld mo Ipngpsv 
doubt that be was nearly lest to her, wken km 
sacittoed Moiton to tiw de maa d a 4>f LanneoEa 
iforton, ber most eoiAdentM irieMl^ andsvbe^JM 
^Ten consented, it is eaid, to a s che ui a wbitk «fa|i 
proposed for caoryiog Jaases to Saglaiid|<aiidida#< 
in|^ him as a prisoner in her bands. . » 

It must therefore' be petoairedy that, after Mise* 
ton^a execution, James's attaobmeoa to the iVoleni 
fast biterest wae ealremely pwobieuaalleaii ^vrwrn 
tfaer, abendenedasbewasto the guidanoe^rff wto 
BOX, Aat he gaye Efiaabeifa, and she Bratnatanrn aa 

KenJ, reason to suppoae be ^waa entiialy tiaRNna 
r'Ae bands of the •Gstheliea* 
'This was « state of^thin^ «ot tobei<ai|^*e»« 
ftyred in "a country whore di^ ma}(|nty wisia bs* 
ftmned, and ibe influenea (tf an eliaft Rnaastaat 
noremga was paramonat to the iiativa ypswau 
inest. fiiiMdbethtarfllieflqplakftotaalBatleoda 


iwif 0dctt laUied agaiatt A% datmper wUeh ihrMti 
md ihev ; aad fvillun the^coniM of a year aibiii 
MfNrtaa*a death, ibef hadmatored a eooapiaaef 
tm hringiiig JaaMs back again iaia thair conlroL 
Ike tnaaadiQQ it kaaim ia Saattiflh Uttoiy bjr 
Iha ainihel oflfaa Jia«f (ar eatmpriae) qfRutkmnf 
&om tha «rarlike aspect whiah it amimed mi eon«« 
fMBHly with the sfKwit af the tiiBa» and frfoi iImi 
^ace wheie it was carried iato eShtiU 

JaaMB, whe early shewed a paaiian ftr Ael^ 
ipartp, wasy in Aagnst 1X2, x^adneted inr dss 
fifst time into Athole, to enjoy tha i^eaaoBM «f a 
HigUand hsntiag-match* On that eoesswn» for 
aaaae roseen ancKplaiDed, neither Xjeanec aar An* 
wn^arcamfawied hiai* The fiiat stayad heidnd « 
Iha easile of DalhoMi, wUdi he had aeqaoad 
mA «thar paiis ef Morton's psofieity. Thean* 
asod renaiiied at Kioiieily' a ciwUa in West hmk 
imof 4»f. whiflh he had heoome pssHased in a ss« 
asttar wayv nt censeqaenea^ dw attainder of lim 
lilahiillens. As tbs King isas retaining Irm tha 
Wighlsitisi he was lad nide ta apsnd a night ip 
Ka^ren Caslii^ « aenk af tha £ail of Gewii^ 
near JE^ssth* Hese^ daring the eaening, lie wwi 
aas pi'iusd to obserf« that a great wunher ef anaad 
man arrived at the hosne^ in farties, wiliMmt any 
assy appamnt •enand. list rliasiDg ta enpssat 
any iaAiy althoi^ he fek«|(reat daal» he tsatead 
patitBliy till nam day, whaa^ as he<ims siMMt t^ 
fasB from hie dianheiv the Maaler d <jiaaiinis 
JhriKthh^focilagaiaai the opening deotv ndhn- 
i s fSM i d him th^ he nraat aiay svbers he ana. 
Ja»e% asrionsty alarawd, tried ofary netlMid is 
mawm this stem jaintm,'t hiaaion ed, em fa at w d,»and 
AiaUy bum onto team. ^ No yuMr IsrJnateanHi^ 

Mid tbe.Master; <Mi'8 better beinu fthnM fte«r 
than bearded men* " The beads of the ;ooiiBpicic7'' 
then approaefaed*— to wit, the Earis of Gewne;: 
Athole, Mar, Eothea^ and Gleneaini, with aome: 
of. inferior tttle,^-and. presented a. written reiiioii« 
^trance to the young. King, prajing him to remore. 
hia two finToiuites from b«s cowicUey and adopt a: 
miiii8try..more.agreeabfe to his people. . Jaaaaa^ 
aaw the necessity of treatiiig the paper with re*^ 
ipect,- bat was not able alk^ether to conceal the 
indignation which he felt at the testhdnt in^osedb 
mpoa his peraon* • • * : i 

. It was soon: pid>]tcly known that the King wae 
detained at RntiiTen ; and the two laronrites lost 
no time in attemptmg^o 4>rocnre his release. Len<i 
noxsent a messenger to inquire into his condi-f 
tion ; bnty .on James » declaring .to this person .that 
he. was a'prisoner, the. conspirators put him als^ 
into confinement. 'Arnm» on learning /what 'had 
taken vplaoe*' immediately rode to Rnthrent' and 
with a boldness whieh almost redeems the bad 
qnalities attribnted to him, /presented' himself sin4 
^e before the enraged . men who had met for hH 
deatmction* When they heard him!* 
tnaading to be introduced to the King, they wouM 
have instantly sacrificed him' to their resentment t 
imt hewas saved by the intercession of the Conn* 
leas of Gowrie, to whom he happened to be dw* 
iantly related. He was only commanded to keep 
himself secluded from public afiaim in aremota 
{wrt of the kingdom^ under the penalty of treason. 
Jionnot was^ at the same time, commanded to 
tae^nester himself in his castle of Donbarton. 

Various attempts were made by this kst nobl*> 
'i|m to rousa 'iba.^>irit of ^e. nation in behalf of 



KING JAXSflk'tnn FIRST. tt 

IvkMi W BSpOMDlgdrtftrili !te 

|>enHiotl danger,' fiom a'tnad ai-mumam 
BttirieverfTsttMiptr he vmdi& inm totteted'liy Ait 
#dict8:oftlie'Verf {MnMMir4ie''widMd io wennBf th» 
•onpiiatmoUigiiig iherKiiig io aMure ibepevphr 
by'firootaniallmi^ that iia was perfisody oralMttal 
anth hia iitnntioa»' and^lo' oader«U> bodies of inaD 
wtAA hBithem. aawJciated in Uabehalf t» lie'diaw 
paaaad; 'Eyaiv witbont theae- edkta, it doot mtM 
vpfear that 'he ikmld havie effectually mada haad 
agaiBsl the coafedenrtad aoyeinan. The oleigy 
had at onoe pevceiintd the oanapiraeyto be himmH 
ahk l0tfaeir raMgion and Ibnaof ' chnrah govenn 
asent; and the people, taking their cne from tha 
pfaatebeM,' weroin gaaeralidnposadiliatial the King 
MDmin where herwaa^ 

James waiaiiceeMlrelybroaght /to Perth, Sliri 
Kag, omI Edinhaagh, ' traasad all the way with ae« 
qpect, <mt :8titt most caieftilly goaaded. When 
the news of the iUudiaached'BUaabetfay she aC« 
feeted^surprise^ and sent two •amhoaMdan* down 
tDJ^kwilsnd 'fof 'Aa vstaanblatpncpasaaf inqaifiB|f 
iato ' lii»^eateaaB8taacaa,i and : eoadaliagMvltb Jnaa 
apofi'theni if dieyshoridbe'fdaBdfpaiBM,thaagii 
s& the time'shoiwascin 'laalitykat'ilie :baMHBaf 
thepiati': Hk'SwlhCT^'toe^iveDy'vooaheaiPdQ^aB 
yhhr wfaMl waaao' 'diraedy oauUai y td her iiitaiM 
est ; and, from her prison^ she ad dremsd m lettai 
to the English Queen, preying her to rescue Jsmea 
tam-hiS'tebeDiana'snhjealii - TherCatholio princes 
Af'dia ContineBt iwemdao^aoon nade aware oi 
what liad taken place; and die Kingof Francar 
iSBt twoi amhesndon to Scetland^ to oadeavow 
lA diey cosM to proeare James's veleaae. < - 
-> Bat> every effort which JanMa or ^hia frlan da 

VOL. I. r 

Qoidd 'intkB to .pcocnra hui fiucdouiy * .WHft §&t flrindi^ 
tkne uQfiiicceflsfiiL' . The/:eoiispicatoi«> . kiiomig^ 
that their object, sad even their pemonal nieHf^ 
could only be secnre. so long as they retained hinifi 
were rigilant and inexorable to the 'last deprei^ 
They nerer tmsted him for a moiaent out of their 
sight. They directed > him in< ereiy pnblic act/ 
No friend, wheUier native or .foreign^ was pers^ 
ted to speak to. bim^ except in* their preseooe.^ 
Lennox they, compelled to retire to France^ wherB* 
he soon after .died of chagrin* And the French; 
ambassadors were treated .witb/ a degree of >cold<% 
ness, which speedily obliged < them to qpkt the: 

* James cootianed in this state of constraint lor 
ten months. At length, about the end of Jona 
158S, .he had* with >great skill and secrecy devised 
apian for « escape.. Towards the end of his pe^ 
nod of confinement, the confederated lords begaib 
to relax a .little in their • vigilance. Anean Jbad by^ 
that time been, so long banished, that they oeased 
to fear his retnm.; Lennox they knew to be dead^ 
James himself 'had *thonght.proper to express such 
an acqoiescence'iutbeir'views, asledtthem.tosnpf 
pose him quite neoonciledto their^controL They, 
now^ therefore, scrapled less to. admit suspected 
noblemen to his presence, and' permitted him ta 
have » wider scope in» pursuing his favo^rita 
q>ort8. ' ' • • . . 

Under, favour of these eircnmstaiices, Jamea 
found means to attach a party to his own^ personal 
interests, consistingof the JBarls of> Argyle, Mav 
aschai, and Montiose, besides the Earl oCRothesyt 
who had .been one- of the confederates. • Having 
eontdved a scheme with these nobles^ he left. 


SdmlNffglr for Kfe, thvongb* wlHch eomitjr he pro^ 
posed renjoying', a^ hawkiog^matcby prenaiw to-at^ 
tending a coaTendim of -Estates whioh had be«k 
ealled to awet at St Andrews. Oa this ocoasioo^' 
few of the Hathren conspiraten attended - him^ 
iDoet of them having retired to their. ooantrjF seats^ 
to-, look after their own affBdrs. As he passed 
along the country betwixt * Falkland and St An*, 
^ewsj^he was joined by nnmbers of the new ooii«f 
apiralors; so that when he reached the archiepia* 
topai city, he was in snch strength as to defy hia 
late ' mioistFy*. Having taken possession of the 
piimateVs^ castle, . fermerly the stionghold of Bea-r 
tonn» he no longer scrupled to declare himself 

*r James was by no means nnaccoont-* 
Me despot by this. new arrangemeal;. The lords 
who assisted him in procoring his liberation, were 
9B^ a shade less -disposed to constrain him than 
his former controllen*. It was only, indeed,- npon 
an B&derstandiBg^that he-was to pardon the Rath« 
Ten coBspiratovB, and act for the future in concert 
with' a- council of- his diief nobles, that his new 
friends consented to assist him. Accordingly, his 
firs^acti after regaining his liberty,- was to publish 
an e<Mct,' allowing the. -Raid of- Ruthven to have 
beeUf good- service, and professing that- he should 
not fauBnceforth permit it, or any; otfaep past occur** 
renoertO'be an obstacle to the agreement of his no«» 
hility^ and the 'general contentmeat of his subjects^ 
u JaaiesV whole . conduct, after this conspiracy^ 
was that of a good*tempeied .man* Although hk 
Gei^ement had been very tmeiisy, and must have 
left a painful impression on his inind, as tending the eyes of his sulyjects and. of 

the neigUkiomg' BOfmiigii% yei^ hff:A fnmM '.tii 
ftthictaaoe friu(te?er .to {MMbm che men chiefly in^i 
etfiiitieiital in it. Thto sinlpleBl ezpienion of con»t 
ttkion on their pert was eni&clent to pEocare not 
only the fbigiveneM^ bat etien.the renewed ftiendc 
•hipf t)f the eety-intdred menerefa. For instamce^ 
the £ttrl of Gowrioi akboogli the prinmpal con<4 
epiratot, was die revy fint te i>e receired vpoa 
ilieee cheap tenoe intoiavonr; and Jamee-did nee 
hesitates within the cewee of a- few ^yB;after ^ttm 
regainment of his liberty, to visit this nobleniaa at 
the very hooae where- his captnfe took place ten 
months before, and there grant > him nfonaalxe' 
mission of his snppoaed cAnoe« It <ia genenHy 
stated by historians, npon the credit of Spotti»« 
woode, diat the King never foigot the disrnpect- 
fiil language whieh the* Master of Glammis nrnd 
on shutting the door against him at Ruthvan^ But 
those who are so glad to draw unfiKvoarable' cdn>* 
dosions from this report^ snxely overlook the £Bet» 
that James employed the* Master of Glammia in 
the high office of Treasurer, for the ten years be^ 
tween 15B5 and 159d, a period* whetilie'waaoom« 
pletely thediiector of his awn aflEnis^ 

Had Jamce only posseesed straqgtb of. mind to 
continue the conduct tiras pointed ont by hie easy 
disposition, there would have been very little to 
bbune in the immediately ensuing' part of his hts* 
tory. Unfortonaeeiy, the very fodHty of temper 
which caused him so eanly to overlook the Rnth^ 
ven treason, was the meansof soon after throwing 
his government, into as ponfased a state as ever. 
It seems to have been one of the stipuktiona 4>f 
his new friends, that Amn should be no more ad* 
mitted to bis presence* Accoiding^yr when the 


•Ett) aoH^ted penBis^ion \o copgmtidate him oa 
4h9 ^mancipa^oB, he was ftcrapalooBly refa8e<i 
f Jamesy boweTer, atill regiunding. that bold and y> 
..ctoiia man with the reFerence which the best na> 
tnresare so often obsenred to pay to the worsts 
flserely from the smse of inferior vigour of cha^ 
xacter, entreated that the Earl mighty as he wished, 
just be admitted to.kiss his hapd, and spend one 
4ay at GQort. The reqciest beipg granted, he at 
4>nce relapsed intoHJuis fontaei* wealmesS) honoured 
Arran with a complete :restomtion ta Us affection 
aad his conadls, and from that tim^ beoame once 
jndre the slave of a fatomiteb One of the causes 
ef this seems to hare been^ the King's passion for 
ammement. He hadbttherto^ according to the 
adffee of Sir James Melville and other sagacious 
^Id servant^ atteoded aahourev^ry day in conn- 
jcilf to i^ceiv^ pen^on^Hyithe benefit of a n^ultitude 
^f* good .advices on. his affairs^ But he was now 
;p«MUided by the' Earl of Arran to depute ihis bu^ 
mess to him,, so that hi^spqrtd. might not be in- 
^lermpt^di and only' to receive frjom;his Wrdship ^ 
<repDn of wtot^had; parsed, in qo^AgiI after ius r€^ 
fsm from the-fidds* Whan Aiftm had opce gaiur 
.'ed'ithis pomt^ it wasr^eapy for him to. attain the 
jPBst, By giving )m matter, fiilse reports of the 
^qiM^icily a|id ineijiaig him to.aot accordingly» he 
xlMscame once tnoj^ ^fya^he hadlbrmerly been» the 
.iiiotator of • the whole! govctrmiicint. 
. Xmniediately^ a differtot fsomse .«f po^y wa|i 
iporaued in rc^^ard tothe late c^Mpitacy. Apro- 
.datnation. waa^ isaited^ <»rd0Fing all whoJiad been 
.eoneemed in it to lake zeibiaBiDns of their crime ; 
4rhi€h) behkg intarpReled as an iesidions ieittempt'tp 

^6 ' XJFE OF " 

^f treasdn, and ascelfenlated to subject tbeni to rfl 
•the penardes dae to that offeilce, •caased'inexpremi- 
i)le alarm. No one^obeying the prodamatioD, Arran 
pablished another, ibreateniog to esteem all wfae 
«honld not deliver themBelres up on a certain dttjr 
tus traitors. The Earl of Angus alone obeyed tbk 
second edict ; all the rest either fled to England, 
or remained in hiding at home. *. 

By this course, Arran succeeded in rendering 
liimself perfectly single in the <!irection of bis mas- 
ter's affiiirs, and enriched himself with a va^t faar* 
vest of forfeitures. The estate of the' Earl of 
Gowrie was one of the chief otjects of his cnpidiiy^ 
and it is to be regretted that the indecisive condttet 
of that nobleman gave the unworthy favowite bol 
too good an opportunity of gratifying his imhen. 
The King, who entertained a sincere friendship fbr 
Gowrie, endeavoured to reconcile him and Arran, 
by bringing them to a meeting at Cupar. But if 
was not the soft entreaties of the ^simple-miiided 
young monarch that could save his friend/ " Arnm 
contrived to give Gowrie sufficientreasons for alarm 
to make him tidce refuge at Dundee; and prepare' to 
quit the country. While be' was yet lingering then^, 
the Earls of Mar and AfiguSi with the Master of 
Glam'mis, engaged him in a conspiracy to re-erect 
their own paity and <<lepose Arran* These three 
noblemen, on the ISth of April, 1584, sorprisel 
Stirling Castle, -which had been for some time ia 
the keeping of the fiavonrite. But as they were ex- 
pecting to hear of corresponding' measures on the parjt 
of Gowrie^ they learned that he had just been seised 
by a party of the king's guard. ' While they were 
as yet unrecovered from the consternatioa conse^ 
qnent upoa that iQ^elligencei they also laanied thai 


:^kri«a Iiad ndliodalaigcffiiiny round tbe KiDg»aiid 
.HW marching .with him to Sttrling. Of conrse^ 
i^7 -abiiiidonfid their enterprisey and /igain aonght 
Wety out of Sootland* Goinie was then4ried fof 
jria recent :o0Bnoe,:eondenined» and, to the great 
:i;flgret of ail the'libefal -and Presbyterian party, ai 
(Wall .as all who: really ^wished well to James, her 
lieaded at the cross of Stirling. 
« . It was not by this Ti!dlent«probeeding alone that 
-Arma's fgorefrnment was distingnished. Several 
peieoosof leas note fell sacrifices to his resentment. 
J^ far indeed; .did Jami^s permit bis .better nature 
iskbe overbotne by this ma^i, that healiowed a sen- 
4enoa of forfeitare tot pass against-ihe Countess of 
jidar, thevirtnous old^lady who had mused his in- 
fancy withsacbscmpnlons care;, and he soon after 
flowed the last pains of the law to take effect on 
*Ciinaingbam.of Dramwhasael, who bad been maa- 
iow qf his hoosehold. At the same time, he cour 
^ted to. a great namber of acts of parliament which 
4rere driyen through by Arran, Tiolentiy adverse to 
the interests as well as the liberties of his subjects. 
t It was in an especial degree against the church 
Abat Amn directed lus tengeanoe ; and the church 
At that time, 'unfortunately, lay peculiarly exposf 
ed to.the.Biale7olence-of such a ruler. Perhaps 
it is necessary toexplmn the present.circumstances 
of. .this body. Its chief feature . was-an indepen- 
dence of spirit, which disposed its members to air 
Jaw. of DO control or supervision on tbe (part of the 
nM^f and. which caused them to declaim publicly 
from^the pulpit, against eyery proceeding of thd 
IMKurt, with which they ba{»peoed to be displeased, 
mbe times had long countenanced them in these 
}o6gf\ ptniili^^ for^ during the first age which sue- 

1 • 

«8ed)9dilIi«R«fonBatmv^b«ieliai1bt« iiogaf«ni» 
fflwot inthe oomitrfAtroog onongli lomtbiidMiib 
'f be peo|^flM»e9i"er^ were dmpomd, in tbinr cnral 
iMla^ tapBy«»<Bnck>verer0iiOBfii/Aachifgy/ili^ 
oa 6l8iin8<whicb>tlra}i<omdd>'pisemity iraiited m^ 
te)OBBM|it from . public ^piiiiott. Itwas oae of d» 
ioadnnaBtal boliefe «f the chnvdi in tbat «9e^ thtt^ 
as their faith was founded telely on sctiptafe^ m 
Aoohi they be niled only by 4faediviae>|ynng who 
ideviBecl tint code of doetnne^ tfant, to mse thrir 
^^mtkWOidBy Christ was dieonly and trae faeadr^ 
^faeif 'chnfch. It* is noedliaa aithepraMnt daj^ 
tvben suoh a beliel it only oherithed by a hw ob> 
ecare «ect% to point oat^^ihf&iAiia was^jiutvnaidng 
'tfaeflMelires their own ndeiSy dnee^ on* aceonni ^ 
theiHfiaibility aad nen-preaenee of their aappoaed 
Jiead, tfa^ ware obliged to act ao his lO pwaent a H 
ii?ea t neither is it necessary to assert in ftsfwadi 
-the^ gov e nHn ent of Aati agOy.^at aeither^ity nor 
aay other government then established in Empa^ 
eoold hare eo-existed with such ascheme, M n^ 
elitaited in4he inll vigoor' which the devgy eon^ 
4enrplated. ' It iQay^ooly boaUowableto the calm 
linker of thai prsaent (faiy»to legiet the eHrsHMS 
to a^cb men ihen carriad their optnioas on each 
aubjects; extremes aanatoial) perfaapsy ' after the 
in^radse gifen. to pnUio opinion» by 4he Heionna^ 
tioDy as tfaMi tet'wido4isciUations of the peadnlnBi 
after it has been put wfeo motion. 
' Itooaldscaneely«beaappeaedj thatabodywlaeh 
W^ at once inspired with 'anassaianee of ks «iaa 
inesponsibilityf and with a Tietent^^hotrorof: every 
OBenionof a similar pi^ege in tlie 'go9emBMn% 
shoald long contume ongood terms with she Eaii 
of Anuk,* atpeeiaUy as 4t -had oi^sas^? ^W>J^ 


4Hid tkiW'«eecired km uumt^ halved* -At lus Ttry 

Sn^ uMimpllmi of'theMMpfeaM- fvimv nnof ti 

«beaisAdniiiwl«dged iMr te»»by iyfaig to Eng- 

teocL Others of m boldir temper, who baA Mood 

twty «9w gare han the verjr opffortudtiee he* <wiBb- 

«il of eraeJikig them» bf nveiji^iingagnet'hie go- 

'^Maroraent iirani: thO' pidpit. lAnioiig othefs^ the 

Rioted sAmdnm Melvill was seleeted f&t TengeaMO. 

*Htf >wtt8' aeooied ef •'faking openly eenswed' the 

l^Bg hefbfe hk ^eongvagMiott; He > sneeeeded fli 

^inpnmag die pevtieBh»<>dMSr9B» brought against 

hini ; but stilly m he wae« pec^oUarly violettt lerider 

in the fweadchifrospoDBflble eonrto of the divveh, 

Itwas resolved thathei should not escape. He 

ivas chavged with thecrimeof deelmhig the judg- 

•meni of the' Pkity Council ; and connnandedy' «»- 

'der llie pain of* treason, 'to enter hisMelf* in wud, 

<as it was called, wtthin the Caitlo of Blackness, 

<wfaiofa was then kept by Arran, and in which, irf 

4MMiee, his life would hwe been in gieai^ danger. 

<To avoid the<feie tfaat'seemed to be prepared for 

Ufli, he fled to >Bngland ran event wbioi i^nead 

oonstttnation and mge amongst • the clergy and 

Aeirfloeks^ wfa^ justly regmded'MelviU'as the 

dnelpiHar of their •tabernacle. 

EKnabeth, 'whoooakl not <M to regard Arrsn's 
nooeedkigs wi»h«abrm^ thought' paoper, ae sUs 
jonctnrer to send a* personage of no'less note than 
her aeei wta ry ^^BtaneiB Walshigham) te^ inqmre 
what could be -done in^ Soofland towaDrdB,establiidi«> 
big a better state of things. Walsingham, on-ai^ 
eoaatof 'hls^gieai age and ill ^health, trav^ed in 
wearrlage;- and so ptotectliis pertoiiy he »wasi:e#> 
MEtsd^ntf^ewss ttaaui haaclwd and farty Bag>> 

• c w 1 

(00 • EiPE err: 

Jish . gibntleiD«ii em. boneback.. James fek f&Wteiy 
^d4>y recemog so dignified an ambasaador^ and 
^treated Sir Francis with mncfa distinction at Penh^ 
^where they held a lengthened disconrse .i>a A» 
estate of the kingdom* • Strange to 8ay» the yontli^ 
•fill monarch, although weak enough to permit JVfr 
.ran to misgoyem his country \n the way desdBiefL 
talked in »o very 4>laiiMble and senile a- a^jdU 
.with the English secretary^ that, at his leaving tlie 
presence-chsmber, be conld'not help^exol«iiMng..|d 
,Sir James Melvill, .'* that he was Uie "best conieiil 
man that conkl be, for he had spoken with a nolr 
able young prince» 'ignorant of nothing, and of i^p 
.great ezpect^ton, that he thought his travel ,weB 
'bestowed* "« Walsingham ut^rly refused .to. haf|» 
.the least intevcourse.'With Arran ; which so offend 
,ed the latter, •that, instead of/ sendipg him|i 
,iing. ofj seven hundred crowns -v^e,- whi<sb -tjhe 
.King had appointed to betpresented toJiMo ^af- hia 
.departure,; he ga^er^im.a mean banbloi gemmed 
.only with a piece of crystal* The exa^ puqioeo 
•of this embassy has never -been de&ied, for it, WKs 
followed by no result^ but there can be no desM^ 
;tbat Elizabeth wished to imppse some control of 
a.more salutary nature thui that of Arraoj rOver 
** her good cousin of Scotland* " It is certain tfal^ 
Walsiqgbam gave her an extremely favourable ac- 
icount of . James, insomuQh.that, fearing it shoiM 
i^iread amongst her .people, and cause them to •shift 
'put of their reverence from her own person to <his^ 
4ihe thought proper to put the secretary for some 
•lime oi|t of favour. 

f" Elizabeth seematobave.beencenvinced thy Waif 
iriygham's report, that SeoUand would now reqojr^ 
a^erent mode. of mmt^m^T^Sfom tha( jgiMn 


■kid imdf hitherto prAcdsed* James^^had arrived at 

tet period <if 'life when the senaaa are ^eaat iiiidet 

tHe gaidanee of reason. If was now posnhle for 

hhn to form socfa a matrimonial conoesbn, aa 

Btigiit derange all her schemes, and even prove of 

seriom detdmoDt tor the interests of her people* 

In order to prevent the possibility of his marrying 

a- Catholic,' which she of all things most dreadedy 

aad which ehe had some reaaon to fear might take 

pdaee, she despatched her new secretary, 'Davison^ 

to endeavour to gain Arraa to her interests ; and 

at the same time sent one Wotton, mere particiM 

larly ad^eesed to the yoang King. Davison sonni 

tneceeded in' drawing en a conference betwveor 

'Atrka and Lord Hansdon on the Borders ; the 

rasitlt of i^vhich wa8,'an.eBgageatent,'^^on the part 

of iheSoottishf minister,^ to keep.the »Kangnnmaiu 

tied for three years. Wotton played :fais paii with 

«l(aai dexterity. ' It was bis place himself 

fat that relation "to the ' Scotch monarch : which LeiN 

tioz had lately^ enjoyed — ^to amuse him with tcoort^ 

^ stories^ to join him in his sports, and take every 

^Nltor means of gaining his favour by amusing .bk 

ienses.' * The-nnsuspieieas good 'natwre of James 

ptmntted the English coarti«r to be very snccese^ 

M IB titts strange employment. 

'-At this period, three ambassadors arrived with 

i^gimtd equipment from Denmsffk, giring out,, aa 

tkeirimtensible object, that they were commissions 

sd by their King'to nmke some demands upon 

Anws regarding the sovereignty of the islands of 

Orkney and Shetland, but, in reality, to sound the 

i^y for a marriage between James and* one- of 

Aetyoung princesses of that country. - -There waa 

taamdungAanittingin^ti^ tteatmeBt which! theses 

g0DlkflMB ifspeinBDeid aikiidst the tettpasfooos p69 
Ktiosiof Seoftlandk jMBe8.1iiiiiseIf wished to give 
them aa benowable feceptioii^ and to entertain 
Aeni» aeeovding to the general 6aetom» at Im own 
eacpentei •olongaathey ahonklteniaiiiinhu cotm^ 
tgf^ But the lEarl of Arraii took effisctnel means 
to 'oonntenot all his. wishes. Being directed to 
femore from Diui£eBmline»' iriiere. they had been 
intiodoced to the Kngy. to St.AndrewSt and to 
waittherafoctliebianswer^ previons to re^«iibaik« 
ing for their owBCoanitryy Jamea infomed t^eniy 
that lie shenldalhHr«hemthe;nse of his own hones 
for their jonmey. Upon that assaraneey^ they sent 
away their baggagejattdserrants by other <5onTey* 
aneesf and were ready booted for moirating the 
King's hooesy whkk were pxoansed ata^Mrtica* 
lar.'hoar^ when Amm interfered^ to prevent ibm 
leeatiiing that piece o£ royal courtesy. Findingthat 
ttwy WBrclnsnltedy. they set- forward horn. Don 
fiwndineoa foot^ oapressing no little indignation at 
theb treatment llie King toon learned, what had 
token placet and':eadeairoared td repair the effed 
of Aran's insolence^ by sending the henes aifeer 
them; yet they justly esteemed themselitte as used 
la& manner qoite cootraay to the costoms of aH ci* 
▼ilized nations. When they reached St Andrew^ 
Aey were delayed froat day to day widi ptonfises 
of a* speedy dispatch to their banaesiB; and dor* 
mg the intervnl> Armn employod his creatwea to 
mikt them objects of pvblieridicidewlieBeTer they 
appeared abroad. Wotton akO| mder the pretence 
of ifnendship, took oceasioa to btAaine them tridk 
leperts of oontemptooas laa|;«aget which he pra* 
Ibwed to have heard thoiKiag.ase ragarding Aem 
aad thmr coaaitry» . Ui^ weraat.last^so comi 


pteirilyt j uniai i i^ :tliai thty tiflpmMiod to ^fa M 
thdr Binpsy .wkhoul waitingfar the Kiqg'a matmm 
ta.their maiter's mowftt^ which wonld bava in* 
•vKtably oocaiknied^a war between Deimaik and 
Scotland* Foitii]ialel]r» Sir > Janea Meiirille pre<. 
wled upon then) ta atafy tHl, having prempted 
the King to ^?a them eama more re^ectfol txm^t 
samty aind aa ag teoaMe* leply to their- embanaget 
they act last qniMd'Soodaad with maidB Mmewhitt 
leaa exaeperatedy and not atoogetber cod? inced that 
it was ezcfaifiiv'ely the residenoe of barbarianiw. 

It waaat tine .period that ^e MastM' of "Qnf 

&»t took part in the laoabled aeenes of the ^9oot4 

tiah* court. He had been- mgiaaliy what wa» ^catt^ 

ed«prBetinngFtepi8t«-4hat is, an earterprifler'in 

the'graat and haziHrdoai'acfaeme»wfaieh the Catho< 

licaof diatBgew«re*cona(an^lmried witk'ferite 

mBtoiation of their religion in Britafn. He teeraa 

to have been gifted by natore and edoeation wilk 

all the craft neoesMry ibr carvying on so dangenaaa 

a^profeanon;* HewasfirttieeomiiiendedtoJaaieii 

by the .addresa with wfaicb be aaanaged somoeei* 

reBpondenoe between him atid his mother.; Artai^ 

wl|ow!aa<at'£rBthiB iiieBd,Boen beeamottonaed 

at the progress he made in the King's fiayoar, aiid 

oideavontod to rain him by sending him to Eliaa- 

bethi on «i>«nbaflttgewMeh itwaaeearedypoa^ 

flSile for hinr to aeoompU^ with s o c c ess . Qrvf, 

however^/ dontrtved not only to escape the dangers 

wlueb attended his ndssion, bntalsotofonn acmi* 

Bpiracy withl^e banished Lords, whooi he met in 

En^and, for the ovesthrow of Araaa. Theie was 

now the strongest reason for eaopecting snccese to 

sny attempt of Ais niAm!0« Arran had never be^ 

Cm been 90 naivepalty detested aa be nofv.xwaai 

$4 ' XiT&Ot ' :i 

Hb^entmies had jifffecMow tntutaaaad m 
tiftent: a pnqxwe agabat faiob And .Elixahetli# 
having .diacovered the inBeeorily. ofany bargain 
with .80 unprincii^d a nuuii ;ir»fl> .at the preaen^ 
jnnctarey disposed to faronr a achene which proa 
oiised. to throw James into thet hands of. her own 
assured minions, the Protestant nobilitfr* . . t . > 
,\ The conspiracy was matnted towards tfae.doasi 
af the ^ear 15ii5.; and, assoiiediyt the.way«ii» 
mhich it.w88» eondncted, is calcalated to givie.a 
most romantic new of the: manners of that age* 
The whole object^ be it remarked, was what wonld 
now.hft caUed-a change of ministry. In addition^ 
however, to the ezqaisite; political ohieaneryvWhicb 
wonld be employed att the present daiy in acoani9 
plishiog such an- object, we find .in this case yM« 
sals .secretly assembled, knapsoaps • privately* lraI^ 
nished np, swords sharpened, and towns and cast 
Ites-. rendered fit to hold* ont against a lengjtbeaad 
siege» Among othec matters of ibis* sort, it is not 
ft little amusing to< find, the Border clans, so re* 
maikable for their indifference to the laws af^meum 
and Hiumf mastered to .take an active hand in 
what mas. efi^BCtually a matter of law and ciril pof» 
lity. .... i .•...•..! 

• . .Thot Master of Gray, was mucfa^ assisted in hia 
arrangements, after retncning to Scotland^ by Si* 
Xtewis Bellenden, Lord Jiistiee-iCl«^» and- Sit 
John Maitland, the* Secretary, . both of. whom re* 
garded Arran with intense^ thonght well disgnised 
hiktred. The whole machinations, both in Scot* 
land and England, .were conducted with, admirable 
secre<>y* • . Gray, haying resolved to muster his own 
vassals, retired to Fife and Perthshire for that.por^ 
POiWy giving, out. that he designed .only to macch 


BfiBiMt Lord Mttcwall onr a inaiter of polioo/ tbat 

Boblenaft^hnving kMly exdied the King's displeaf«' 

itmm by an attack on .the Laird of Jobna^n* . Un« 

fovtnnateiyv something transpired to gire Arran w 

ampieion of bis intentions; and he was* immedi* 

atoly- awosnianed to court. This was an ertremelf 

perplexing affiiir ; for if be shonld obey the sum- 

wumMj he was apt to be seized, >wbile, on the other 

hand, the general scheme was not sufficiently ma*' 

tmre to -justify bis bidding, it* open defiance4 Ho' 

XBBolvedi howerer, to obey it. Riding, to Stirling,' 

wlmre.the court was then held, he bad^an audience* 

oC'tiiB King, during which he completely sue-* 

ooeded in vindicadog himself from Arran'a sospi^ 

MOB. The favoufite was* so inuoh- ineensed at> 

tins', an to resolve upon stabbing the Master in 

James'a presence, or at least within- the castle^i: 

But Ghray contrived to •remain at court till the e- 

test of the conspiracy, wLbhout > thus becoming thof 

wtim of biaenemy's.-Tesentment. ; 

' James waa at Hamilton, enjoying tbe^sport of 

hawking, nrhen he waa^iafovined that the buiished* 

BoUea were at the frontiera of the kingdom, st^ 

landed by a body of English and Borderers, witb 

which they were resolved immediately to advance 

against him'. He lost no time in retiring to Stir«t 

log, which had recently been fortified, castle and 

town,, lor bis defence, 'or rather for that of his min 

aion. ' Tfaei penonagea chiefly concerned in thio 

attempt were the- Earl of Mar and tbe> Master ol 

Giammis, two. of! those .who .had acted in the Rutb^ 

len conspiracy,, and who bad^since* chiefly remain^ England ;• the Earl ol Angus, who bad join^ 

sd. these two in their late ineffectual attempt upon 

Stirling.; tfaa Lorda Claud and John Hamilton^, 

9Rb »XitFB ^Bts 

wlio bad' beed foifettod and^ liaaUiM hf^ Morjwi^i 
lor quite «&i>ppoflko sort of tnwaoB) - thai' «f bef 
Meftding .Qneeit Mairyv' bm wbom >% mnuldtky^^' 
wcimitaBOM led to join.tbe .pveeeai pldt; LoeA 
Maswieli ;- tbe Eaxls of Bothwell.aDdiAtbele ; rneA 
the Lakds 4if ^TnllibiHrdiiiey Bnodenob^ Ceasfosd^ 
Cowdedmoiw^ and Drnmlanrig. 
■ Itisenrioiu'tO'/Qbservv tbe Tarie^«f feawNlB 
which the difierant memheiB of tUa confedefa^ 
had for bebg in hostile amy against the ^Kiagi 
The general object was professedly ^a patriatis 
ana of driving an evil eounsellor 4nit.of ihe XiagfW 
presence), and. : astablishiaga popobur. govanunenlD 
There eonld not, however, he the least-tinifeniiilf 
af.pnrpoaa' between the HaanhoBs^ Idyal to Qaasia 
Mary^mA the Earls of Mar and Atkole^i(ba.etHdf 
friendi of James* It is inoenoeividile» that tbo'SaA 
of Bothwdl'(tha Kiag's^coasin; by desenxt iipoaa 
aa Ulegitinmt» son of James V«) had aay oliHr 
reason for his appearaoee inarms, tban'tha^siaiipi^ 
one; love of ainiy or that stmaga^ tarbal8aoa#of 
disposition by which he was ehanatericed* Bai 
the stDsngeslr exceptaoa frmnthe genenl prnj^oea 
waa in Lord MaMwell. Ha bad recently had 'S 
drsad&d fend with his local &• ihe Laiid of Johiw 
stan-^ and had eamed that geatlemaa'a bonaasvC 
Lochwood t& be bnmty pare^, as was Baid:ai 4m 
rimnj to leit the kdy of- the Boansion -^ ha«e*ligba 
to ser her hood [perAnrmber toilette} inibe 
ing; " His objedt in joining die- prsseot 
lion— which he did witb ibaa lnuid«Bd'lbat:aad 
seveabnndredii oi s o ■ wa a merely to'fatee a parAas 
from tho King Ibr that -andothatamdimisdeeds. • t 
-i Bat, howairer discordant the real matures -of tfaa 
oaai^vators^' tb^y had saffidantpradsakoe towsak 


'WfitoiiBlbiAlv loird^s title eonehuiMi. ' As tlbe^ 
MlvAncedy tbey published a declamtioB of their ift^ 
MMteiift, -the eblef of which were, to defend what 
^My Bijried the tme reKgion, to delirer the King 
from corrupt eoniMetton, aad to preserve ai&tty 
«ritii Eogisiid.' HoW liord Maxwell, * with Ms 
Catholic vassals, ootisented to this edict, it ivdif^ 
iRmh to conceive ; hut oertm it is, his Protestant 
issociaces ttiadd little scrapie to take advaatage of 
Ins'Cbiiipaiiy, going* as' he was On the same errand 
with' themselves. ' - They were only 'a little scandai- 
ised at his ginng o«t the watch«word of ** St An*^ 
4tti^!* to the army on ihe night when they lay at 
Mkirk. 'Sncb was the good effeet of their decla* 
iation in stirring up tbe^ people iniheir iavonr, that 
Ml resK^ifig St Niniaiis, within a mile of Stirling, 
they liadmi army of about tea thousand men, 
iHdle Arran 'tonld Only garrison Stirling with a 
iniidl bandtif tneroenaries, and the adfaersnts of tbs 
fiaris of Oawford snd* Montrose, two nobiemeii 
who adhered to him ' on account of his protecting 
Ihom from certain oritninal prosecutions, 
r- During the night beiwiitt ibe^ast of Oetober 
and the first of Norenfbeiv Arran j Montrose, and 
Gntwfetdf kept an anxious watch upon the walls. 
Early in the mornidg, by a preeonoertedidesigny 
As oolifbdertited army advanced upon thetoiwn 
hi three detachments, two of which w«ne to make 
l^igned -attacks on difttent psrts of the walls to 
tttmct*' the attention of the besieged, while tfao 
tUrd poured itsliwee upon on9of the gates, which- 
WIS considered a weakpointr - An entrance beings 
soon gained in this manner, little remained to da 
lut to dispone the tetTor-struck bands of ^ti» be- 
aisgad. > Amm posooaer saMr.the enemycmakor 

VOL. I. o 

99 f»i9% o9 

fntarnXf tliiii» gimg aD «p lor lost, h»jg^0pei 
out .of the (<Mni bytbe of^Nwite side ; exomed A^ 
forth b^ the bridge^ the gmte.of which he looMd 
behind him, throivniig.tbe keys into the rirev ; and 
Hed. Boithww4 ehnoet rimatteaded* The Eada of 
Montroie and Crawford, with oiiberp qf hie friead^ 
thai retired int» the casde, to>teke refoge wi^k 
the King. . Aixan's brother, Williaai Stewart, •ei^* 
deaToaied for a while to^.coBtand the atiseeta wikb 
thaaesailants, biit)Waa soon .ooiapeUed .to yield* 
Hia.ebstkiacy hadoidytbe effect ^feaHaillg•a^me 
of the. troops of the oonfedentes to be.woiwded 
by (heir own companions ; for, strange to ^ay^ lke 
Sooteh-.harqiiebnisievs weBetSonnffcward.uitbeiv 
node of fighting,, as to ixe indisfcriminat^yf it 
would appear, on friend and foot One of tbeiv 
leaders, on being told that some had Mien in tUs 
way, oooUy remadced, that» if .these npfoctiiaate pisik 
asna had known his troop as wett as he; did, Haef 
woold have taken. »care how they wen^ btrfore it. 
3at,.npon die whole, wonderfollyilittb. Wood was 
shed in acbieYiag this impottaat vsYolation of the 
Scottish cabinet.' One. Ifainilton of', 
who had lately swam away the kyes of Cnnnin®* 
ham of Dnunqnhassel/and Doag^ of JVIains^ was 
seized. as he was attempting to escape /overtbo 
widls of the caatk^ and slakk.iiit Oold Uood by John* 
Bton of Wesfeedttll. Bnt OFea. this bmb's chid^ 
Lonji Hamilton, acknowledged;. that ho had f^ 
nothing more than he deserved. FeiAitps tho >ottiy 
eircamstsnee which disgaaeed the eiivkerpri«e» wna 
tjhe eondnct of the hmdereis. 13iese .gsntlemMi 
loat.nota moment. aftecthey had gained poasessionr 
of Aft town, in bieaUng open the shops^ houses^ and- 
saablesy whidi they.xifled.of oTory thkig.of .wdatfti 

KING J4lf 1^: THE FIRST. '. * 99 

htHba |iegiiifc«i^ilhk laik» it >m miter ef 
mnowaent' to •lit how .cfiiidcly they- wrancbed 
Mde .•ihe\«taiiii<^e(m8*.wliich ifaalnfattul cta^oa 
•f itbe> Studing inarshMitA had intvposed between 
Atan and. their iwey^ > HowevW) ihey did not en- 
rich theniaeijkwyeiymioii wxtb whst they got ki«the 
booths of Stirling, this being atown, aaye Sf^ottb* 
woode^ '^ nfotrTbry'fieh fn mevefauMlMe. ' Thevre- 
ceived.thenr piao^algntifieatiomfrondio etwlfiiiy 
m which they fmiiid a great .namber of> hones, the 
property of thfl eomtiefB. Upon these they «i«* 
■wdhtely ^ ilW pe d away^te waidu their owii coim^ 
try- , 

Having secand.thoitowii^^iheriMiiteipnsevB :ad^ 
liaaeed to the £noniofihe>eaMle^-.wberetheyplanti( 
editheir.batmers^ MThey k»nir<that the King w^nld 
aM be . abift to hdd^ovt Jqo^ i agamtt -dvettH* for -die 
eeslile atithb tuap iran rqtiite unproieded for de£niee» 
ttadrwas fiotiiinufthed with pronBiobs-iforiabore 
^a day. iAccordinglyt<they{aeKt Aieraing'recei^* 
•d.a'meaHigBi^fromithe Kingy by/4h^ir Ifiriende the 
Sserotary MMthnd-iaDd Justice-Clc^k >BdlendeD» 
saqoeBtii^ assaraneesffoD a paiiey. iHaVing^^grattt* 
ed thisy : they .wan. sooft. hon«aned with a 'formal 
emboBsy in. tha^ penoii' of the iMa^ter of 6ray» who 
professed ta deasaadtwha^ithey waated«iii thaa op^ 
peariag * in. laiina befbre >their 'soyweiga. ' After a 
eonfeBanoe vhieh.hMied an hom^ Gray rstired- >wkh 
ttxeport.of their wishiss, 'whieh^ ai may be suppoar 
ad) . waa^pieseated ia^tantoa abbadantly {arotumblow 
IFhe 'Kiagi waB:stiU:^unwiUiag*ti eabmit? for, -pl^ 
ihoof^ha peshaps ^adAO'sincerai^SBetioii for Ar^ 
tan^ he regarded iliiesehis enaoiies with a degree 
wiitm* H^ Bobt iOat a )neWiaiOMage, importing 
i£AiSfmkf^ivif^9 Jaadt 4»d gciode^^Jir 

loo rm o9 

mwdd wilUiigiyrgrtiit dieiii- tkeir refwtty inovidadl 
Alt they* iiiBtaatlf dispened* To M»f howwnv 
ihey would not yields Nor woidd theyagreo tm 
S proposal which : James then aSesed to them, for 
gvannteeing the lires of bis late oonnaellon* Vm 
was at last obliged, by want of Tictnali^ to submit 
without any terms whatever. .< 

The gates being then opened, the livBe mm 
admitted to see the King, befoie whom they at 
0nee fell down upon their knees, aad s<^icited par* 
don for thmr enterprise* . James at first tidked Tery 
big, called them . traitors, and seemed as if diont 
to order them to the gibbet. This, bowoTor, wai 
Unly to maintain the theory of his dignity* He 
soon aasomed a calmer tone. -In respect, he said( 
of their misfoitQnes,.and in hope of their better 
bebayionr for the foinre, he woiild remit their of» 
fences ; the more so, that their proceedings bad 
been marked by little bloodshed. ToLordHaarfb- 
ton, who was their spokesman, in considentioa.of 
bis blood, be talked with peculiar kindness. ** Mf 
lord, " he said, ** I did never see you befoci^ and 
must confess that of nil this company you haw 
been most, wronged. Yon were a €utml servaat 
$a the Queen my mother in the time of my anao« 
rity, and were then, when I undentood not-as 
I now do the estate of things, hardly used*'.' 
[James, it must be undentood, alwaya fevourad 
those who had fought for his mother, more than 
those who had fought for himself, notperiiapa finom 
affiBctionfor her, but that he thought them the beat 
friends to monarchy in general. He con fes s es , in 
4ds Basilicott Doron, that he erer found the former 
bis best friends after.he grew up.] «< The rest of 
j^'* be continnedi M who haTo been aiucevthat 


time «raledf and p«t from your linngiB, caoaot tay 
bat' it was yonr own fault. • Bat, " trnniogluinadk 
to Bol^well, <^ What. should hare moved theep 
Raiicisy to take this oonrsei and come in arms 
against me ? Did I ever do thee any wrong? or 
whatcattae hadst thoa to offend ? I wish thee m 
more qaiet spirit, and that thon mayst learn to lire 
as a subject ; otherwise then shalt fall in troable. " 
^ Some attempted to explain move folly the .rea* 
asBs which had induced them to take this yiolokt. 
tourse with his Majesty, But be interrupted' 
tbem. ** There is no need of words^ " said he; 
^^'Weapons have already spoken well enough* I 
un satisfied, as I think you did not mean harm to 
my penooy to give you idl both my hand and my. 
hsM ; aud I will remember nothing that is past, 
prorided you carry yonrselyes henceforth as beeomea 
man of your^places, and behare yonrselyes as du* 
tM sul^ects." Having said somneh to vindi« 
We the integrity of hn kingly prerogative, he p«r* 
lifted them to rise and kiss hisrhand. • The £ail 
o£Arnm was thmiprochiimedi traitor -at the. Cross 
ef ^tiding ; the Earls of Montrose: and Crawford 
vers put under confinement in the charge of Lord 
Httnilton; and .the king's guard was entirely 
twanged. Afterwards, a formf^ pardon was grant-: 
ed to the lords, who, of course, becatne James's 
veiv counsellors. In a Parliament which was7held 
aiLinlitbg9w.0n.the itb of December, ibis'remis* 
>ion;w^ confirmed, and at the same time'a rever- 
^n of their atMupders was rgranted, including that 
ef, the late Earl of Gowrie. Along; with tbe/lAcds 
ihus^restQredf were restored ^thfl«e jnini^tecs w)io 
kiA fled from the violence of Airaa'a govemniwat 
^>£9i|^df . . . 

Thiifl ended Acf Rfti^fof ^artHifl^r air <^^ 
imineiifle iinportiaiite to King Jaueflr, bee«iii»& ii 
fimilljr rescued ' him firoBi the'evil coiuMdlorB trlkf 
beset hii jroudi, and secured his gamnasAeat upoii 
that good toiderstaiidiiig with Eugland, tfnd thse 
general moderation of 'prhiei|ife, vrfaieh wove ne^ 
eessarjr f cv attnetlng to 'his penon the sffeciaonif 
of the great people whom he wi» destined to go* 
rem. After this, the eooutry seefns to ha(re re- 
mained f(nf 'a cottsidemhk tiine m a state of tnm^ 
qnillity, and eren happiness^ except so far' as 'it 
was disturbed bythe'denHm^of'theelerg;^, vAMki 
were in«cb* too exovlntipit to^ be at once graticed/ 
eVen after dieir firiends had become the chief eoun-^ 
selloilB around ^fae KSng.' This matter, "however^ 
iras at length settled m such b ^rsy as to ihti^ 
them coinparatiVely peaeeM. 

' The reiMleri perhaps, may desire to know th# 
final fate of ArranJ it was sufficiently in< taa^ 
son wiib the reddess' nature of bis life. For* tw& 
yean he lived in perfect- sec^uisioif among lu# 
ftiends in the wilder parts of 'Ayithire^* his ^tyll& 
reduced 'from that Of Eail>of Arrsn to his m*» 
^nal title of Captain James Stewart, for the peer*' 
age was restored to its proper ' owners, the' Ha*^ 
miltoiis, immediately after the afiaiir 'of SdrHngJ* 
At length, IB 1587y&e 'success which his brother 
met widt in impeaching^ the Master of Gfay, in^' 
ducedhim to vend a letter to the King, diargingi^ 
Maltland, bis sucoessot fai the Khig's fk^eur, wifii' 
1^ crimes and misdemea&otirs ; which attempl^'i 
howerer^ met with iio success ; for, being ordenBd' 
to enter bito wardat Linlithgow Pi^kce, to wi^ 
imfi testtlt of lAidtkmfe wial, with the prospect^ 
b^ing himself impeached as a sower of seMeii|'h» 


ewe «f »lHi idiaqiw 1»sisgidiipMT«^ lift'dmi^ 
liffopar lo.witlikold himidl horn mo dangerMa aa 
•vpMimaiiL . After due hmmtm^Migoiu^ aeek e 
■MM jemefee Mid BMum piece ef vefiiige^ Bewly m 
'SLoeMm^ where fafe wife btad^a few frieDd% amd a 
imall pieceof proper^.. In.l&969.whea ihe deatll 
ef Makbadf and an impradaet act <m the part of ibo 
clergfy aeemedto open a iiev prospect to kmt he 
ence more iqpj^roached the Kiag^ with whom he.had 
a long Gonforoneeait Holgrroodhooseb James wast 
still .disposed to befriend him ; - -bat till a proper op^ 
portonity of adyanciagt him sho^d occnr^ it was 
tfaonght expedient that heshenldretire to thestrongr 
holds ef his fnsnds in Ayrshize. He aoeordingly.ret 
paired^ witha small pactjry towards that district of 
country. As he was passing the Tillage of Symingi 
t<m in Lanarkshire^ » friend told him that it woidid 
he pmdent for hum to ride a little less ostentationa^ 
Igr, ae James Doi^las ef TorthorwaM, nephew tfk 
the late Morton, liFod in theiimmediate neighbour 
hdody and ,waa atill inclined to be avenged of his 
im«de*a deathi which Stewart was knewn> to havet 
chiefly promoted- He replied^ that he would not^ 
lease h» road, or assamoia disgtise^^ for him, nor 
forsmy of the name of Doog^ But be soon? 
faand occasion to vapent of his rashness. : Hisr 
words being reported to Torthorwald,.thS.t prondL* 
baron immediately took horse, and pnmned him with 
tfafae .servants. Stewart: was vicMngt throngh the> 
cnrioos artificialilooking pass of Catslaek, which, 
emamnnieates between Clydesdale end Ayishiiei: 
when, looking bacl^ he. espied TorthorwakI ridfv 
lag after him lall speeds . Heunmediatdy iafnir»i 
ed the>naine of tbesttaage^ whioh he was*: 
Being.. infnrmed -it was, CaitBlack# (faenl^niiisdi oa> 

104 . . ' Xf7£ oir . 

with eUdmA trVfida/AaOf and gvr% ordcn to. 
MtaUien to foUowM hstsBthey coald ; far he>bad 
wceived ar response from witches in his days ot 
power to beware of a cat, and he now judged frsoi 
the ^ame of the pass, that the dangerous looiiieiil 
had- approached. His retaiiiei«» perhaps awace^ii 
this, aiid therefore despairiiig of any efforta they» 
might make to defend hini» abfuidoned him to hat' 
fate. He was immediately oirertaken, tnmUed* 
from his horse, and killed by the avenging hand ofi 
Douglas. His body being then dragged aside, Im 
head was taken off, and carried away by Torlhoiw 
Wald, while the carcass, thrown into a ditch, war 
left to be eaten np by dogs and swine. His head 
was fixed upon a spear, and planted on the waUa 
of Torthorwald Castle, in Dnrnfrieshiiie,. to. th» 
fulfilment, as' the- superstitious of that day faiM 
not to remark, of another witch's prophecy, wUcb 
promised that bis head should be exalted . abo?» 
those of all the men of his Ume. ■ • i 

No legal cognizance was ever taken of Ms slaog^^ 
ter. He was esteemed a sort of moral outcast^i 
quite unworthy of the notice of the laws. . » 

' It is necessary here to resort to some circwB*^ 
stances connected with the domestic life of Junea^ 
which -have been omitted in aider to preserro^ 
the polii»cal nanrative unbroken* In September 
158^, when und^r the restraint of the Rntbreni 
conspirators, he lost his tutor Buchanan. A car* 
tain stain seems to lie on the memory of James, at 
least in .the estimation- of some writers, for his no*.' 
▼er having expressed what they think a snfiictettt/ 
degr^ of reverence f(M> so distinguished a proeep-. 
tor, . and for his having permitted the body of ium* 
old masteri^who died poor, to behnriodat^thi 


pease of the eitf el Eds&lmpglk 'The gntitiide of 
Jmee toBecbeMniy on^t, Booordmg toi these 
Ivriten, to have he&x bomuUese, and should hare 
Mgiifded<no diedc whieh the manners or the poll* 
Iia^'|>n|jiidtce8 of the man might hk^e imposed 
epos it* Smelyv howereri those who think so, do 
los meesore James's character by the ordinary 
■tnnderd- of hnman natnre. Buchanan, in his ie« 
lalion to James, was not a teacher chosen by » 
papHivom a preference on the part of the said ptt« 
pS^ but a sCem governor and task'^master, impos-i 
ed<«poa hiaoi by a party without regard to his own 
ewuitiiai 09 probable wishes. James bad every 
lAaimet -reason, Irem the genevd circnmstanoes of 
ikm ease; net to.- speak of those which depended on 
the iadividiial chsaracter of the master, for behold- 
ing! him* vnth aversion. It is. needless to expatiate 
eft. these Masons — the malign feeling which tbd 
sSoie cherished regsirding his mother — bis intimacy 
withali who had fooght against the royal family— 
Ae. Bvinre and origin of the commission he had* 
ovethis pupil, or his inflexible severity of temperr-*' 
Jainea must have been^ more than, an angel, or less 
thoa a man, if he had ever been thoroughly recon- 
Qiledto such a person. As for the charge segard- 
iag- Buchanan's poverty and his eleemos3mary fu<» 
n%rs}, that may be best answered by pointing to 
tke Kst of luerative offices and endowments which 
heteujoyed daring, lifej and by reminding the read** 
Ql* tbB$,. at the Ume of bis death, James was im 
eenfineoieBt, and unable to exhibit any mark oC 
nm pe p i for his corpse. ' 

. 'Smoo light is cast on this matter by Jameses* 
own writings. > Among the instructions lyhichihe* 
^e% |o*bis< soQ i^ itl|^ 3iu»iUooa Doro^^ h^ diir^G^i 

106 LIfE Ol? 

him to comider * the prafrngaiiciii of ^ eMBmi»' nf 
garding his parantg and aacestoiB, at among tha 
offaaces which he Bhoald ecarocily pardon ; en^ 
dontly anailwion to fa& own feelings in liegaid to 
Bndnnan's hoBtory. - At another pkee^ where he 
recornmends to his son » earefnl sttuty of thehtsK 
toryof his own conntiy, he a&xioaaiyaejn^ ^I 
BMan not snch infiimovs invectives' as Bnchsnan 
and Knox's Chronieles ; if any of vHikh' remaU 
to yoor days, u0e the law upon the keopeiB them 
of; for in that point I would have yoit a PytfanH 
goristy land think that the very spirits of theia 
arebtbellonses of rebellion- have made traaeitiott 
into them that hoard their woriis^or maiotain"AeJ8 
,€pini(mB, pnnishing them even as it were theiv aoM 
there risen again.'' Indeed, convinced as tha 
King must have been of his mother's innooenee^ 
he woald have been the most contemptible^ elaw 
on earth, if he conld have ever oitertained a em 
cere friendship for the man who had so-xmgiate*^ 
foyy, so nnprovokedly, and bo widEedlytia&ioeA 

In 1564, when eighteen years of i^e, the'IOof^ 
made his first appearance as an anther. His wvvrii^ 
was a small thin qnarto, entitled, < Essayes of a 
Prentice in the divine art of Poesie, willi dief 
Revrlis and Cantelis to be panned and avoided. * 

It consisted partly of poetry and partly of proee^ 
The chief poems are a series of Sonnets to thai 
Cfods, in all probability the tesnlt of thelQagV 
exercises in versification imdei^ Bnchanaa. l%a' 
prose part of the work is a code of laws for tha- 
<ionstniction of verse according to the ideas of 
Abx age. There is somethmg odd eaoog^ in title' 
ibsodatien, the laying down of role* hf^ father: 


tn6 pvopof DttnneiB Of m expenonced nnnteriiliBii 
of an apprentiGe. Yet, tbe whole woric is le* 
Bpectable. The poetrjr, k is true, contains none 
of the hair-^brained sentimental graces which we 
look for in modem ^ene, oontahis no striking de- 
scriptions of external nature, no treasures from the 
&r recesses of'thongbt, no forceful exhibitions of 
passion, no joyful or melancholy ponderings on 
the fate and diaracter of man, such as we find in 
aimost etery thing now written nnder the name of 
poetry. * There is no eiddence, ' says Mr Gil* 
lies, introducing a now edition of King James's 
Essays, * that ha oyer loved or hated, rejoic^ os 
suffered like a poet.' But the truth is, King 
James wrote accordmg to the taste of his own 
age, not of the present. Judging his composi- 
tions by those of his contemporaries— the only 
way in which diey ought to be judged — ^they ap* 
pear very good. The poems of Montgomery, 
Hume, and others, whose names are preserved as 
the poetic ohiainents of hiii Scottish court, are as 
unsuitable to the taste of the present generation 
as those c(f their royal patron. When the years 
of the writer are considered, they are entitled to 
be called wonderful. To write at eighteen, with 
a proper 'understanding of the selection and col- 
location of words, whether there be ideas at the 
sane time or not^ is no small merit. And such 
merit is surely to be allowed to the author of the 
following poem,, which is fo^nd at. the end of the 
poQtical dtspartment of the book i 



As, I was pandng in a jnoming aire* 

And toold not tldp nor na^s take me re^« 

JOS htltE^QW 

Purtb for to walk, tbo mocnu^g was so §un^ 
Affaort the* fields, it seemed to me the best* 
. The £as| was cleare, whereby belyve I gest 
That fy^e Titan camming was in sight, 
Obscuiing chaste Diana by his light. 

Who by his rising in the azure skyesy 
Did dewlie helse all thame on earth do dwelL 

^Xbe baloiiie dew through birning drouth he dryis* 
Which made the soile to sfivour sweit imd smelly 
By dew that en the x)ight l^efore downe fell, 
, Which then was squkit up. by th^ Delphienus heit 

Up in the aire ; it was so light aiid welt. . 

Whose hie ascending i^ his pujcpour chere 
Frovokit all from Morpheus to flpe ; 

As beasts to feid, and birds tp siog with beir> 
Men to their labouri bissie as the bee ;. 
Yet idle men derystng did X see, 
. How for to drive the. tyme that did th^imirkt 

By sindrie pastymes, guhile that it grew mirk* 

Then woundred I to see them seik a wyle. 
So willingly the precious tyme to tine i 

And how they did themselfis so farr b^yle. 
To fusbe of tyme, which of itself is fyne* . 
Fra tyme be past to call it backwart ^ne 

Is hot in yaine : therefore men sould he wair, . 

Tq sleuth the tyme that flees fra them so 60^' 

For what hath man hot tyme into this lyfe^ 
Which gives him dayb his God aright to know ? 

Wherelbrelhea sooJd we be,«t ric.a.stryft^ 
So spedelie our selfis for to withdraw 
£vin from' the tyme, which is on nowayes sla# 


To fii« ftom ufy anppo^ w« fled it noght ? 
Hon wyw w« wera^ if we the tyme had toghc 

But sen that tyme is nc a^ precioua thiog, 

I wald we sould bestow it into that 
Which were most pleasour to our hearenly King. 

Hee ydiltethy which is the grsatest lat ; 

BoC sen that death to all is destinat, 
Jjtt us employ tbat tyme ib§tL Ood hath send us. 
In doiflf Weill, that good men may commend us. 

iW . '. :;l.l)rilOF 




Oke of the most difBcnlt and trymg circiiinBtaii« 
068 in James's early life, was his situation in re-» 
gard to his mother — she a Catholic, a suspected 
murderess, a deposed and imprisoned queen, and 
he educated a Fh>testant, and forced, whether he 
would or not, to he the usurper of her throne* 
Separated from her at the age of ten months, 
and living ever since under the charge of her ene- 
mies, it was impossible that he could feel towards 
her the ordinary sensations of a son in regard to 
a mother : he could entertain no warmer feeling 
on the subject, than one of vague respect for a 
povonage who, he was told, had brought him int» 
the world, and whom one of the commandmentt 
enjoined him to reverence ; a sentiment too gene* 
ral, and too much the effect of a mere idea of 
duty, to approach to filial affection. 

No intercourse whatever took place betvmt 
James and his mother till he fell under the con- 
trol of his favourites. A messenger who came 
to Stilling Castle during Morton's peaodirfpower^ 


benng pudsents^ frwn Mary, and h ItUer addiMt* 
ei lo.lh^ jRriftM qf JScoikmd^ was tamed liadi 
wiilMHit beisg peioaitted to approach the King* 
L«»ox and Aran iiidiiced him aAerwank to enter 
into a Begotiatum with herr for aaaoinatiiig hes in 
the gOTermn^at with himaelf ; whidh schemet al<^ 
theu^ adverse to the Protestant iAtet eats, waa hy 
BO.neaai without ita merits; siaee it wank! pro^^ 
Wbly hare, pacified the Catholic part of the firi* 
tirii population^ and checked ihe daageroua ma» 
dunatioQa of those continental princes who were 
9D perpetually plottii^aguaat Queen Elisabeth 
fi» the restoration: of Maxy.. £at the Raid of 
Stirling^ whkb pnt him ii^to. the hands of a tho« 
novgUy FBOteatantaobilityf roidefed it impassible 
far James.any longer. to remain on Mendly tenna 
with his mother. Soon after) that events Jnaa 
ld8^ ho was indoeed to . enter into a league, of- 
teuveaad dofeasive, ,with Elizabeth, whereby he 
hound himaetf. to assist her in defending .the Bri« 
tiah iale from the thmatcflBwdiBvaaionB' of the French 
apd4 Spaniards, .and to: tassist hei ia resenting, any 
iajwcy which might, be .^^Bied to her by certain 
panons^ among whom hia mathee niras. iackided by 
implieatiea ;!.the ascret refmsd.for anch a sweep* 
kigteoiDpiiance being. a»p«ision of ^ne. thousand 
pmrnda a yearytpresentedmider the light- of. a aom« 
pansatioE for the English estate of the Comntess of 
]Uenttoxv.hia .paternal. gra^idmiather, b«t .with a hint 
that it- was 1 the pc«^er> allowance for thoiheir of 
ihft English crown.- Jamea was at onea compel* 
led aad) tempted to.throw.himself .into the Frotes* 
fant. scale againat.his mntherv. and did some things 
which it iato.he leiriied, farhi&honoQr as araan^ 
ka.faad.nQt don^.He -paidoned-^he^ enren; gvaa 

118 ,. i tiF£:0]^ ^^ 

enmteimiice ahd enpleyttent to fl dlitrehMtfli'lilQlili 
«d Aivhtbald'Diiagliw, who \R^a9 knoiwii iJO^'liavt 
been ' concenied in bit falb^r'cf 'deM;ti. ' He ibM 
wrote II letter to his mother, in which be p^mAiH^ 
ly Mfiiaed to acknowledge her to be Qtfeen'-oF 
Scotland, and disclaimed having any confnHiii^Cif 
^f ioteresti with her. No donbt, both of these tsoi 
tions were matters of polttieal m^eesiity, and weri 
dene^ibr the-pcfrpose of promoting tbo intefcsts'df 
Aff Reformation, in opposition to the CathoHcsJ 
Bnt, on the other htod^ it is precisely these MngBi 
mod snch as theses which snpply the Catholics witli 
ooonter chasges df cmelty imd' want of •pri&cipW 
against the. Protestants, <»Bd Which tend' so mticli 
to phice both dogmas on a level, in tiny^eyes of the 
tttrprejadicedt in regard ta t^eir oompamiivo isdk^ 
CDce. over hnman condnct. •;«<•>/ 

- ^James's disrespectftil letter ocoa^ned a ^aiig Idi 
Mary's bosom, such as hcF worst' mislbrttiMes, pet^ 
haps, had failed to inflict. Shci of conrse, bad 
greata'-rcason to regard him with matemai tender* 
Bess, than he bad to regard: her witk filial I ' ljsp^ e m 
Her bosom must hav» remembered the pMSsaretif 
his infont form,: wliile be, never having had per* 
wption of her 'embraces^ could have: no siaiilai^ 
nason for recalling her image with emotfe g Bsnf 
tnndemess.' She felt his tmkindness with the msti^ 
•St pain. ' * Was ir for this, ' said she, in a lettei^ 
to Ae French ambassador, written* with that eleA 
ganee, fluency^^ and force^. of expression, pecidlay 
to her, ^and which place- her compositions arhead 
of all English prose Hteratnre before the time iof 
BolingbnSs;^ WBsitrfor this thfl(t I have endived 
no mochy in ord^rto piteserve to him the inhcadtNe 
to wliich I have a jnst right? * lata fiv Horn 

KING J4»iK«\'V]KE WIBST. ]}) 

fom; ibv0n tfor- wjUi lOii^t njr foot in ttiat Idqgf 
4^» if it weio not Ar tbo ylMiafe of »oiMio emr 
tomng a aon wfaDin I liavo Uthoito loTod witk 
bonder aSwtiMu Wluiteyier bo oitfaer oijofi or 
ospoola^ lie dotivod it iioiii mo. Fron him I ii% 
aior xeceivod aflosloacoi fMipplyt or benefit of any 
kiBid. Let not my aUkii treat him any loif^er op 
%kkig ^ he hMa that .digni^ by my conoent ; eii4 
tf a apeedy lepentance do not afipease my jnat lOr 
i|Uitment» I trill load him with a perentV euvob 
and samoiderf my erownt with all my pretemiaMb 
aa one Who willreoeiye thefen with gn^itnde^ aoil 
fldand th«n with Tigoor* ' 
.. It is believed to be probeble* that she prooeeded 
omne length wiA a design of pntttog this ihiceat 
into execntion» .and that ahe was eyentnally prOr 
nsnted imd doteg so by lefffning» that James bad 
only acted from a neoeasi^ wUch he oonld not 
aveli oontroL 

The time wee now approadungi when this ennr 
i|int .person wea to comfdete & extfaordinary 
mennra of her misfortnnes by a violent death* The 
eaertiims whioh her Catholic friends had made ia 
her ftwonr ever since her iQ4»risonment| and the 
threats which, both in tbmr national and individaal 
eppiflitiee, tlmy had InfaniDaled egaiiiBt ber opr 
psmsp r £linBbelb| were the csnsea of this lamentt* 
eUe catastrophe* Her existenoe at last seemed 
inoompatible with that of the Ftotestaot religion 
in Britain} for it was perceived tbat» so loog as 
she lived, the enemies of the Reformation wonW 
aefer want afallyingrpeinft and a watch-cry. At 
this very jnnetnke, Spain was ranstering her forr 
•idaUe Jrmaitif with the certain parpose of .in? 

voir. I. H 

vtfding^ tilidi.iiir aad ezternuipii^g'the- 
ftilh. Is it to be allowed, raid tbe £iiglisb» 
that the eidstence of oar tov^r&igBf ooit igQwm^' 
memif and oar religion, ehonld be endangOTed b^ 
one persen, whom we have it in oar power to de^ 
atroy ? The ^'rvMar which so conspicoourfy cha^- 
yaeterbes the Bngliah mind, might have dispoaai 
them to question &e prdpriety of sacrifidng an hak 
noeent person, .and. a stranger who had fled to tbenr 
for re^ige, to even so >Tiolent> a eanse of expedtency 
aathis ; bat there are two cases* to* whieh. the Eag^ 
Itsh hayene^r been able to think widi thor hi^ 
)>iloa(<geneposity-*4beir commerce and their f^ 
^on. In these matters ^y have hitlieito beeft 
00 utterly selfish and exclnsive, as to' render their 
nadonal character highly anomalous inr the eyerof 
foreigners, and e^^en of< Seetsmen. 

In compliance with tbe wishes of' the nation^ 
but madi more in coQiplianee mth her own ma^ 
lignant passions, Elizabeth consented totamiali 
the glory of her reign by patting Mary to death. 
With an express and far-casting view to thi»efeiia^ 
she had> procured, in 15B5, an act of Parliamifit 
empowering her- to try, and pnrsae to dealhy any 
person who shooM ^^Mnceforth be either the eaum 
Bv the obfeot of ft plo^ against her. Thns she lenr 
dered Mary liable not- only for her own Crimea^ 
bat also for those of others — ^for the gaOt of any 
rash individoai^m^o, of his own mil, might choose 
to act in her (aroor* against Eliaabeth. This ^be« 
ing made law, it was easy for the English minls^ 
ters to canse a few headstrong yoanginen, the 
e^ef <if whom was the noted Anthony Babington^ 
to engage in a coniptracy agamst her. They were 
•elaEid imd .executed. Mary wa9> then aceased of 


to tbir eriiOQ ; andt as all exisiilpatorji 
<|iidenoe had been destroyed widi the eonspirsteni 
n^ difiOeoby 'was found in condemning ben Thtf 
sentence passed npon her was wannly aj^roted 
1^ Parliament, and by the Eoglish nation at larger 
and Elizabeth was importoned on all hands to 
eopseat to her execntion. For a long time sho' 
heritated to sanation a deed so Tiolenty -so nnex-. 
WBKpktdf and which might afterwards be esteemed 
so infomoos. . Not that she scmpled at the have: 
idea of destroying a kinswoman, or a fellow-creap 
ti«8 ; bat that she dreaded what loss in good 
ntoe, or what more substantial evil, might accme 
laflKfself, in consequence of such a deed. Her* 
hflsilati<Hi was that of the cool murderer, who only> 
pttnses to consider what mode of death Will make^ 
least show npon the exterior of the corpse, or npont 
hjbi own hands, and so be least apt to cansethis^ 
own detection. . She was wilUng that some one of 
tfaa keepers of h» victim should take the gnilt off 
bar hands by secret. assassination The Earl of 
Leieester, h^ fovourite fw Ae time^ proposed thia^ 
in open coundi; and she herself gave broad butt 
hnffBCtnal faints to her i^nts to have it executed. 
Ihat such aA idea shoved have been entertained 
bjrthisgreat princess, and thought fit for discus*. 
siaiL at her .council boasd,. cettmly gi^es a strikingt 
view of the barbarism which still clung to the best 
lanka of EagUsh society, not to speak of Scottish,' 
at the end of the sixteenth century. . 
i It vraa not Jamei^ interest to throw anyob*' 
stade in, the way of his mother's execution* She ^ 
was the rival of bis title \ in tiie eyes of many of* 
his subjects, she was tiie sovereign, and he an- 
uaurper* In theevent of her esoapuig^ and being.- 

lis hin oat , 

pbcod bjFthe CafdidlioBroii the Engliik 
iyi4iieb was looked upon aft ftbat jmeture'aa by no 
mtins imponXklkt lie mig^t ealcuble upon hoioBg 
diataherifted for hk Proteataiuifiiii tad hu nanipa** 
tioQ of Seodaady and oTen pieilii^ on being diak 
posadaaed of that northem monarchy. On the 
other handf by her death, he was aeenred in en^ 
joyment of the Scotdah throne, Elizabeth in ibtSk 
df England; and an dpen coorae was left foi^ bb 
anccieeding, in the fnlneaa of years, to that ea* 
viable aeat, which had been in a manner promiaed 
him by Elizabeth, on his aigning the late trtoty. 

To place interest, however, in opposition to af« 
lection,, in a case lyie this, waa mote Aan matt 
eoold do. Janiea, though practically imacqiiainted 
with the tender relation of ptoent and chBd, Ka^ 
a great reTerenGe(idiiehGhaxaoterized turn tfaiongh 
life) for at. leaat the iniage of his paients. Ha 
%a8 abo keenly alive to the honror, aa well as die 
infinny, of having a near relation anbjected to k 
public and ignominiona deadi. He the^ora made 
all the ezertiona which drcnmstancea admitted of 
to prevent the cataatrophe* 

These exertiona were neeenMoily of an awkwaad 
and constrained kind* Hamper^ aa he waa by 
Ua Froteitaat relations, by his IVotestant doort 
and clergy, himaelf in Titfy deed emating by so^* 
ferance of the EngUah qneen, in what terms dr 
mtaner waa he to sdidt that princess lor the life 
ofhismother? Had he now been in enjoyaAeni 
of Mie of those intervals of absolute power wUdi 
his fiivoarites were able to procure for him, lie 
ddgfat have peihi^ writtifn his peddon on the 
akuia of the warriora who guarded the north itf 
England. But, bound down under the control 


0i an digarchyi ihe memben of which -were ihi 
fiaemiea of his mother and the mudonB of Eliaa^ 
hblhf how. was he to pcoceed ? SonxNuided at 
Holyroodhonse rather by a guard than a conn^ 
w^t had ho to advise widi but^his own solitdrj 
heart-^what had he to send across the Border bnl 
^ doquei^ice of its affections ? 
- It was early in Noyember 1586 thai 
sf Mar/s trial and Bentence reached Edinbnigh* 
James immediately selected William Keith, a gen- 
tlepaa of his court, to carry a letter to Elizabetht 
lemonstrating against the proceedings. * It would 
iiaTe seemed strange to him, ' so ran this letter, 
' if his nobility and connsellers had erer taken it 
ilpon. ihem to giye sentence upon a queen of Eng- 
Imid or one of its blood^royd, how much mora 
tfCrange, )hen, would it appear to him, if she 
(Elizabeth) shonld stain her hands with the blood 
mhuk mQtbcir, who was of the same royal condi* 
lion widi hw self, the same sex, and her kin^ 
woman ! He coidd not bring himself to belie^ws 
ihat it would ever enter her heart to do a thing so jcn»iatiiuid. . SiU,. should be 90, then 
he desbred her to consider how mnqh it touched 
him in honour, as a king, and. ss a son, to permit 
his mother, an absolute princet to be put to. an in- 
Ww doatb.' . . . 

^ Elisabeth returned no ai^swer to this letter ; 
but, about the end of the month, Keith sent Intel- 
figinioe. to, Edinb^Igh, t^ist notwithstanding hh 
semoastiaace, and that of a I^rench ambassador^ 
irfio had come to. London for the same purpose^ 
the death of Queen Blary was n^orp certiunly de^ 
ferminedonin the English council. than beforo* 
Jaaeaipstantly wrote, a letter of isstniinaoii to 

tld : . *iarE OF -T 

Kisitbi expressed m terms as tnudi more siuirptiitbl 
his late epistle to Eii^abetfa, as the 'danger wa# 

MOW more imminetit. * He at the samo time: calfecl 


• * This letter is worthy of being now put itito print, Mr 
going fiff to testify James's sincere desire of saving. hfl| 
mother. It is from Wodrow.'s MSS., Advocates' iM^nr^ 
* I perceive, by jrour last letters, the Queen, my rocM 
Ifaer, 'coifdntedi still in that miserable stiteight that the 
pretended condemnation of that Parliament ba^ pat'hia 
m ; a straqge example indeed, and so very rare, as for in;^ 
part I never heard nor read of the like practice in such if 
ease. I am timj, that by my expectation the Qtieen hath 
iulFered this to proceed so far to my dishonour, and so cowt 
trary to her^ood fame, ' as bv subject's mouth to oondemik 
a sovereign prince, descenaed of all hands of the bi^ 
blood in Europe. King Henry the VIJL's reputation 
Was never prejuiclged in any thing, but in the beheading o(F 
his bed*fellow; btit yet that. tragedy was far inferior ti 
this, if it should- proceed as it seemeth to be intended^ 
which I can never believe, since I know it to be the B|b» 
iure of noble princes at that time chieBy to spare when H 
b most cendnded in all mens' minds that they will striked 
•Aiwiytf I am presently upon th^ directing of a very ho^ 
ixmrable ambassade thither for theaame purpose^ in wludi 
eommission shall be one man that the Queen will well lilie 
at^ and who both hath and deserveth great credit kt h^ 
hmd ; and therefore fail not to insist with the Queen, thiif 
Idl fknfaer may be. stayed while (till) Iheur arrival^ wbidi 
(tiall be as speedy as poisUily they may post thither* ' Thd 
far I promise to myself will be granted, since I no way 
m^t at that Qaeen*6 hands such hard tls^ge as to di^aia 
to hear my overture and reasons, which when she halo 
pieai!d die may wteigh as best .pleaieth her. i Fail not to let 
her see all this letter, and would to ,6od she might see the 
inward parts of my hearty where she would see a great 
Jewel' of honesty timaids her lockt up in a coffier of pe»i 
pleisty, she only having Ihe key, which byiher goal beli^^ 
yionr in that case may open. the 8ame«< in i«M 
jitreight my honour will be, . this nnhap. being perfe«tefif<-T 
dnce, before 6od, I already dare skatlf go.abroad for cijk 
f ng oat of thd whole people. And what is spoken 1^ theni 
^ the Qneen of £b^«^ it-'grfsfeata^to Jmsi^ anl fU> 


l^fCfmTedtion of the whole estetetf of Ida Kingdonii 
t^ meet on the Idib of l>eocmberi fmr the pur* 
fKMo of qipointing regular anibeMadon to treat 
4rith the queen for hie mother's preaerration. 
/:. Keith) on receinng the King's instructions, re* 
BfTwed bis entieaty lbMr«a delay of the proceediDgs 
iigidaet Mary: But' he fennd tEliaabeth deaf to hia 
rpgnest* He then showed her the^emos^on which 
Jbmes had desired his mind . to he expressed to 
ber, in case of her rejecting his petition. ' These 
terms were ndt Tery gentle. ' They denounced 
the deed which. she contemplated, as against the 
krWs of>6od, which, prdiibit all injury 40 bis An* 
listed Ones, and as equally against the laws of 
nations, which protect a sovereign from being 
jndged by subject^. Ukef. reminded her of tbo 
dbngevous example wfaid sjoch a deed would placo 
before tbo eyes of the European . nations, alreadjf^ 
loo much disposed^ in .consequence of the license 
l^en to fpA^Mc opinion by the Reformation, to 
Question the mjimpeacbabiiifty of their sovereigns. 
They fiaaUy avowed the necessity under which be 
.Would lie, of taking such revenge' > for his metber'a 
death, as comported with bis feelings as a son, and 
Jds dignity aa a king* 

EUnabeth absolutely stoipmed at this, bold re* 
inonetranee ; and| if he^ ocfunsellors bad' not taken 
jMoe .pains (0 aSay her. rage,, she would have turn*. 

'not Hud f(MilC with-it^ except I wouM dethrone my- 
i|Blf» so is whole Scotland incensed with this matter. As, 
yeiove yonir master's honour, otnit no diligence in this r^' 
■4UCSU And let this letter aisrye for ezcuse ta the Queen^ 
aiy danest ttsler, of my not writing to Jber at this tim«»' 
ifi laspsct of this bearer's sodden departure, FanewelL 

« Jam«s E. • 

ei tke Scot&li. laaffu nmenger ^from' htr jism 
■eace, with inralt inslead ^of reply* . When dam 
htd become somewhal calm, she said she wonldgiF^ 
no answer in aageri. and would think of it till nexa 
morning. At the time epedfied, she told Keith 
** that no precipitation should be used ; hut abe 
would wait till next time she should hear from tJm 
king; aftar whidi she hoped sobm arrangem^Da 
might be made for saving die life of the Qoeea^if 
Scots. " 

' James wa^ much pleased apd melUfied with this 
answer* Concdiring hopes that a. gentle coone 
wvnld be eflPectoaly be sent a second .letter to thsi 
Queen, in which, after end^aronring to paQiale tho 
sharp terms of his instmedons to ^eith, and mab« 
lag every allowance for )ier Majesty VfeoUngB amt 
policy, he promised immediately to send arnbewa* 
Aora to treat widi her regarding his motbeiv 
' At the convention, which met in die middle of 
December, he foond his sobjecfa much better dia^ 
posed than he could have ei^ected^ to sympathise 
with him hi his wish to preserve his modier. Tho 
tnith is^ough the Scotch sdU detested Mary an 
iMMJr as ever for her Catholicism and her suspected 
criminality, they felt a litde offended at the idea of 
amember of theur royal fim^ly being put to an un« 
ftur deadi by the English* They accordmgly voted 
James a considenble sam to ilt .out hb Bm|lMiBBai 

; The £jng having selected the Master of Qnff 
aii4. 1^ Robert Melvill of Mordecairny, to serve 
1^ in diis capacityy they left Edinbniigh on t}ie; 
Vkh of December, and reached London on tW 
S0|ji. On. t^ 1st of January, afifcer some difficult 
ties they were admitted to thepresence of Eliaahetly 


Sie ni fim tvc^nid liiem widi nideiwMy idliided 
te the instraciions given to Keitbi end aaked if 
<bey hibd been tent mth the like Ihiesti. Qtt 
thehr remiqding her^ however^ of the apology whiob 
ihe King had made for those inBtrac^onei attd in* 
fhnniiig her that thttra were of a diflfiBieBt tenors 
ihe liroke forth into a apeeoh fbtt of amicable 
p t ' ofewi ona, intimating that ahe had agitated ereryr 
iort )»f eebeme for preserving the life' of ijti 
Qneen of Scols» bat duty to her inflnite atiiww^ 
ihe fimnd it eonld not be, eomiBtently with hei 
own safety and the good of her people. They r»v 
pHedy that the case was snrelynot sodtfsperatii 
Imt that they might hope to give her aamrani ce fov 
her life by other means. But, observing her bbb^ 
ger to be excited** by what they said, diey wete 
dbliged to withdtaw wi^oat entering nkoie deeply 
ittta the objeet of their mission. 
* At dieir next audience, on the 10th of Janoary^ 
A» began tfie oonforence, by saying, in her co«' 
pettish' way, ^ A thing long looked for shonld b» 
good when it Gome»— I wonld l&e to hear wfaak 
yoorKingofifen.'' Tbe Master of Gray answered, 
^ No man makes oiffer, Imt for some canse ; i£ il 
Vke your Majesty, we desire to know if the per* 
iMH be extant for whom we offiar. ** [This was; 
said in consequence of a romoor that the queear 
hial already been pnt to death.] ' ** Ag yei,'* wAS 
EKaabeth, << / tkmk she be; biUlwOl noi pro^ 
mise an haurJ* 

' •* Nay," said Giray, ** we eemendt to shift, bit 
tOifStvhom oar sovereign whatsoerar inraasoar 
ean be reqnired— «pedally that he shall interpoiM? 
his credit m belialf of -hia mother, and give the' 
cHtf df Ua n^bffiQif for pMgef^^iat no pUt nor! 

164 i^itu oir • 

j|nttetti9b rfnll becobtrhred agaiiiBt your Mij«0|f 
frith fa«r 1 kDowledge «r 'prirtiy. If thai be nol 
fnfficienti pr^Tidedtfaftt it please your-Majesty t<(M^ 
lier at liberty^ md send her into Scotland, a eonn^ 
shall be taken for Becnriag your Majesty frotn «ll 
tftterapt* on her aoeoont whatsoever, f -. 
^ EluBabeth, calling the £arl of Ltioester- aaA 
odwp Lords who were near, her, repeated these o£» 
ferft te»tfaeii, with -expiessionB of contempt ; wbiob 
caused the Master of : Gray to ilsk abmptly wbilt 
could induce <Biiy nan to plot against faier Majpsty 
ki behalf of the Qaeen of Scots. She answeMd^ 
that the CatholicB would de so, because Mary wsa 
apapist, and they expected her to rsoooefed to lbs; 
throne. • ** And if thete means ;be 'laken: am^fw **. 
said, the Master of Gray, << apparently the danger 
iril) cease." << That," said the Qiieen» 'f I would 
be glad to understand. " The Master answeiHk 
That '^ if the right of saccession were made orer 
by 'Queen Mary to her son, which^he believed sfa^ 
would do, then the Catholics woald have noraoB0> 
bope^ and there would be no more danger. " *' But; 
she faatb no right," said ElisabMb,. << for she .is 4^' 
dbred: incapable of snccesnom " *' If she have oo' 
fight, " repfied Gray, 'f the hope of the papists is al*{ 
aiady ttl an end,, audit is. not to be feared that thagf: 
wiH enteipriae foe her. " /' But tbe Papists, " aaU: 
Slieabetb, << do not allow our dedaiatieii. " . «' Tbeac 
i0r.ii ftdly^ " ngoided) Qcay,. 'Mn>(be King's. peiaon 
by her remgnation. " 

;i The Earl* of Leicester here olfibctc^^^ ^<"7 
wtsa a«pnsonory aad/conld not isgaUy resign bijirr 
l&deb The Master answered, that ** the demissioa 
being made to bar aas^ ami .with the advice of all 
bar :in«nibin.£nP9|M^ intfase. byauiyiiMtoipt.ltjiA 


1l«etoi (Elizabcftb) were, cal ^ Bbe^vniiild htm 
iiMie to imrtake with her mgaunt her eeo^ all; tbB 
yriaees'her frimds staiidiBg oUiged that 'her reng^ 
aaiioii ^dald be valid and effecloal in kU^^mmr^T 
But' this iogenioiu reasoDiDgbore loo eloselyoir 
the delicate point of the saceeeaion w be agreeabhi 
to- Elizabeth. She affected <not to .understand 
iriiai the Maatet meant; and Leiceater explained 
it aa propoeing that Jamed should come in h» moU 
tber's plaeb. *^ Is it so? " said the:qaeen, <* Thett 
I ^t m^^iself in worse case than before* • Bj God!* 
passioni fherosnal oatb]^ that were to cnt my^ 
^wn 'throaty and-for a ^ncby or, an earldom toyooM 
aelfy yottorslieb as yon wdnld cause .some of yooa 
desperate knaves kiU me» • ,TeIl your King what I 
kave done for him to keep die crOwn on . hie head 
^inoe be wasliom, aad diat) for my part^ I mind tn 
keep the league that stands betwixt us ; which, if 
ie breidc, it shall be a double fault* " With theaet 
words, she ^moyed away. Sir Robert Mel?ill, Ibkr 
lowing her, requested at least » respite of- cJglA 
days for the unhappy queen. But her ear wasdeaC' 
^•entreaty, and she only uttered the etophatis^. 
aantencei ^ Not an hour* *' > , . » > 

.V When James was informed of thia conferenee^ 
and that i^othing but extiiemity was to be expeeted^ 
ke wrote a letter with: his own hand to the MastoR 
of Gray, eemiaanding him to renew the,tfafeal» 
lri4ch he had formerly cqnreyed ifi his instmicliQirtr 
to William' Keith.^ * lUserve yourself na Janger,.' 
aofHroeeeds^hiB brief but eacnest epistle; 'reserve 
yourself na larger in yofir dealing lor^roytuiethev^ 
■for. you hsye <^e it .too long; and think not that 
'imy tbi<)g will do good Ji her Ufe be lost; ler th«a. 

mmi^i^/mf Mu^g with' tWime tM m. ik^ 

tW .- iiF« or 

■pedal uBtromeiits ihairof. Tbairfoiie, if yoti loofe 
for th« oontiaiiaiiGe of uiy favour towartis yoof 
apare oa paina iior plainnea in this caoe, but read 
ikj letter wrettb to Williani KeiA, and confmn 
yoonelf qobollieto the cantentia thatrof; and in 
thla reqneist let me reap the frnicta of your greatf 
credit dierey ather now or never. ' 
^ Bat Elizabeth knew too well the weaknesa of 
the Scottish monarch to be mnch affected by hia 
tlireata. She alao gnesiedy perhapa, that, how* 
ever mnch natural affection, or an idea of moyal 
doty, might agitate him at present, a aenae of his' 
own interest must snbdne him into hia wonted 
obedience, so soon aa the ibat heat of his feetinga 
Aoold have gone otL In «rder to soften the blow 
aa arach aa possible, she cauaed her miniater, Lei-^ 
•eater, to write an anonymooa letter to the King, 
espreaaing the sorpriae which all the principal men 
hi England, and thronghont Protestant Enrope in 
general, felt at his exertions in favoor of hia mo* 
fher, ^ose life waa so manifeady adverae to Ua 
own interests, aa well aa to those of the tme reli'^ 
gktn* It is now also ascertained, that the Maatei^ 
of Gray, while aasoring James, byfreqnent de^ 
apatdbea, of the eameat seal with which he labonr- 
ed to mollify EHaaheth towards Mary, secredy 
vrged her to the execntiop, reminding her of tte 
pt0veib,that the dead osnnotbite; andall^fing 
^t Ua master, in reality, waa not sorry that Ina 
BMther aboold be put out of the way. 
' It waa no donbt in concert with uiia onwortfaf 
attear, that, in the latter part of Janoary, aba 
^ve a eontomelioiia djaniissal to hunself and hie 
asseriata in endiasay. Aa aeon aa Jamea learned 
Aaa dwy hni been nnanceesafiili ttd ^kit idM deatth^ 


•f Ittt modber seeBwd to be amM^ he edM iMi 
Uiambasttdon, aad» as the laet WBooi'ce widkhl 
fak power, appdnted a prayer to be md for her 
by liie clergy. The ferm of this prayer was Ais 
atinplest poasiUt ^— ' that it midit please God iO 
iUnmtnato her with the light of his tAitb, and ta?^ 
her from the apparent danger wh«rein she was.* 
Yet, because she was a Cttdiotic, and be^aine th4 
Scotti^ clergy feared every tfabg in the shape of 
a set prayer, as tending to invade their predoni 
paivilege of * moraliaEing on the time * in Uieir es^ 
tempore efitisions^ they universally refused to pev^ 
form this little office of humanity for a fellow* 
^reatui« in unexampled distress ; at once insulting 
their sovereign and human natuie. ' Jamesi touch^ 
ed in his innermost heart by their unkindness, iap- 
pointed PstrifJE 'Adamson, Archbishop of St An- 
drews, distinguished as one of the tnost learned 
ediolns and best poets of his time, to preach oil 
the 3d of February in the principal church of th^ 
capital^ and to remember the Queen in bis prayeiel 
The King probably thought that he might at least 
have the appointed office performed in the church 
where he himself usually sat; yet, even in thd 
olject, ka attempt was made by the clergy to dis^ 
i^ipoist him. 

' There was something ludicrous in the.mfi^ 
whidk took place m the High Church, in con^ 
quence of tids insolence ; at least, it appears lu^ 
dierous in the eyes of a different age. When the 
King entered his seat, he found the pulpit possesiSh 
ed, not by his complying friend Uie ArchlnslM^ 
but by a pert young coxcomb of the name of Co>r^ 
per, who was not yet invested wi^ the ordeis di 
a clergyman, but who, according to the Heentio^ 

199 •- vxnsrw' ,■.■ 

HQUlielets penmtted to exorcise h]» fimctioiM, «acl 
evseii'.to take a partia the regular roatine of dv» 
tiefy ia the priociftal charch c^ £diiibiiiigfa» Seat* 
ing.that an insult was intend^ tmt at* the same 
time wUIuig to amd a coUisioii witb-men whom 
he mticfa reason (o fear, James eafied om^ 
^ Master Jiohn [the usual wi^ of designating a^ 
ifaieTgyman in bis time^, that plaee was destinat foe 
another ; yon^ most come down. " Cowper an^ 
ayirered, that he had come prepared to preach, i| 
being his ordinary day, and^ if it were his Majee* 
tfB will, 'f he would lam de God's work." IW 
King replied, <^ I- will not hear yoi> this dayt t 
oommand yon to come down, and let Mr Patriek 
Adamson come up and preach. " * Still Cowpev 
parlied for permission to remain where he wasy 
till at last the King good-naturedly said, that^ 
mce he was there, he might go on, provided he 
would obey the chaise, and pray for his mother* 
.To> this Cowper replied, that he would do as the 
.^irit of God she^d direct him; when James, 
well knowing what effects would result from audi 
a pseudo'inspiration, peremptorily commanded him 
tadescMid. At that moment, the King's guard 
advancing to enforce his orders, Cowper gave 9 
thump on the pulpit with his fist, and 4old the 
King that ** that day should witness against binv 
in the great day of the Lord." He then de« 
acended, exclaiming, in the true style of a Pres^* 
byterian seer of the time^. *^ Woe be to thee, Q 
^inbuFgb, for the last of thy plagues shall be 
worse than the first. " The people, who were in 
:the^ habit of paying a sinc^e and senseless regard 
JiO every thing which fell from their preachera. 


^QMtioih and nM6 op. la 16»t9 the cborob «loBg 
.villi their &Foari(e diTiiMB* Japifs* wm ao indig<» 
jnnl at their oondaety «a to sue up apd ciy» 
/*«* What. devil ails the people, that they williuHt 
tarry io hear a maa preach ? " Bat tbiQr all wem 
4Wl, leaving only himselfy his oonrtiersy apd a few 
irf the nobility aad gentry. .Adamson now go$ 
u^ ihe pulpit, and preached an eloquent, and a( 
jtbe sane time most inoffensive discourse from a 
teai^ in Timothy enjoioiag Christiapa to pray for 
jdliinen. When he was done, James was under 
ihe necessity ef coiaveyiag him. to the palace with 
Jiis own guard, to savo him» vengeance of 
4he nMittUade.. Gawper^ who had preached else* 
wtoe to the .crowd whieb left the church in bif 
Uwh w» thai afternoon, imprisoned, by order of 
jd)e Privy Council, in Blaokness ; while two other 
mioiateiB •f^.EdjuabUrghf for insolent language used 
|iti his.ezasmnatbn, were^deposed temporarily from 
their offices. Ai nftore unhappy instance is not 
upon record, of the- cheap*, boldness, displayed by 
the early Sodlch preachers ; for here their war i« 
not altogether against the authority of. their sovov 
reign, which forms a specious excuse for them in 
so many other instanoes, but against the best and 
moat generally recognised of the natural affeo- 

£liaabeth eveatiaally managed the execution 
with a grea^ deal of regard to the fee]bgs of 
JKing. Jame^ She contrived, by her boggling and 
her juggling, todisupate^as it were, the effects ojf 

* Spottiswoodca 354«,-rlKKo;se9, 115.— Row's Historjr 
of the Church of Scptland* MSL Advocate's Library. -^-^ 
Cidderwood, 2U. ♦ ' . . . \ , 

iier orarfif 'Aver ft esoBidiivbte spflM of- tiMk 
Maiy was put to death fay the bloar of m imCttHit 
liiit, e6 'te «8 her eon- was ooneernedt she nrigbl 
he flaid- to ha^e died gradualljr' daring sefml 
weeks. The bitter pill was diaMlved la a large 
draiighly and swallowed iiaperoeptiblf • Jaara^ 
tfiongh apprised of her doom for some tane ht^ 
fore the events stiU entertained a lingermg hofe 
that Elieabedt woold not proceed to the last cx^ 
treanitie*— ^dmt nature woold at length get the 
better of lier high political resolve. His ambas- 
sadon retomed io Holyroodhonse on the 7th- of 
Febroary, Jthe day before Mary's deaUi: it waa 
not till Uie'15th that erea a nimtar ^ the 0renl 
teijehed bim. On that dayi an express came te 
his secretary from Ker of Cessford, wrirden of die 
Borders, informing him that {% John Fonler, the 
opposite English warden, had just eommwticaied 
intelligence of the Qneen's death. At fin% the 
iket seemed to him so impwfeotly yonched, thai^ 
OB the 17thy he did not scruple to go to the hmil»' 
ing at Colder. There intelligence leacbed him^ 
tlmt Mr Gary, yooagest son cf Lord Honsdoo^ 
and t kinsman of Elusidielfay was conung to Seott* 
land ; which drcmnstaneei connected with the in^ 
fbrmadon bronght by bis ambassadors that the 
English Qaeen was to send him such a pevBon to 
oonrince him of the propriety of sacrificii^ his mo^ 
Aer, indnced him to betiete that th^« wso more 
probability in Cessfind's message than he at -first 
allowed to it* He therefore, on the SOth, sent 
Mr George Yoong, his secnUary-depnte^ to ]Ber^ 
wick, to inqnire of the ambasMdor if the newa 
Were tme—p-to allow him to enter Scotland, if false ; 
bat, if true, to bid bim enter at his periL Yonng 

KING JAllEd ^htE FIBST. Ifi^ 

ft^^tnriiiea 6n ^i6 SSd tnni % HBOnnnialSta of tod r^* 
{Mtt, wfaieh gaT« Jam^ the ilicMt acQt6 pain. < It 
jmt his Majesty, ' says a simple lAronicl^r of pan* 
ing erents, * ' into a very great grief and ditplea^ 
sure, eo tbat be went to bed that nigbt witlnmt 
anpper, and on the ftorrow by seven o'clock went 
to Dalkeitb, there to remain solitary.' We are 
iilfimtied by Cmitden, in his Annates of Blisabetby 
tint be spent many subsequent nights in team* 
Attbtber minnle annalist says, that bis Majesty 
' itrr«stit himself intb a dtdi weed qf putjih for 
oifrrtaynedayi9;'f tbatis, asnitof moumingmade 
c^ purple. The wbob conrt followed this extern- 
|t^, except the Earl of Argyle, who appeared in it 
Mkit of iffmonf y hititing that be conceived that Hbt 
phyper ftsfaton of ibonming in which die uatioii 
8h(mld bewail the murder of their late sovereign. ' 
It' Is a touching ei r c ums t a tice, tbat affection fot* 
Ifer soii was among the last sentiments expressed' 
by Mary Wben abbot to part horn the wortd. Ac- 
cording to the narratife 6f her execution duAWU up 
by the Earls 6f Hirewsbury aftd Kent, Who attend- 
ed ber, ehe pttnied at a landing-place in the stair, 
89 she was descemKidg to lite fatal hall of Fother* 
ifigay, and said to the master of her household, ''Mel* 
til^ as t^ou hast beeu an honest servant to me, so 
I pray ifaee continue to my son, and commend me 
to bim. I have not impugned bis religion, nor the 
f«1igion of others, but wish bim Well. And, as I 
fbigive an that have olTeuded me in Scotland, eo I 
that be should also ; aud beseech God that 

-• David Moyaeii an officer of tiie Kiiig*s hontehold. 
t; liiptoTjr of King Janses the Sext 
VOJt. I. I 

ISO UFE 0¥. ■ ' 

he would send him his holy spirit^ and. illninioat^ 
him." Moreover, in her last brief prayer before 
the block, she entreated God '< to be mercifol to 
her son. " 

A good deal of indignation was expressed in 
Scotland when the intelligence of her death becanie 
generally known. It was a custom of that time to 
express public sentiments, which could not other- 
wise be published, by the clandestine plan of a£&x- 
ing pasquils, by night, to the doors of the courtiers. 
Numbers of these were displayed on the streets of 
JBdinburgh, urging the King and council to revenge 
Mary's death. But this feeling was far from being ge- 
neral. It was indeed almost exclusively confined to 
the relics of the Queen's faction, and to the favour- 
ers of the French interest. The greater part of 
the people, prejudiced against Mary, on account of 
her religion and the dubious circumstances of her 
history, accustomed also by their clergy to regard 
every thing done by Elizabeth with respect, heard 
(^ her murder without resentment. 

Whatever really were the feelings of the King, 
it was totally out of his power to take any mea* 
Bures for their proper expression. Had he attempt- 
ed to levy an army for the invasion of England, as 
his less considerate advisers would have done, it is 
not probable that he would have raised half the num- 
ber of men which Lord Scroop had now ready to 
oppose him, in case of such a proceeding, on the 
south-western border. He had not even a minister 
who was inclined to revenge : Maitland, his chief 
adviser, was decidedly adverse to a breach with 
i^izabeth. It is also a strong fact in his fovour, 
that many of his nobility secretly sent lettexa to 


EliEabethy turging ber toihe execution. * He has 
himself drawn up a paper of reasons why * he was 
unable to revenge the heinous mnrder, committed 
against his dearest mother, by the old enemies of 
my progenitors, realm and nation : First, in respect 
of my tender youth, [ he was twenty and a half, ][ 
not trained up in dexterity of arms, either to with- 
stand injury, or to conquer my own right, being 
at all times bygone detained in eapHtdty : Next, 
my excessive want, being obliged to lire from han^ 
to hand ; haying sufficient patrimony and casualty, 
without any thing in store : Then, the dirers fac- 
tions of spiritual^ and temporal estates; erery one 
regarding himself, and not me. ' 

It now turned out that the English, emissary 
who was detained at Berwick, .had not been sent 
to conrihce the King,- as his ambassadors announ- 
ced, of the propriety of having bis mother put out 
of the way, but for the very different purpose of 
excusing Elizabeth from all bl^me in so tmhappy 
and so odious .a transaction. When this .gentle- 
man found himself denied a passport into Scotland, 
he sent a letter to the King, expressive of .the 
Queen's sorrow for what had taken place^ and ex- 
plaining away the whole matter as vol aceidentf* 
Elizabeth, he said, had been prevailed upon, by the 
prayers of her council and people, to sign the Scottish 
Queen's sentence ; but it was only tbit they, might 
not be unprovided with a. weapon against the. Ca- 
tholics, foreign and domestic, in case of their rescu* 
ing her from Fotheringay Castle, as they threatened, 
and endeavouring, to set her up as monarch of Eng- 
Iffiid. The secretary, Davison, to whom she intrust* 

* Cva^axk^k AnnalM of EUwUeth. 

IBS . urxcff 

ad die ciutodf oinl» ffVf tmmi it» ky a ihnnnif 
ttwintfrpgettiititii •£ liw wm I m % 4o the fWMiatl> 
nAtfi imrnediatdir dcuwtcinri m oomnieneft io tee 
it pBtiatocBeovtioBi ^ ^idk was ^eoei «be fMK 
Med to Gedy heSam she loMr it, ' The eecn^ 
tpr^ was oomaiitted to prison for iiii mitdeea^ 
for wfaiclt he dionU not escape iier high diapleef 
eoBB* ^ Tlttfiy ' eoadfudes Cerf ,> ' is the effeet ^ 
mj menage; which, if I eenld eBpraM 00 Ikff^ 
aa 1 did hear her atter it vilh a heary heart aad 
ao CTo a rfn i eoBirtcnaage» I thiak yenr Mijesty wdM 
ladier pity the grief she eadnacthy'tfaaiiiBi say aiyql 
hiame her for the fact whereanto ahe JM^rar gaw 
consent. ' 

Gary abo here the foUawiag letter fraat EUaa- 
heth herKlf-- *one of the auist ingenioaa pieeea ef 
Mae feeliflg wUch oreoL that eaffliwlB diiPfiaiHcg 

< My Dear Brother; I weiddyeakneir,thMgh 
net f(rity the eitne&ie delor that omtrwhefaneth mf 
mind Cor that adienMe accident wUch, frr.«a«r 
ttary to my meaning, hath faefatten* I hare eeit 
this kinsman of nune, whom ere now it hath plaia 
ed yen to £iTonr, to instnwt yen traly of that 
which IB too irkaeme to my pen te tell yen* I 
beseech yon» that as God and many me know hew 
lOBoeent I am in this caaey so yon witt hriiem me« 
thaty if I had done it» I wonld have abode by it. 
I am not so baae aainded that the fear of any Ke« 
ing oeatoie shoald make me afmid to do what ia 
jest, oTy done, to deny the saaw ; I am not ao de* 
generate^ nor carry ao rile a mind. Bmt^ && Ait 
to disgnise fits most a king, so will I ne?i^ dia- 
aemble my aelienBi bnt^saaae tfiemeheir as Im^e^ 


dbMt. TUs zmmB uotmwif ftir mB* HatL m^ I 
kMv? it WW wdt d0mrf«4 tf I kiid MMifc iv I 
wmM MPfiBf kqr it oat mmAm^n shoiddM^; and ta 
iaipate to iwfaalf lint wbieh I dM naror aa anah 
aa tMbk af , I will nai;. Tbe atocvvtlaiioMi yaa 
atil W plaasaci ta hear af thk Wanrt Aad fav 
WTf party ttAak yon^lmm noi&Branlafini^ldiia* 
wa ia a a and vara d^r Mea^ aor anf ibat wiH 
iMiab sNna ca a nftd i y to pia a o r ve ya» and yana 
states Andif aaj^ wovldotharwiaapaaMndaTooi 
Ifaiak they bear more good will to others than to 
yon. ThtiSy in haste, I leave to trouble yon, be- 
■eaefaiag God to send yon a long reign. 

* Yonr moat assnred lovmg sister and consiny 

Elizabkth, U.' 

Of Gonrsey few readers will re«piire to bera- 
minded, that the writer of this letter was hers^ 
the direct dictator of Mary's death, and that, if 
4ie had any hentation whatoTer in the matter, it 
avaae from ah earnest wish that the imhappy 
Qaeen should be assassinated by some wretdi, 
from aa idea of good service, instead of being put 
to a oeremonions death by her wammt. * Ofa» 
^ger^s heart within a woman's hide ! ' as the dd 
dramatbt has prophetically expressed her oha- 

After the delivery of these letters, there was a 
meeting of English and Scotch commissioners at 
fVmldoa Kirk in the Merse, to adjoat the terms of 
saliafection to be rmdered by Elizabeth to Jaasea 
far hia mother's riai^ter. And a scheme waa 
agitated for a reparation of a tangible shape, sock 
aa was sometimes paid, acconMng to a eostom 
wideh piefailed ia Seotkady l^ penona gniit^ of 



homicidei to the nearest of- kin of the deceased. 
Bat, in the coiurse of a few weeks* the King per« 
mitted himself to be pacified, withont any formal 
recognition of the injury he compkined of. The 
death of Mary was a matter too necessary to the 
interests of all and sundry, himself included, to 
be very long resented ; and, all the circumstances 
considered, he might very well smother his de- 
sires of revenge, without incurring the chaige of 
having been indifferent to the claims of blood. 





The next transaction in which James was engag-* 
ed, was one of a modi more pleasing natare. He 
now judged it time, since he approached his ma^ 
jority, to snpply himself with a consort. There 
were many reasons for this resolution. He was 
the only individoal of his fsunily ; the heir*pre- 
samptiveto his Scottish crown was a Innatic, (the 
Earl of Arran) ; failing himself, the inheritance of 
the English crown was apt to he disputed hy a 
number of claimants; and he knew that, if he 
had ofispring, he wonld be less exposed than here« 
tofore to assassination. He was moreoTcr sensi- 
ble, that the possession of a famUy of children 
must recommend him very warmly to the English 
people, and smooth his way to the throne. Eli* 
sabeth had long endeayonred to repress aU desires 
of this kind in James, partly from a fear lest he 
should make an improper choice, and partly from 
anticipation of the faTour and influence he should 
tiras acquire among her people, to her own pre- 
judice. But she now relaxed so much, as to re- 
0omraend him to many the sister of the Kini^of 

IM HI* Of 

NavBire^ Afterwards Hmiry IV. of Frtooey an alk 
Itance oilcalated to strragtliea the Huguenot or 
Rotestant interest in that kingdom against the 
Guise family and the King of Spain. 

But, prenous to introducing a Queen into his 
kingdom^ he esteemed it necessary that the feuds 
which agitated it should be somewhat stilled* For 
this purpose^ at a Conrention of Estates, which wie 
held at Edinboigh in May ISS?, he exited himself 
to ahoKrii some of the^causes of wrath ndiidi exis^ 
ed among his nobility. The Master of Glammis^ 
for instance, and the Earl of Crawford, had long 
been inflamed against each other ; and the brother 

of tb» f omm had beaftabotibythe sdrvantsolthp 
]|4;|er, sa be waa passing doag od« %f the stveola 
of Stirtingt OBly ten years befoia. Th* Earl of 
Angus entertain^ a vehoment grudge ^g^sinst i^B 
£ari of Montrosa» chiefly becs^ Moiitrese. bad 
sat as chancellor on the jury wluck oondamnofl 
44igua'a WMh, the Earl ^ Morions br m that 
m% aa justice coiild only be obtained by forces at 
vaa ita stv^ka locd^ad mfotk by the spfiferars aa n 
vpifHar na lena to he a«4|nged tba» aa^ ontiaaiy 
pci^al^ }H)iiry«"*<Mid. aH tbia ootiwi tfi staa ding ttil 
Angus waaar ^aalona raligionia^ oven so »nab aft 
W ^ ha sidled by James» Car hia frisndlinesa lo Ai 
Cfanrcfcv ^ Mimfteg^ Hi^ff* All thoMi peiaaM 
bemg auambled a^ Iha CoanentJoiw «Qd oTory m^ 
Wtion hairing been th^o wade by the King aoA 
hia chancfUoi^ Maxtland to a^ieit th^ dispute^ 
J(9m^ nM^it^4 tbem pri^ataly to a ban jp Bt in £hN 

bnroodhoase* on & Suadav afkemoon. inlaiTfrtl thaaa 
P9mis<»i>mlj at a bage tabloi inttk $a tbam tbaaft 
aaveral tMnesK:^qMKM^ded ^ha«i to Ufe bencafiwdt 
iflb neaoa and. concoB^ and Trnwad tn ba s^'SMitat 


aaeny ^ him who fint shevld oomaiil vMeBief 
against aaoihor* We Imow aoi whal BocceaB ht 
iBset with oa tfab int •▼wing; bat next aigbli 
whi)n the bwiqvst wiM sepe^itedt the reeoBcUiatMa 
'Of the nobles waa Bolemnized by a social ceremoayy 
•shiab plaeed it bcrf oad a qnettioo. After rafiper^ 
when they bad prahebly hoso BM^lified to a cftrtai* 
Aigiee by Uqnov, the whole sfiUied o«t of the pik 
Jace iBto the streets of the aeighbonriag city, eJb- 
aetly in the guise in which tbey had aat at table— 
liMit isi without sword and doublet, aed» rangii^ 
ihsmeelves ieto a d^niiNiv walked baiMl in hand to 
iho iiiarket«*cros9» the Kmg at their headf sopport^ 
Ad by his kiiiniieii HamiUoa^ and they themse&vee 
iiaflh side by side with tha pivticalei^ iiidi?id«il 
%»bwtwbon» he hadletely bone the «iosl dead** 
)y hostility. So stcaage a prooatsion altvaeted as 
jmaeose crowd; and it wae sot withoot faeliagi 
Wi the Iv^biflot gpatiicttticm that the peaetabla citi^ 
flnm beheld a scene which seemed to heuricea a 
oDipdiMioa to aft citril war in the cMmnlvy. The 
iBagitftuB^oB, aceoiding to Aerepovt of oae of their 
leUow-eitiaeiwv weal vk admace of the pii>cesaio% 
4tficiiig for Tery jay* The priseoem for debt werf 
MberatedtemjaUs theCs«i^ waa kaag with tar 
pestry. and pknited with tram p e t ff w vA viagws^ 
4ha i^bbeta, which had steed there for yeam^ ta^ 
oaoeate the nameroaa victims of ei?it discords 
^wiore hewed down an4 bamt ; tad a loag table 
Jbeiag plaeedi apea tha 8iaeet» the Kiag mid the 
Bfl^les sat down and partook of a avie baa^iwtf 
mUle eaeffv imadow wid oaler ftair ia the ne^h- 
beaAood displayed aeiaaittP acea^ af fn is tia g and 
•eeiat jay. After HI the iadiiidmds formerly a> 
Mk had pakKely Mkm hiMdt ifidk mk edm% 

lS8 ttPE ov 

tmd dmnk to eacb other's health, the irhole n^* 
ttuned in similar order to the palace, amidst mu- 
sic, the firing of cannon, and the blessings of a 
peq)le which seemed absolntely transported with 

' James, with the adrice of his Parliament, now de- 
spatched ambassadors to the conrt of Frederick II., 
Xing of Denmark, to make proposals regardmg a 
marriage with his eldest daughter. Elizabeth was 
averse from this match, and thought that the Bk^ 
ter of the King of Navarre wonld be preferable, 
though, even with her, she wished James to de- 
iay any alliance for three years. Altogether, it m 
probable that he would not have achieved a mar- 
riage at all, adverse as Elizabeth was to such a 
measure, but for the Spanish Armada, which sail- 
<n1 next year against her kingdom, and which caused 
iter to allow James this gratification, as part of the 
price of his steadfastness in her interest during -a 
time of such danger. 

' 'James's behaviour throughout the year eighty- 
'eight was spirited, and all that Elizabeth could 
Wish* He undertook various little expeditioiiB 
feigainst such of hb Catholic subjects as had gdne 
into arms with a view of assisting the Spanish in- 
vaders ; and, when informed by the English am- 
bassador that he was included in the threats wfaieb 
Philip gave out, he answered with a jest, that ** he 
looked for no better ftivour than that which tlie 
Cyclops Polyphemus promised to Ulysses, to be 
the last devoured. " 

Yet all his good service could hardly purchase 
the permission he desired to marry. Elizabeth, 
by means of the Chancellor Maitland, who waa 
devoted to her, threw a thousand little obstadea in 


the way* Hk enroyB, by her exektione, were wm 
wilh such limited powers, that Frederick, jndgiog 
.bimself insulted, gave liis daughter to the Duke H 
Brunswick. Even when James had condescended 
to seek the second daughter, he came, for soaie 
time,- no better speed. Maitland crippled ermy 
embassy which he sent out. It was, at last* only 
.by the humble- expedient of spiriting up the trades 
4>f Edinburgh to raise a poptdar riot in favour of 
tbe marriage, that he prevailed upon his mimster 
■10 countenance it. The Earl Marischal was then 
4espatched with proposals which were judged 
reasonable by the Danish King ; * and in August 
.1580, the Princess Anne was married by proxy, 
and set sail for Scotland. She was at itm time 
only fifteen years of age. 

James, who had waited and laboured for his 
wife almost as long and as much as Jacob did for 
Leah, now expected that he was about to be gigp 
tified by her presence* To his great chagrin, a 
inessage, which arrived almost immediately after 
ibat which informed him of her departure for Scol- 
/land» gave him the* unwelcome intelligence^ thnt 
^ahe had been driven back by contrary winds to the 
€oast- of Norway, where, in all probability, she 
should have to wait for £ur weather till the next 
^ring. This was too much for even James s sliig- 
•ipsh nature. To be baulked by so adventittous a 
jinatter aa the weather, after he had eluded the 
more serious difficulties presented by Elizabeth and 
•Maitland, seemed exceedingly hard. He detex^ 
jninedi by a violent personal.exertion; to overcome 
f.. ■ 

.^ * Frederick II. was now dead, and the contract was 
asgotiated with his son. Christian IV. 



tiMfl innvDrtDy oIm(sm3i6^ WiitiuM oobsuiCSih^ n^ 
f«e, he eoDoeivedl miei dty, why^ Kfing at Owf^ 
nilittr, tlie resohiiioii «l Mihujif to UfMli^ tiM port 
w lwm 1^ Queca Ind tekeii velbge, and there so* 
ieHmbing hie nitptial». TMb, eeye MIm Afthi^ 
ins a saUy so> IHde le he smMpated irom his l^P^ 
i»iil and iodoleat temper, eonMned wilb hie kaemi 
iacKAraMse ta female ehame^ that it appears te 
ha^ perplexed aot a thile aft to wheat hm chanie^ 
ter has famished natter of apeeiria^ii; Bvthehad 
eaAoieat rea ee n e fer hie ceadncty both ae to rmm^ 
h«r and feree ; and fortmateiy he has slated them 

* Rrat of alV wy» <Kuflei^ i&adedarslioii#hidi 
ha left hehiad hin Ise the sacisfeetioii of lis sal^ 
jectSy and which forms a capital spedaieft at once 
of bis style of eoaipeskiett in prosey aad ilia Mnple 
teitilBr eharaeler ; « I doubt neelM itie mamfesme 
InaiPBetoafitlMNriu' I was g eae rat ^ fwaid ftwJt 
wiih he ail neft for the dehi^ag sa hng* of mf 
BMiiagew I wse aftaoey wkhoat fiider or SMdeit, 
hrathir or sietar, Khig of dlis raahne^ and air apt* 
peifead of Emglaiid ; thiv aiy Mdfaaliiee naid ne 
to lio wwh, and mf ineaayis stult ; ae bmii wee as 
aarnaa, and the waai of heip of soeeessioii bread 
disdaqnie; yea, a^ hiag* deky bred in the breistia 
of neay a grice jeakioiie ef mf hdiabiKtiey as gif 
I war a hamne etok t Thar ressenis, aad iaaimia^ 
mMo otherie hoofly objeeted, BMired aie to ha&Meft 
the treaty of my a wi ri i ige ; for aa to my awno no* 
ftwa^ Oed ie my wilBes^ I eoidd hare absteoit 
Xaagaar oorthowolllof aif patrie e«wkf have pe^ 
mitted. I am laiawiie> God he praised^ not to be 
^Ry-intempeNiUy tashe nor concety in my wech* 
Meet efiUrifl \ natfaer nse I to be aa caryed away 


titkf duA^ hftiMg wMfentood tke Qaaen isoold not. 

come to hiniy he resolTed to go to her. ' TbO; 

jImcb A«t I resolTit tlite aa vm CciigmilUdr, aot 

ane of eke haiil eeimttlo h&ag pvetent then; .md 

m I teke liua reaokliolm onlie of iiiysel£^ as liun 

ft turn pruicoy an adnaed I with iByselff onlie 

Sahat wajr to ^ioUov iiirdi the aama.' Thea he 

taUa that heaaaeaiiUed the coancii at Edbbiurght, 

farthofwipoae^tf baT{ogBhi|M {NPiyamd ; hot fied- 

iag them dittcslted aa to the ^Umgaol a aufficiaat 

aamher to be.aa honomtaUe coaFoy iw the Kjitf. 

af Seodaiidi he ^ waa oon^lied toavear with gate, 

iNJiei|iaBcie>lhBt» fiff they eoold be gotta a^ othir 

^IS^i*^ Iaiddgai»yisalffa2]aae».^/^t^«Krete^m 

Wte^al^ .* Batfiff all aaea (aaid I) had bene aa, 

anili wiUit aa heeame thaflie» I neidit npdit be in, 

Att atrait.' . Thia lepaaech araa dea^giiad for tha^ 

Chancellor Maitlaiid; and iteta«g hue ao» thath% 

affesed to aecompany the liang* Jamea, hoire?er,, 

coaaidted him. no farther tiU Ua departiue ; ^ tvar 

winunn moTing nae thereto; firat» beeanae Ikaew 

that giff I had maid him oa the coamaill thaire^ 

ha had beea blanieii of pitting it in my heidi qnhilk 

had not bene hia dewi^ for it becnmiaaa eob^^ 

JMtis to giff prinoea adnce ia aic matens; aad 

therfoir, ramemberiag fahat .iavyoqa aad iajoa^ 

hnrdii^ he dalie baires»^ Imping tm ky themmt, 

aa it very to all hia appetytia» aa giff I war ane vm^* 

veamnaUe creatnrei or abairne thatcould nonodua§ 

af mysel£^ I dioeht jntie then to be the occaaioaii. 

af . the helping of farther iajoat aklander .upoaa hia 

head. • Thia fiiur I speik for hia partes ala^ 

Weill awin bounearia aaik» that I be not 
^idaoderit Of or? a krmhtt^. usie, q^a oaa do f^i^ 

I4S xiFEoy 

tiring of himselff, as also that the honestie and in^^ 
nocencie of that man be not injnstUe and untrevrlie' 

Having appointed his kinsman, the Dnke of 
Lennox, (son to his former favourite), Regent in- 
his absence, with Francis Earl of BothweU for » 
co-adjator, and having put the above roost amua*^' 
ing declaration into the hands of his clerk-register^^ 
James, on the 19th of October, secretly emlxirked' 
on board a small ship at Leith, with his chancellor,' 
and immediately set sail for Norway, accompanied 
by other four vessels. This little fleet at fint en-/ 
countered rough weather, which detained it in tfae^ 
Frith of Forth for the better part of a week ; but 
at length a Mr wind sprung up, which carried hioi' 
over to Slaikray in Norway, in the short space. of 
four days. From Slaikray he immediately advan*' 
ced, partly by land and partly by sea, to Upslo, 
#here the Queen was still remaining. Arriving 
oh the 19th of November, he was immediately in« 
troduced*— ^ boots and all,' says David Moysea— * 
to the Queen's lodging ; his eagerness to see the 
young person with whom he was destined to 
spend his life, being too great to admit of the pro* 
per ceremonials. His conduct at the first inter* 
view was spirited enough, to be of a piece with 
the whole enterprise. He attempted to sahite hia- 
eonsort, after the fashion of his country, with a 
kiss. She, ignorant of the good Scottish custom, 
lefused to admit of his embrace. But, says Mo]^- 
ses, with delightful quiuntness, * after a few words- 
privately spoken betwixt them, there followed a 
ftrtiier familiarity, and some kisses..' . . . 

They were married on the 23d, ' Mr. Davkl 
Lyhdsay^ the SLing's own minister^ petfonmng ib^ 


nuptial ceremony in the French laogn^. James 
next morning presented his bride with the lord- 
ship and palace of Dimfermlinei by way of a mor- 
rowing-gifti as it was called, a present nsnally 
made in that age by a bridegroom to his l^ride» on 
the morning after their nuptials : Donfermliney 
therefore, became what in mo'deru lang^oage would 
be called the Queen's jointure-house. Immediate- 
ly after the marriage, ambassadors came from the 
court of Denmark, soliciting James to delay his 
iBtarn to Scotland till the beginning of the next . 
year, and spend the intermediate time in Copen* 
hafsen. In consideration of the weather, and part- 
ly pe^iaps for reasons of state, he consented to 
^ia proposal ; and, on the 22d of December, he 
and Queen Anne set out from Upslo on their 
journey to Denmark. They arrived, on the 2Ist 
of January, at Chronenburg Castle, on the cele^ 
][>rated Straits of Elsinore, where they were re« 
ceiyed with great distinction and rejoicing by the 
young King, his mother^ . and the four regents of 
the kingdom. It was .proposed and agreed to, 
that they should remain till the solemnisation of 
the marriage of Anne's eldest sister to the Duke 
of Brunswick. 

It is perhaps at this place that a description 
should be given of the person of the young Scot- 
tish monarch. James was by no means a man of 
agreeable appearance. His figure was of middle 
stature, and safficiently bulky above. But its dig'r 
nity, and even its manliness, was destroyed by. the 
extreme slenderness and feebleness of his limbs^ 
which shook and struck against each other at every 
step* As he was oblig^, by the fashion of his 
Amsif .to wear clothes that were voluminoiis ererj' 

144 tsiTt Of 

wlMt# but hOaw tiw miMle o( ibB lUgb^ dik 
fttnltof bis peiwm was ^articalaiiy' coiwpiciitmti 
TboQgh bii brow bad all tbe nelancholf loftineM 
«Miaily obeerv^ in the portrailB of tbe Staaita^ 
and was a fine feature, bia hc% was not good* 
either in front or in ]^ro61e. Hia nose was ho]Iow# 
aad bottied a little at tbe extremity ; bis month 
was laine, and bis beard scaotf • His conatenaaeei 
altogether, was one of those wfatch, frooi their eo« 
aenttafly puerile cast, retain the appearaaee of 
youth for an eztiaonltnary time, and only aeqnim 
tbe respecta^ty wbidi i^tadies to natoae agoi 
when winklesy and other traces of advancedyean^ 
have become too decided to be misti^tt. It w» 
one Tory disagreeable pecoliarity of his peraon^ 
Ihttt his tongue was too large for bis moutl^ caaa« 
ing him to beslabber tbe bystanders wh«i he was. 
eifiier ipeaidog or drinking. Scarcely any of the 
common eogmvud portraits aie at ail luce him % 
but there are seferal ezeeUent and most charac' 
teristic likenesses of him preserred in the picture* 
galleries of bodi oenntries. 

With regald to bis moral behaviour vf to the 
present criab, be seems to have been of smgularly 
pore life. In bis Basilicon Doron, be informs ua 
thi^ he avoided every widcedness during his*early 
years, und diuws a contrast betwixt his own eon* 
duet in this respecti and that of his grandsire 
James V.^ whose debaucheries had rendered Ua 
own gofemment disreputable, andendangered-dmt 
of his successors by tbe anibitieii of his iDegitii* 
mate posterity. But, putting bis own suspieioua 
testimony out of tbe question, there is not a6 
much as an imputation thrown upon his purity in 
yonthi by any eonteuipotary writer; nof has ho 


4ift a Bingle* amour on Teooid*' He was greatly 

isddieled to the fice of-swearingt which, howerrer, 

iaat die wonit tbeoretica], and the result of feshion 

m much as any thing eke.* He was also inclined 

40 indulge in drinking, a vice which advanced 

•much upon him as he increased in years. 

• To this last pleasure, it appears, he might havd 

•given wolimited scope in Denmark, without incui^- 

fing aay Uame. The Danes at this time were 

•perhaps the most couTijrial people on the face of 

the earth. Spottiswood, in recording that no quai^ 

rele occurred among the King's attendants all the 

time they were in Dennutfk, says, with great sim* 

plicity, that this was the more wonderfol, since 

^ 1%'iA hard for men in drink, ai which they were 

eon^^mMoMy kepiy long to agree. ' James himself 

dates a letter from * Chroneburg, quhavre we are 

driofMng end dryving moer in the auld numer ; * 

a most amusmg trait of self-portraiture. I need 

scarcely remind the reader, moreover, of the au* 

thentteated tradition regarding the whistle of the 

lunily of the Laories of Mazwellton, which was 

won by an ancestor from a Bacchanalian champion 

among the Danes, who had challenged the Scot* 

•lish topers, on this occasion, to a trial of strength^ 

md was fairly drunk under the table, after an al» 

most unexampled debanclu * ■ 

James continued in Denmark during the entire 
mon^s of February and March 1589^90, in the 
enjoyment not only of the pleasures of the social 
hcfacd, but also of a series of pageants and shows^ 
which were got up by the court for his entertain* 

flsent. He, in the mean time, sent home intellt-* 


* Sf« Bans'* Poeim. ■ - ' ^ 

you i« K 

146 lilFE OF 

fpsMe to Seolbad^ dni he had Ae giwtett vcwm 
lothBok the Almsgfalij? for haffang- * detbed hiai 
widi>a wife ' ef the mogt aKotUeiit * gifiis aad cei» 
Bodilies. ' Froai tikne. te time he vsoei?«d^ intel^ 
ligpaned^ in. rattan^ from Soadaodv that the oooDtvy 
had never heea in •• ^pveter states •nly.tnro-di^ 
^wbancea hafdnghappened'dttniig'» whole- arin- 
tBr^**ioD» ocoamaed b^ the clan Gvegov in Balr 
^phidder^ theothen bjir ' that wicked, andtimolenl 
nan, ' as* SpottiaWood bennBhim^ Avclnbald Wanr 
ahope^ef N]ddri% who had' killed a dapendaat of 
4he iMjbotjoi Hol^rrood^^whereaS) in general, there 
«!aa seldeuK a week widumt soiae dreadM tale of 
■mvdo^'or fioli. * 

' Jaaie^ Who,. (nenona to hia* aiamage,had aeeor 
'w- pku^er besides Ihe^ sonthemt distfii^^ oi StetJaad^ 
appeaas to have been very much impressed by the 
Isighft of the continental states in which he waa 
now sojooraing, and to have diawn ne favoomble 
contrast betafeen their magnificenee-^-hnmble 'as it 
was, compared wkh that of the soatbem states of 
Em'ope-^land the wretched poverty of his owtt 
oonntry* He also seems to have been snrprised not 
a littleat the strength of the exeeuihe in Denmark^ 
as compared with its weakness in Scotland. He 
aatoraliy became aaxioas that, before his retaiiH 
when, besides the qneen, many digniied persona 
of her broUier's court were to attend him, the ob- 
jects which were to be presented to their eyea 
should be of as respectable a kind as the circum* 
atances of the country would •permit---that hia 
palace should be put into good ctrder, that the pep- 
sons who were to receive him on the shore shonhl 
be of good character, and that there should be none 
of those sfaamefel breadies of the peace which had 


ill &Ii»iig'dteghieed bis reigiv and tiian wUdindliing 
W^ better calcidlU^d to give the'StMrngen » niMa 
id^ of hiM goyenitiient. Inspired bythennotioa^ 
#id'fiiid' hiift ^nittn^ a letter to his council ai Feb^ 
nuny/implbriiig tfaeur, with lodiercnn •vrnmtnen^ 
fi^ prttpte^ tHe country in s befittmg^ maimer for 6ii 
sftittd; The letter is a great coriodit^, «nd, as it 
is 'stire at once to amuse the deader, and to in* 
cresse his acquaintance with the' KingV charaeter 
and style^of writing; it is hero inserted. 

' My Lords of Counsal, that this geneval lettev 
of mine nmf serr^ asweill to you aH, as' to dvery 
fltte of yoir iu paiticular, .lay; the blaoMi^ I praye 
yow, t^on* the his»t aact ^Bsahoousnes. of the dis^ 
piitiflie; axiidltidt^bpon nfysw^itnes^altfaonghsl 
nAt dbnye^ tHat* to wpto' witk my i owit hand i 
fc^'da«v^^ii(l iWoiiiO'aneiaieh'i I doubt- uot tha« 
Y^ tMw tkk this in^ aH gbod> pttrt^ as i^I wrote a 
tWtigh' of paper \6 every one-oi yowv * 

*' Y§ may now knaw, by lh(t season oi the y«r^ 
tbt my coming home, God willing? dravpes neire. 
I am surely treated here with aiU ihB honor and 
IttttHitess that this eon^e people caa imagine, I 
think we should not be imthankfidl when theireo 
cdmes in our bounds. Akinj^^af Scotland tciik a 
^^^ marid^tiot/^ wiU not^ come hcane every doof^ 
^ QodVssdce, respect not onely my honor in this, 
bat the honor of our whole natibuy and specialHo 
ofyburselAs; M my part will be^leist in it. It 
it kttowne that I am absent, and all the warld 
I^aws that when'the gudeman is .away he cannot 
be wyted of the misorden in the house ; but what 
niay he think then of his servants and fetors he» 
has left therein ? 

* Now, my Lords, siace this is t^ only grete^ 

148 LIFE o» : 

proof of yonr diligence, withdnt my presence or 
aadstaace, that erer I am able for to hare of yo«» 
let me knawe now what remembrance ye have of 
me dming my absence, by diligent remembring 
and performing such directions as the beirar here- 
oif, the Master of Wark, hes in charge of me 
to deliver tmto yon. Remember specially npoo 
the ending oat of the Abbay, as yet lying in the 
deid-thraw, without the which we cannot be lodgit 
at onr landing ; and in good faith it is not th^ 
manor of this conntrie to lye theront, for the 
greatnes of the frost ; and for a token that ye hare 
not forgotten ns, ye may send two or three ships 
here to show ns die way home ; bat let nae greiit 
men or gentilmen come in them, bat many gade 
marinells ; for I am already oyerchaigeable to 
these folks here ; besides that every one of yoa 
will have eneach to do in the tames I have em- 
ployed yoa to do at hame. For Godsake, in any. 
thing, respect my honor, that all discords and vani- 
teis and qaarrells may be sapercedit at this ; for g^f 
I took sic strait order for that the last yeir, when 
I lookit for my weifs coming hame and a certayne 
companye of strangers with her, how mackle mare 
soald it be this yeir when we are baith to cum 
bame and twice as gret 9. nnmbre of strangem, 
and speciallie sen*I have seen so gode ane exam- 
ple in this conntrie. 

. '* Indede, I have .gade caose to thank yow all 
for the great qnietnes that ye have already keept, 
as I perceive by yonr kst letters. Remember 
likewise that nae great man or connsellar presnme 
to .be at oar landing, bat snche as Uie beirar here- 
of will in a roll deliver onto yoa, at omnia fiant 
decenter et com ordine. 


' * Fail not to pronde gnde chesre for us ; for 
we have heir abundance of gade meit and part of 
dNficft ; to the particnlan of this I remit to my 
directions, as of all other things likewise. 

* To conclude, I bothe pray you, and command 
yon sleuth na tyme, and for my part sake do at 
this tyme even mavr nor is possible ; for ye knaw 
I will never eit nor drink a fair wind. 

* From the Castle Cronebnrg, the 19 day of 
February 1589. 

' Jam ESy Rbx. ' * 

The same solicitude is apparent in a letter of 
the same date, which the Sang wrote to the Re- 
verend Robert Bruce, one of the ministers of Edin- 
burgh. He had left Bruce a member of the Pri- 
vy Council, and with a kind of understood com* 
mission of supervision over the morals of the king- 
dom. He now writes to him in a familiar strain* 
beseeching him to exert himself to keep the peo- 
ple in order before his return. < Waken up all 
aien, ' he says, ' to attend my coming; for I will 
come, as our maister sayeth, like a thief in the 
nighty and whose lampe I find burning with oyle» 
these will I coin thanks to, but those that lack 
iheir burning lamps, provyded with oyle, will be 
barred at tbe door ; for I will hot accept dieir cry- 
log) Lord, Lord I at my coming, that hare foivot 
me all the time of my absence. . . . xW 
God's sakef takedU thepains you cauy to teach our 
people weiU against our coming^ kst we be aU 
ashamed be/ore strangers* ' Could any thing be 
more characteristic of this singular monarch, ea 
yrell aware as he always was of what ought to be 

♦ Rymsr, tr&«,ii. » 


ftMie,4md^0'wimrig4hat it AeM be dciie, fet»80 
iBcfepableof nsiog tbe proper eoereire vie^maen I09 
Mng it ? ^ I thifdk ^ois time^ ' be adds* ^- dienki 
be a holy .jultlee in Sco€la«d, and our fthip§.ah««iU 
ftaine the firlae of the ark in agreeing, ,^ «a ^inie 
M ktitt^ kiatiirales iniiBicitias inter foras ; for, '4\% 
olherwifle £dl Dnt (quod Dene af^rtat), I sbaD bo- 
hove to come hame like a dmnk map am^ttpsl 
tbem^ which 'linoald b6 no BtnUige thing, ^opviing 
oat of 80 dmcken a conntrie as this ! ' Thm .tfai0 
necessities of the poor king are displayed. ^ I 
pray yon, ' he says, ^ heartilie recommend me to 
the good provost of the town, and in any thing he 
tm pmy him to asriist my afiairs, as I have evetf 
been certain of his good will in my services* Sp** 
daSy desirfe him to farther all he can the ontraek^ 
Ing of libree or foor ships to meet me here, and 
eottVby me hame.' ["He had been enabled -t» 
ttii for Demnark, solely by the generosity of a^sw 
private indivxdafUs> who eacih fitted out a Uttla 
vessd.^ ' And likenvise, I dfonbt not he will atn 
iaxX' the Maister tif Wark in getting- as many good 
craftsmen ns may be had for ending out liie hidf- 
perfyted Abbey, [his palace,] ^at now lies ia die 
deia-thra^. ^ ' • ' * Thos reeommen^g me 
anrd my n^ Hb to yonr da^iie prayers, I coma^ 
yoato Ihie only aII*SQfficienl. ' 

Pei^psthe reader will be indiaed not^mlyini 
amile at these indications of the perertyand imb»* 
cfflty of this 6cottiA Ittonarch, but also to blasM 
him in setions earnest for what is so inccmsiBtenK. 
#ith tbe dignity of a sovereign. He should, hoiw^ 
t/¥Wy panse to consider the dSajmlated state m 
Midh Jame^ foand- his government and ffevennesj 
iriien he came of .ag^i &e jriioald consider the 


^mtit jof-Ae^Mmf neny «f wImmu cohW . vaiae 
MMy^tteie lalr^inNie men tiiaa;lheip king>; i«id k^ 
tkoald refltoet on the lia^bfiirow fcondttacm •£ ihe 
people^ joet emeiiged ih>m :lhe iborDon ef 'S.>{iff8f 
(fBflled 'Qvn\ 'ima^ «iid>lrcMi^ (he •«iae«;iiieideBt.lo. ar 
ft^eef peligk)iiM'jr«fo«metiom lAs for the.pecaniafir 
dntneeses 'of the ^otveneigOt whtdi ^ene appaBrisi 
entremesp ^be'MlnaiUgreeems to «lmv^*badjBrore8ew9ce 
«dialever» «ii jm^ .ecoaeion of Tunmual e^p^mae Uoe 
tto fvesehS;, e&oe^ l^benev^ktBoa ef .a.fenr ef .tlM| 
bitrgbsy.HokieflytWwe of Fife, -which wat then the 
nostr comflaeffbialtad ithe •viebeflft {praviaoe tof • Sooli^ 
lend ' The fipopfer reteiuaes-of sthe'crown had, /long 
Mane .%\u» time, :beea 'alieaatecl >aad .eml^acraased 
akMsbrto «iiliiiQtioli» t . ;......« 

^iaoiea^ paverty^ )wwfiiH9K> wna .perils nevef 
leas diBtresaing to him than on the present ee» 
wiiian j The tp^ide >flf Qeatatry)} Car vihick (he 
8o»tohthave?«iWv«^been>mm0i^aJbleyAiMlqoe4 them 
(i^dostt m their ^pervner (tq^olfit hb <wiehc8 ao .»9f 
gttd lo' the apfManooe'^ ;riie kingdeoi before the 
Mpected'eimBgen, <a4idi6^!«k/ra9pect .of .the vean 
^ itnbich te deoiffed fta taffeaent ^nt for hia iooi^ 
vttf iheoie^ : Bf «n,«xtf aonfinary esertioi^. dbang^ 
9itfthe<espeBse of a^gneat soi^ltitude ?of ladiiqidiuila^ 
^/pdlaee/iraaifiniabeil aad f^Foidbediii. very-apleiH 
^dftt^ie, mother honee in ^; eity ii»8 .pnepanaA 
faritfaelSlineBfa .DaB]iih.lH^ti, a.few avail Fife 
^•iaieis.iveitB »aeiit ^mtitorDenoiasky ands^eat 
^in^y el aMidea wbre .pM^iared for the pageaii* 
tBMs wiueh iirare:to^/iaiiafitedon hi8a(rctval. Be^ 
oides' tfaete. mare imq^tanit aFFangements^ thei» 
viecasomeof jirhnmbler iialQ9e» ivriuch^eqaattyfloaikn 
^ the desire of the people to put the country into a 
today altitade, * I3ie4ow»«otA6il of Edinboigh, 

158 UFS OF 

neaolving that the Btmog^n should see as little' «» 
possible of the filth and the mendicity for whiok 
the country was remarkable, ordained that * M 
persons purge and clenze the streits, calsayis, and 
gntteris foment their awin hoosis to the mid chan^ 
nel, as weill in the hie gait [jmne^Mi streef] as ia 
the rennelis [lanef\^ ' and that * all beggaris t^^ 
moTe, swa they be nocht fand beggand wiUiia 
this bmghy or betniz this and Leith, or ony uther 
part within the liberty or jurisdiction of this borgh.* 
They also ordained the bailies ' to pas throir 
their qoarteris, and borrow fira the honest nycht* 
bonris thairof ane qnantitie of the best sort of thair 
neiprie \jtable Unen}^ to senne the strayngeris thai 
sail arryre with the Qoeen, and the said bailies to 

S*f the nychtbooris thair awin ticket of ressait 
airof. ' 

On the first of May, after these and snndrjr 
other preparations had been made, the King and 
Qneen arrired at Leithi accompanied by the Ad* 
miral of Denmark, and other persons of dignity^ 
and haying a convoy of thirteen large Danish ship* 
of war* The citizens of Edinburgh and Leith vat* 
mediately flocked to the shore, each in his bes» 
dothes and arms. About seven at night, the Kingr 
led the Qneen ashore, ^ by a trance corered witb 
fiipestrie and cloth of gold, that her foot might not 
touch the earth. The Duke of Lennox, the Eadsr 
of Mar and Bothwell, with snndrie otheis, receive, 
ed them at the stayr-heads. The castle and shipar 
shot great ?ollies.' * Mr James Elphinston, a se-^ 
nator of the College of Justice, (afterwards Lord: 

Bdmerino), welcomed the royal pair in a Laliiv 


, . . « Cald«nrood, SIS. , 


I I • • • V 

oration. * The Queen being phced in her lodg- 
ings, the King took the chief of the Danes by the 
hand} every one after another. [Between thirty 
and forty of these persons were dignified men,' 
with ' goldin chenyeis of gnid faschionn ;** and 
the whole number was two hundred and twenty* 
four.] The King now received a visit from thi 
fninister Bruce, whose services in keeping the 
country quiet during his absence he acknowledged 
m very warm terms, afterwards accompanpifg hinf 
to the church of Leith, to return thanks to the 
Almighty for his prosperous voyage. 
' As the preparations at Holyroodhouse* wero 
Scarcely yet completed, James remained for'a feiv^ 
days in a palace, called * the Kingis Wark *' mi 
Leith, his train chiefly lodging in the ships. At 
length, on the 6th of May, the royal party made 
their progress towards Edinburgh. * The King' 
and nobility rode before ; the Queen came behind, 
in her Danish chariot, with her maids of honour; 
on each side of her Majesty one. The coach was 
drawn by eight horses, caparisoned in purple vet*' 
vet, embroidered with gold and silver, very rich;^ 
The town of Edinburgh, Canofagate, and Leith, bt 
their arms, gave a volley of shot to the King and' 
Queen in their passage, in joye of their' safe any-' 
tal.' f — * In this manner, they passed to the Ab- 
bey of Holyroodhotise,' where * the King, taking^ 
the Queen by the hand, led her through the inneF 
dose to the great hall, and thereafter to the cham«' 

♦ • Moyses. ' 

-f Caldenvood, Ma« and Mr GitMon-Cnig's f Vuptm 
nUtive to the Marriage of King James VI.' 1828. 


Hien, sirbich wen nehVy haag with oloth of rgoU 

. The Qaeen was orowiied in the Abbey chiircb$ 
<ii Tuesday, tbe 17th of May, Mr Robert Brace 
performiog tbe chief offices, which formerly used 
to be done by a bishop. The Presbyterian mi* 
luaters on this occasion scrupled greatly about the 
psopriety of anointing the Queen, judging that ee? 
remooy to be of a somewhat Popish savour ; bojt 
James knew how to bring them to reason : He 
Iniited that he could wait a little, till a certain hi* 
shop, whom he mentioned, could make it conre^ 
ttient to come to Edinburgh, to perform the cere- 
mony. Alarmed at what he said, they lost no. 
lame in agreeing that th^re was no harm in thi( 
oil ; and the oetiemony was accordingly performed 
in the i^ual way. When it was qoncluded, An<^ 
dcew M^ySle uttered a long congratulatory poein,^ 
m Iiatin bezameters, to the gieat delight of iba 
Kjng and bis friends, who joined in soliciting that 
i^ should be printed. This poem was so elegants 
in its constructkm, and so apt to the occasion, aa^ 
lo attrabt die praise of tbe best foreign scholars, and 
to extend tbe fame of tbis great erent in tbe Ji£» 
of Janies*iiBurlher than it perhaps could have others 
wise tcavdledi 

; About this time, James procured a marriage 4o, 
take^place betwixt bis £uthfnl school-fellow and 
counsellor, tbe Earl of Mar, and Lady Mary. 
9tnaTt, daughter of the late, and sister to tjie pce*^ 
■ent Duke of Lennox. It is a tradition in toe fa* 
ady of Mar, that the Earl,» before tbis period, 
wtm ia widoirfieed, bad eaMuhed aaliaUatfeoii* 

• Calderwood, MS. 


jnoittV as to^e extental Jtif^ifuciMo 9f Urn 1^ 
whom it should he his ^t^ to daiiy.for tbei secoml 
tioiei JAd that, the 4:oaj«ror. showing )^ « fi^uie 
in a glaas sonewfaat like Lady Mary, Jia at.imaa 
fall distractedly ia lore with ber< U|ifortaii^)|r 
&ir his pasaion, the young lady had a gieat av^ 
qioa Uf beGomiBg the second wife /of ^ man wJha 
had ahready.aa e^h^ iaxxply to inheiat Jiia tit\^ 
^Bd estate9;;.aad, moreovei;, the K^g .in^.4v;ipf< 
fm&d to ha?e destined her for i^noi^ec. ]V^(m^ 
t]iarsfore» .fen.,gneron9ly ill, tpad .seined ahont^ 
tft .ieqact that stipapga ahawrdity, a nan* witb m 
l|ifge family, dying for love. . Bi|t. the.lUiigft W 
ing i9forinAd of his illneas by a lettei« yjpit^ 
]^ in his.^fflic^qpG^ .ai)d cbe^^. {ivi». up hy.^n 
^aimingy in.MS'UBO^ boistej-oii^ way^ ' 3y G«-i^ 
ye Hs^anna dee> Jock, for ony kas in a' the la^ f. 
liia.Mi^^^sty.afterwai:4l8 ea^rted thpa^ p^irers. i^ 
wall dameatfc Afttrigyie for which he was J^an^i^in 
fble^ iU'bciQgiiKg, about' a^ipatch betwe^Mi JUs LW-^ 
aUip and fUdy Mary-r-ia watch, which jirqyied as^^i 
GflediAgty^ilpfKy. • . ' . . . , .i 

« The Qaaen>'iwo 4ay«( aft^r her Q(HFonatJM>)B»ii^a4ii 
a ptogiess .tbrof^h the city of iEdinbiifghb .a^at-^ 
tended by James. Tb^ ceuaiyionials nsed on (bft 
aoGaflion wer^ of a oatiir^ so cqstly, as^t^o gir^ Ma 
ajaaiaa Mn^peoifol! notion lof jbbe.cesovceis of Sfioir/ 
land nt^be f«riod» than we are in ge^exal dispc^ed 
tofealefflp)ii4 At ,tb9 woote j^boov there waSi^w-c 
lafaa pedantry in the shew;! and nvuques |^t «¥( 
to^wdo^nelihe Qaaen, which proi^es the fmbUbt 
tMe to ba^ been yery barbarous. 4- child likat 
Cnpid descended from a gilt globe above the gate 
«f efttry, to preeeat A^ kxys lof llie city to her 

150 LIFE OF 

A^^ty. * Sixty ycmng eitb;ens, draoed like Moon, 
danced throitg:b the town before her. The nine 
Moses stood round * the Batter Tron' — proh see* 
Uu f — < bravely arrayed in'cloth of silyer and gold^' 
and sang psalms to the Queen as she passed, while 
sr yonng man, probably designed for Apollo, ac- 
<^ODipanied them on the organ \ The whole was 
ffti exqaisitely aboard compound of ancient and 
modem divinity, being partly dictated by the lite* 
my taste for the classics, and the popular taste 
for religion. At tho High Church, her Majesty 
keard a sermon ;-^at the Tolbooth, she was intro- 
duced to the four virtues, Justice, Temperance,' 
Pjrudence, and Fortitude ;^-at the Cross, she was 
regaled—- first with a psalm, and then with a sight 
fi * Bacchus, upon a puncheon of wine, drinking, 
and casting the liquor in cup-fulls upon the peo« 
pie/ The principal street of Edinburgh, famed 
for its width and loftiness, was on this day Uned 
wM tapestry from top to bottom^ many of these 
pieces of tapestry representing stories in ancient 
history, so that the whole must have had a singa« 
lUrly magnificent effect At the extremity of the 
city liberties, a box of precious stones, valued at 
twenty thousand crowns, was presented to her Ma- 
jesty as the gift of the town, and she was again 
regaled with pgahns, accompanied by organ music* 
A few days before this grand ceremonial^ the 
Queen's Danish friends had made a progress by 
Falkland, Dunfermline, and Linlithgow, to take 
teine in her Majesty's name of the dotarial pes* 
sessions which the King had granted to her by hia 

* The keys laid on a plate, and co?ercd with a veil» w 
wai the old feibion. 


treaty of maniage. These dignitaries simhi after 
left the country, accompanied by their retinoesy 
all except about sixteen persons, male and female, 
who remained about the Queen's person. The 
Scotch chroniclera are inhospitably particular in 
recording that, during the time they staid in the 
country, they put it to an expense of twelye hun- 
dred merks daily ; which was too immense an ex* 
penditare, oyer and above the usual costs of the 
court, to be long tolerable. 
* Nothing ^Ise is remarkable about James*s mai^ 
rif ge, except that Elizabeth sent an ambassador to 
congratulate him on the eventy and to carry pre- 
aents to his wife. The ambassador was the same 
person * who -had sat jus' chancellor on the jury 
wbidi condemned hip mother to the block; a proof 
striking, above all others, of what I have oftener 
thau once had to point out in the course of this 
aarrative, the want of delicacy— the total insensi- 
bility to all that is now called good iaste, which 
characterized the age. 

* The Earl of Worcester. He brought a cloak finely 
trimmed round, and set with rich jewels ; a carcanet with 
pearls, a tablet, and a clock. 

|56 XIFE CHP '* 

VBUuuurcx or thx xauiL or bokhwxXiI. aiqx tbs cubot--* 


The first y^r of JaiiNte't married life war spent 
ia some degree of quiet. Nieither the nobility noir 
the miViiirterB troubled him much daring' that pe^ 
ffiod. It was not to be expected, however, that he 
ecrald remain long onannoyed by one or other of' 
tfresetnrlmlent bddies. In ttt)e spring of 1591, an 
mdividual of the former clasr began'a series of dis^ 
tnrbfuices, which embittered the King's life for se- 
Veral y^ars. This was Francis Earrof Bothwellf 
kis iHegitimatis cousin, $aid the nephew of the 
former and more infamous Earl of the same title. 
Bothwell had been concerned in the intrignes which 
tjie Earl of Hnotly, and some others of the Scotch 
nobility, carried on with the Spanish goremment, 
for luthering the object of the Invincible Armada ; 
and in May 1589, he had been regularly condemn'^ 
ed as guilty of treason on that account ; though 
the King, from anxiety to keep on good terms 
with the Catholics, hung up the process against 
him and his accomplices. Bothwell was a man of 
exceeding violent passions. In the snmm^ of 

f 56i^ be bttd veceked aoine eontaiiyelioa language 
from Sir Williafn Stuart, who was then in bi^ ^ 
ymwj from his masmty in empprenaing the Cal&oliei 
tQ# t^ Bo«ith of Scotland. ' As this langnagiei waa 
giren ift-tiie King's presence, he did not resent ii 
on the instant ; bnt he openly vowed to be< re^ 
venged. Some days after, happening to meet Sift 
Wiilkm on the principal street of Edinbingh, he 
dlpew his sword, and called to him to stand ta Ins. 
defiance. A conflict took placej in which the ser^ 
'vantfr joined. Stuart soon lost bis sword, in conf- 
aeqnence of a thmst by which be killed- one of 
BothwelFs retinne. He then fled to a cellar in 
the neigfabonrhood, whither Botfawell pnrsiied him, 
andllliece killed bis defenceless antagonist, by re^ 
peated wotmds; Stirange to say; the King, Stoftik 
his pecnliar sit nation, was unable tn take- any legal 
cognizance of this atrocious homicide. He waa^ 
efen- obliged to make tbie very nobleman, within a. 
few mon^s, one of bia regents to goTern the coan* 
tiy during bis absence in Denmark. 

It Is not now easy to discern, througb die iiK 
^lyed politics of James's court, bow he at lengtdb 
came to look upon Bothwell as an enemy to bis 
person. It is generally thought ibat ChanceUdr 
Maitland was the cause of his ruin, from dread' of 
bii tufl^ulent and ambitioua character. But, pro^ 
bably, the Earl had tdso offended James by some 
assumptions on the score of bis descent ; for th^ 
Aougb the King was^ by his genealogy, the un* 
doubted hdr of both Scotland and England, yet 
be was induced, by the disposition wbi<^ the €a** 
tholics and dissenters manifested to set aside bia^ 
suQpession, to dread eyery sort. oC pretender^hom^ 
atrer absurd bis claims* 

.. Perbi^ after ally the 'inorepvolMhUe fray tf'a<^ 
£(Muitnig for the disgrace .of .Bothwell* is to pfifje 
/credit to the charges brought agaioat him by Mailr 
jand, and for which he ostensibly saffered, that h^ 
4U)nsalted with necromanoers and witchef, for the 
j)iirpo9e of destr^yipg the King, and procaring bis 
4>ym exaltation. It was his own constant declan^ 
tipn that be was. innocent of any sncb. offence^; 
and the. scepticism of later historians^ in indnoiag 
them to scoff at witchcraft, has led. them also t0 
.write as if there could have been no sncb thing ap 
' consulting with persons professing the art. B11I9 
/BB it is now known that both Bothwell find his schP^ 
,were, at a later period^ noted for using such acts» f 
^nd as instances are on record of persons of equaL» 
ly good condition consulting sorcerera more than n 
century later, there seems to be no reason on tbut 
.account for supposing bis crime fictitious. — Bitt 
fhiB is a subject which will require to be treated 
jbA spjooe length. ■ . 

One of the most prominent charges brought a? 
^nst the intellect of King James, is his belief la 
.witchcraft ; and an allusion to bb famous book qy. 
;Pse|iionology, is a favourite way of pointing an e^ 
<grammatic sentence against him* Many who nevtir 
read bis book take it upon them, from the changed 
i>piaions of the age regarding witchcraft, to sneer 
at him for giving his countenance to so base a e»* 
4)^jtition« But, how easy it is for a small minJ, 
junidst the means and appliances of a late age» tf 
assume a superiority over the picture of a great 
jone struggling with the sloughs and shadows of a 
former and dcurker time I 


See Mr Sharpens IntrodoctiQn (0 Law's MemorialU* 

KINO mCSi 1!HE FIBST. 101 

Tbwtt MS* oone, matten of opmira, in which no 
jtoind is ia ndKraace of its age* Witchcraft wan 
4»ie of these till «rithia the IfuC hundred yeara. It 
•i^ qmte observable, that all the best informed iii- 
teileclSy both iq Scotland and in £ag]and» sam^- 
'Itoped that si^entitioo, down to the time of the 
JRcivolatioB. The cai^se is the same with thi^t 
.whiQfa .roBdeia a g^eat miad eqaally capable of re* 
^l^otw ferroyfy with the aaeanest and most coii- 
Ai<6d» Wherever it is looked apon as a dnty to 
<<lKnpt alky thing ireai 4be ecdinary nodes of rea* 
^Stmi^ then no wonder that aU kinds of intellect 
nlHca^r^iseiveic widtfsnt hesitation^ Snch was the 
-elM^ with wttehcMft ahoi«t two handled years ago-: 
j^ wMItt easeiitial thiogin the religions ci:eed of all 
#vderao{.lhe peojrfe ; to deny it was hlaapfaemy, 
4ft at least disrespect for the dicta of Scripture* 
•Sorojly.itf icTn vOiy B^raage thing, that a man who 
fulfilled in his life and opinions the whole idea ^^ 
^ good GhrisfSaUy* aeeordiag to the views eater- 
4auied of that cfaarafcter in Ms own tfane* shon)d» 
-ilt -the' dsMaaee of two hundred yean, have so 
maiA disoo^ufited from his aaerit on (we hand for 
Mperitltion, so mtich oa another for ignorance, 
•aad thi|8 be Mi with a aiiaerable fragmentary re^ 
viMioa.of what wasori^baily a very goo4 to- 

But,' while Jaiaes merits this general exqilpa- 
4lioa from tbechaige of undue superstition, the 
* Damionokigie'' which he compiled ^n the sub* 
jsieir is iok itself a vefy strong particular one. Hiis 
work is by no meansi what .is generally^ supposed, 
.••tseatiee written as a jnece of -special pleading, to 
.fgor^An fjm^ff^ of witehi^aft* 9qA to impraia 

Vol. u l 

3:68 LiFE'oy 

that belief more firmly on the pnbKe nliiid. ' It ie a 

'sort of feutfeiprit'^xhe play of a scholarly minid 

en a snbject much beneath it ; and^ instead of be* 

ing an ailment all on one side, it is a dialogiM 

'between a |>er8on who is nnwilling to belioTe in 

-witchcraft, and one who does believe in it, and 

'rather a statement of all the reasonings jmv a&d 

amtroy than any thing else. There is much piety 

in the book, mnch quotation of scripture, mni^ 

acnte and sensible observation; bnt, thotfgh the 

'Writer evidently believes in the psendo art wfaibh 

ikmns the subject of the treatise, and gives the 

'last word on all occasions to the dialogist who bo- 

'lioves in it, I cannot allow that the result of llw 

'whole is to give a mean view of the mtellect of the 

' writer, or to entitle him to the sneers whicb-are 

so frequently aimed at him by modem wiiters, 

• and by othm, who are totally unacquainted % 
genend with the real nature of what they are ^n- 
lessing to despise. 

It was early in the year 1691 that the dis- 
covery was made which led to Both well's acea- 
satmn. The ecclaircissement was so simple in lis 
'-process, as to put out of the question all sur- 

• mises as to a conspiracy on the partof the Kiag 
or of Maitland against him. A man of the name 
of Beaton, depute-bailie of IVanent, near Edin- 
burgh, was surprised to observe that his servant 
girl, Giles Duncan, frequently absented h«^f 
from his house during the night, and that all of % 
sudden she began to profess a power ofeniuji^ 
diseases miraculously, and doing other things wMm 

' seemed above nature. Hib thought proper to tat^ 
tnre her for the purpose of lettningher s^Bret^ 
when she Aedosed to him that the had a wmgim 


.whbtbedevilf mid i^onned mincl^by witchctali 
ilet confession being confirmed by a diiscoVery of 
jirhat was called a wUcKm mark on the front of 
her aeck, she was pat int^ prison at Edinburgh^ 
.where she soon after accused a.mnltitnde of other 
persoasi male and femalei of .the same crimej . all 
•4>f whom were immediately apprehended. Among 
jihese were — Agnes Simpson, midwife at the tiI* 
Jage of Keith in Lothian, whom Spottiswood de- 
.apribes as ' a woman not of the base and ignorant 
mrtof witches, bat matron-like, graye, and set- 
]4ed in her answers, whidi were all to some, pnrr 
.pose '-^Barbara Napier, wife of Archibald 
^hs of Cashogle— and Eaphame Macalyean^ a 
^gentlewoman of birth and fortanoi the.daaghte|*!of 
;■, deceased Jadge,. and wife of an advocate at. the 
JScotdi bar. .These women are described by John* 
«toD, in his history, as « dignitate ioTm> hwd de- 
^leperes;' and indeed, it is the most.sarpriaiQg 
thing abont the whole of this strange expoB6, ^ust 
it incalpated people of edacation^and gi^pd rank. 
{^18 thos evident, that tampering with forl^id^n 
. arts was very common among all ordos of society 
in this age ; the greater crimes, as usual, Aquiish- 
jog at the same time that religion was loudest in 
^ts inrectiTes against them, and the laws {oaiqst se- 
▼ero in their ponishment. '. . . « 

The rank of the prisoners, the high crimes they 
.Wiwre cbaiged with, and a cariosity which he seems 
lo have entertained regarding occalt arts in gene- 
pal, indoced the King to have these> 
aoaiiiied ia hk own presence at the^palace* .At 
|bBt Simpson would confess nothing ; but, being 
taken back to prison and tortared, dbe, at 
iMud interriew, made a fall dedim^qn of all lifr 

Kbjestjr wite in- 'D^wn&tkf tibe hlul, vAth «iMne so 
compliceBy e&dearoated to detttnoy bils fifi^'at tH 
eommand of the Etirl of Bothwell^ by exfoftltog i 
tTHX image of him at a slow fire, aiid ntridg somis 
ittcdntalioiis for the ptirpose of caoringliis prMoi: 
io mdt away by correspondhig degrees ; that slie 
bad nsed arts to prevent liie vessel in which tlfe 
i^een was embi^ed, from reaching Scotlaiidy and 
aftemardil to wreck the ddp in mich botli tiiefr 
IMbtjesties sidled from Penmark ; and that, whelk 
these attempts had Med from some informiiSity \k 
Uie process^ she endearocved to procm'e from M- 
feniial sources, infbrmadon for Botftwell airi«rth^ 
fige his MfjMty wad natmally destined to reai^B, 
and whether, he shonld have any chanctf of «fi6' 
ii^ediiig Inm. Besides these mattets of 'seHoos frh*- 
i^ort^ die confessed many others wliith WeitB oftily 
ladidroQs : — on ihe eVe of lust Hallowmass; ^m 
hsA gone, by the intitfiitidn of the deril; to the 
dinrch of ^orlSi Berwibk, in Eut LoAitti, where^ 
M. her arriral, she joined a company of about twb 
Imndred odier sorcerers and sorceresses, a)t itf 
Whom immediately proceeded to dance throng 
Ihe dnrchyard, ' to a tune which was played to 
lliem on a Jew^s harp by Giles Dnncan, and each 
alternately chanting to another, 

Coninier, go ye before ; cummer, go ye : 
If ye will not go before, cummer, Kt me. 

{Hevetibs IQng orased(l)iiwan krbe famngiit he^ 
fim hkn-, in- order to pliy«tlwfe tontf oi»r 

. ^ BaUffween* 4 mi^r coi|SMnited| as.aQ. pfli«QM#6r 
jqufiii^witb Bums's poenA must jrepoUcd^ to tiie rereU 
of witches and hobgoblins. 

KING JAUftEi f^lffE FIRST. ]6I^ 

ipiMob «1m 4i4» to the gim( ataMtfrneat pf Ui M«^ 
jfwftf ««4 tba c«i»rtier« preseaU] When tb% 
d^Bce wa».coiicA«ded> a y^gniig torcerer of ^e namf^ 
^ CwpnuigbfMQy achoofapa^ler pf Preeumpans, wbQ 
took a IcM ia die whole prfM:eediiigi> opened th^ 
^bwvti* e^ ligbtod a iwmber id Qaii<Uee ; wheat 
t^ whole aweiaUeg^ hiring enlered and eeate4 
^pselyfs, the de^ eaddeidjr started up in th^ 
pulpit, in the appearance of ' ane meikle Uaclf; 
mam ' ^ filad 19 « Uack gowoj with a black hat 
upon hie head, ' bia n^M l^^e au ea^le> be^ and 
l|ia haAd9 aadiibitiug claws instead of nails at th^ 
fdltreiuitie^t Seiag ^urrenuded by lights, like 9^ 
meis^ el thf proieaii day at an oFeuing dia« 
fBavnte-r^eacb light * held lyk by ane deid man'^ 
hand ' (a trail ef hoiror which perhapa suggested 
l^rt Qf 6urns*9 de8criptio^ of the in^rior of M^ 
)oway Kirk), the £neiuy oi Man preached a bn^* 
lesqua mmm w tWteic^ ' Many gp to the mafr 
]Eet».but all buy not;' afl^r which he ^^ried 07er tli^ 
iiaiueii qf hia congi^galiipn, tp which one by oof 
apaw^^ At. hiac9«imaad» they thevL opened thire^ 
gse^em tuFo withia» aiid one without the churck 
aady ^ing forth th? <H)rp9es> ^t ofiF certain jointjib 
w|iich he 4h»cted them tu griivl iato a powdi^ 
fyf the ptirpose ef hmg used h their incanta^im* 
He theiEi asked if they had h^eia gopd servant^ j^ 
him since their last ipeetij^ and what particular 
service every oqe had dpne. He ordered them 
to keep his con^mandmentSi which werie, in one 
word, just < to do all the eyil they ceuUU ' ii- 
aaily, aa th^ had that night diftpkyed » Uttfe ne« 
gligence regarding the hour of atteudancei and 
kept him waiting foi; «Qme t|me ha&re they ar- 
rived, he ftulgecied thaw t0 a penaaoe ^iawar to 

166 LIFE or 

Ae salntation which good CaihoTics perform ta 
fhe Pope's toe, the women going bef<H^ and then . 
the men. According to the report of Calder* 
Wood, the historian of the Scottish chnrch, one of 
the men, whose nickname was GraymeiU, endea* 
▼oared to avoid this degradation by staying behind 
the door ; but Satan marked him in hk retreal, 
and * it behoved him also to kiss at last. ' The 
assembly then broke np. 

Among ^^ffy distinct instances of necromancfy 
which are displayed against Simpson in her in- 
dictment, periiaps the reader may tolerate one for 
a specimen. • Being sent for to Edmonstone, to 
decide by her sapematnral skill whether the lady 
of the house should recover from an illness or not 
-—for women of her order appear in that age to 
have been as regularly caUed to the bedsides of 
the side as physicians — she told the attendants 
that ^e could. give them the required information 
that' evening after supper, appointing them to meet 
her in the garden. She then passed to the gar- 
den, and, as was her custom in such cases, utter- 
ed a metrical prayer, which, according to her own 
confession, she had learned from her fieither, and 
which enabled her to determine whether the pa^ 
iient would be cured or not, as, if she said it with 
one breath, the result was to be life, but, if other- 
wito, death. This prayer was as follows >^ 

* I trow [trust'] in Ahnigbty God, that wrought 
B^h heaven and earth, and all of nought ; 
In his dear apn, Cbriit Jetu, 
In that comely lord I trow, 
Was gotten by the Haly Ohatst 
. Bom of the .Viigin Mary, 
$tapped to heaven, that all weil than, 
' And Bits St hU fatfasi^g ticht hand. ' 


He bade us oone and their to dome' 
Baith quik and deid to him convene. 
I trow also in the Hal v Ghaist ; 
In baly kirit my hope is maist. 
That baly ship where halkmers wins 
To ask forgiveness of their sinsy 
And syne to rise in flesh and bane. 
The lip that never mair has gane. 
Thou says, Lord, loved may ne be 
, . That formed and made mankind of me. 
Thou coft [bought] me on the haly croMi 
Thou lent me body, saul, and voce^ 
And ordanit me to heavenly bliss ; 
■ Wherefore I tliank ye, lord, of this. 
That ail yoor haHowers loved be. 
To pray to them that pray to me. 
And keep me fra that fellon fae. 
And from the sin that saul would slayer 
Thou, lord, for thy bitter passion in, 
To keep me from sin and warldly shame, 
. And endless damnation. Grant me the joy never 
will be gane, * , 

Sweet Christ Jesus. Amen. * 

Haying stepped in the eoune of this long prayeri 
•be despaired of the lady's life. However, she 
ealled upon ^e devii^ by the name of Elpha, to 

* Her prajer, or conjuration for the heaUng of sick- 
aeas '^''^ ** loUows :•— 

* All kynds of ill that ever may be. 
In Christ's name I conjure ye. 
I conjure ye, baith mair and less, 
By all the vertues of the mease. 
Arid lycht sa with the naillis sa, 
That nailed Jesus and not ma. 
And rycht sa by the samen bludoi 
That reekit ower the ruthful rude, 
Furtfa of the flesh and of the bane. 
And in the eaid and in the stane, 
LoMyture y*in God's namsb ' 

Becordt of Jmlidarp. 

]o9 . 'jufms* 09^ 

come to speak t^ her. He friwuu ily $fpmted 
climbing oyer the garde^-w$U, in the flhiipe of 
large dog; and he came so near hery that, gettiii|f 
afraid, she chaigad kiny by die kir that he lired 
on, to keep at a certakt distanee. She then: asked 
if the lady would live ; to which he only answer* 
edy that ** her days were gane. " He^ in hie tnm^ 
asked where the yosag gsatlesremeB, danghteiv 
to Lady Edmonstone, were at present. She aa* 
sweredy that she expected soon to see them i|i the 
garden. " Ane qf tjiemi " said boi " will be in 
perill ; I wish to ,haTe her. " On her answering^ 
that it shoold not -be so wHh her eensenty he *^ de*- 
partit frae her,^ says the ii)d.ict.iiie,nt9 ^ yowliiig;^ 
and from that dme till after s^pp^ert ha iw^ined 
in the draw-*well. After anp^ery tlie^ yo«ng ladiea 
walked oQi into the garden, to* learn the r^strit of 
Mrs Simpson js incpiri^; pa which the devil 
came oat of the well, and, seising the skirts o^ 
0«e of them, (probaUy » Manned 09e» avMalie is 
called Lady Tor8Qnce)i dreir her itioleB% lowaidb 

the ,pit froaa wUeb : Jie had ^v^'0«^ i ^^ ^ '^ 
added that, if Simpson and the other ladies had 
BOt ezert^ed thenaehve to heid het bach, h»<«NMild 
have succeeded in his wishes. f%Dding himself 
disappointed of hi^ prey, he < passit «[Way thair* 
efter, with ane yowle. ' The object of hb raFen* 
ona passions faiAted^ and wea carried home ; she 
lay in a phrenzy {or three or lour daysy and coin 
tinned sick and cripple lor as niaiByflionths* And 
it was remarked that, whenerer the wise wife of 
Keith was with her, she was well ; hut, on her 
gomg away, all the dai^terons apvplfHoa r^itnmed. 
In the mean timoy it k to^ b^ av|ipoB6d| the old 
lady died. 

KING jiiMEs Me first. \69 

'- 'Hmtr IQflg Hmm tWald tll m -Mi &mn at 
Hd^WDodbouBe, «iKi iisteii wifh lalerail and be« 
lief ta aach eoototiMiB a* tkeae, aeems at the pre^ 
malt dajf it mmt' hm allowed, aa atnoige a thin^ ato 
#id{ eould ha. It » only» IwvraTer, an iltetm* 
tiOTi of tba ag» ha lived is, of itsabtard opinioiMr 
and ptacdoasy not of his mind in aaTiiei:dar. He 
aaj of* eonraa ba aqaalty j^tifiad for tba aerais 
■Maaarae wlaeb ha took with tha wiaardt,^ aH of 
iiiiont> it miiBt ba ramaaibaf^d, were more or \m$ 
goiky of tba real crimea of abaainif the cpedvdity 
of the paoplei aad of at least makiag tba atteaspt 
to do ittjory ta tbeir follaw^^reataMa. A great 
aita^r of tboaa aifeeraUw wretdiea wem pat to 
death dariiig tha course of the year ; iMoiC bA of 
them teattfyidg to the jastiee of Aeit aaaaence^ hf 
e«Bfeaiia|g tb^ gailc at the tvey stake ; while 
the people expressed scarcely a nmrmiir at theii^ 

la eonaeqatenoe ^ tba confesaiaas of Mrs Sioip«' 
son, the Eaii of Bothwell i^iaatarfly eaitered into 
eonfiaemeBt in Ediolmygh Cwtle^ desiring to be 
trfed'fer his soppoeed oifenoe» llie whole of wbtehf 
ho deabid. It #ag bie first belief ^at the wizavdr, 
on aeeount ofilieir iafttmous character, wonld not 
bo admitted as aridetfoe agalnat hhos ; and he thesej' 
fore aatieipated a* triamphant aoqnittal, whidb 
ahoald not oidy restore him to society and the 

- f In tbe 0BHDonefe|^ ba aqw, < to spare the Hfi^ and 
Oo( to strike when God bicU rtnl^f sod so t^verely pumsk 
in 80 odious a fault and treason against God, is not only, 
unfawftdl, but' doubtless no lesse a sin in that magistrate, 
aor it was ia Satilesspiarfng^Df Agag ) and to oempanible 
tp |be sia ef 4»klicRpft itself ss tenucl eUfgcd at ibsl 

170 I.IF£OF 

King'* hrmMFf bnt also, perhaps, gire bim a pte^ 
pottdeniDce against the obnoxioos power of the 
Chancellor. It being soon determined, howevery. 
that the evidence of such persons might be ad- 
mitted, on the same principle as that by which. 
women, children, and persona of bad fame, were 
taken,, by the law of the land, to prove treason,: 
Bothwell thonght proper to break his prison, and 
seek safety in flight. James then caused doom oC 
forfisitare to be pronounced against him, for hia 
concern in the conspiracy of the Catholics two. 
years before, it being thought improper to outlaw 
him for the new crimes laid to his charge. Pro-, 
damation was at the same time made, by sound 
of drum, forbidding the subjects to afford him any 
countenance, food, or shelter, and commanding all 
to assist the magistrates in endeavouring to appro-, 
bend him. 

Bothwell entertained a conviction that be waa 
beloved by James, and he therefore threw the 
whole blame of this severity upon the Chancellor.- 
With the audacity inspired by this sentiment, and 
justified by the imbecility of the executive, he 
came to Leith three days after the proclamation, 
and, deliberately taking his supper in the house of 
a friend, set both the laws and their administrators 
al defiance. The common bell of Edinburgh was 
rung for the convocation of the citizens, that they 
might go and seize the traitor who thus insulted 
bis country. But, instead of any attempt being 
made to annoy bim, he was permitted to act upon 
the offensive against them. With a train of six- 
teen horse, he rode up to the lower gate of the 
dty, within which, at the distance of .• few yardst 
the bouse of Chancellor Maitland was situated^ 


lliera, loudly prodaimiDg that be vnaoi the Chim» 
edlor*8 homf and not at the Kmg'i — that is to say, 
diat he considered himself a rebel against Mait- 
hnd only.— be threw, a forty-shilHng piece on the 
gronndy and sud he would gi^e that to any body 
who donld bring forth his enemy without the 
gates. Nobody presuming to accept the offer, he 
sdd he would leave the piece, as a token that he 
had defied him. He then retired without the least 
annoyance, Maitland contenting himself; with the 
native measure of placing a guard of citiaena 
upon his house, to prevent a second attempt of 
the same kind. 

That an outlaw with sixteen attendants should 
have openly bravadoed in this manner before a 
Uog, a capital, and a seat of law, may well seem 
surprising m tbe present age. Yet it is only one 
of many wcumstances which could be instanced 
to illustrate the singularly feeble condition of the 
government at' this period. One or two cases 
may be mentioned. The King, immediately be* 
fore his marriage, was one day walking down the 
High Street of Edinburgh, attended by the Duke 
of Lennox and the Earl of Home, when the fov« 
mer nobleman, h^pening to meet the Laird of 
I^gie, one of the gentlemen of the chamber, who 
W offended him some time before, by refusinjg to 
i^tire from the royal closet when Lennox express- 
od a wish to have it ttshed or voided, he drew his 
>word : Logic ^w his to defend himself; and a 
coi^ict took place by the very side of the sov^ 
>!Bign; who, with his usual timidity, flew for re- 
fcge to the nearest alley, and was not content tiU 
he had got himself ensconced in a skinner's shop* 
Nearly about die same time, when Jiunes was sit* 

17fi uiWBmw 

ting Id Ih^ taftoolfa of FAifcringh,. «o ^^e hm» 
mg4M me$u9^'^rmtt9fia irinchslfneBdof Balk 
wA wi»thed#felMler, ihtft nehlenaii foiced awt|r 
a maa wIm> wm to gire evideaea for the pbi«tili^ 
nut of the rmf hoase where- the King was hold^ 
iag bii comt, and, carrying him eff to hia castW 
of CriofatoBt throng oftocn ai otnity citazena, an)| 
all other eppontion, there threatened hiai with thf 
gallowa for hanng gone to be a nritoeBa agahml 
his friend* * Bat &» gaeat aamher of mardenib 
which the Kiag» however willing, fooad Ufaeelf 
analifte to proteeate, theogh maxKj ef them took 
place on the streets of the city, la a anffideal 
proof of the powerteesness to which haa poverty^ 
and the raiiguMK and political disseatwaa of tha 
aoontrify hfld reduced him* 

Bothwell waa knowa to be again ia Leith on 
die 18th ef October'; when iba King hainng, with 
aome degree of spirit, moateeed a party of annadl 
IfieDds, led them in penon to attempt hie i^pn^ 
^lenaion. The Earl thoagfat prepca, ea this ocxaor 
aion, to Jy ; and die pavty was obliged to retani, 
tbanag only seised the .fagkitre*a best 1iobw» < call- 
ed Valeadne. ' f 

. On the 27di of Deceashev occoned hia nolal 
mttompt on James's perMm, called * the Raid of the 
t Abbey/ Bothwell had now procnred some degam 
«f epaatonanee-aad assistanoa from the Dofca ol 
^Lemimc, who, being a close attendant npea Jameals 
^ p e w on, waa able to giie ^ host inatmctioa so- 
-ganfing the proper method of inv^iag it. Thaa 
beffiended, he reeolved to renew the game pb^p- 
ed at &atfaf«n and fitir^ag soaao yearn bclDOty 


KING fkm%a friSE FIRST. 178 

iiopiD|^9 . ft^ VDo pMWSMvD- Of nw VOyBr pOniRl, fD 

t^ftfokil^oBi^e Vbe «^iflistrtrtN$n hi Ins town falraiif. 

*A% %evtn o'da^ on the ^ttif iM&liOBedy wbeii 

Jftinea Hsd jnUt eonekded stipp«r^ he was iKhnie^ 

fed, with 'a Itt^ {Mutj, by Bodie fi«t«ot» Helottgln^ 

tio the pahuse, whi^ wek^ apoti the compimcf. Al 

l^flEt late hour, wheki bo tnspicioti wm eiitertahied 

Hf hk approach, h^ might have succeeded witft 

great ease in -seishig Hhe King, who, IdliBgp in the 

Qneeii'D chamber, had sbarcely n guard to protect 

ilhi person fihoRi the aSsaSants* Bat a piece of 

hBpradent haste spoilt the^ whde plot. One l>f 

BotMwell'* accomplMBes was James Detiglas of 

Spoti whose only bbject in )Aie enterprise was 

W liheriitd sothe of hfs senraiits, #ho had heeti 

confined in the pahie^ on suspicion of mttr* 

<fe^. This man was no Sooner within ihn pat> 

hce, Ihaoy eager to dispsAch his aWn bnsiness, h^ 

tMafed his fMlowefrt to bi^lA: up the db^vs of thi 

fAa&b. wheiis bis men were confined, with fbre-ham^ 

ihers. The noise roused the King, and idso the 

ChanceBor, who happcsied to be "there itmiri^lht^ 

Immediately all was bustle within tlie palacei The 

Chancellor shut himself up securely iik hia own 

dmmbers. The door of tlm QUeen s apartments 

ifete barred. James, not^rthsttng t6 the strength 

lif llmt part of like palaM, rMh#d down a* bacft 

stdrj and dnew himself into a tower, Which Wat 

ttrach more dapabl^ of defetios. Whto BoiW^ 

^luhe to llie doora, and ibund them barred,- he eec^ 

Ipriessed the most yiolent rage. CaHtng* fer fire, he 

towed to bum down dl* obstacles which lay be^ 

twoen him and his prince. At that iMtant,* bow- 

over, Sir James SandHands, one of thegentlemen 

•f tlio Kiug^s diamberi entered the'paiace hyaf r»> 

*174 LIFE OF 

VBte way tbitNigfa tfaecliiifeh»aoi»mpaiiied iiy^ 
ber of ibe cttveeiis, who had. gathered at the fiia^ 
alarm. Had there been any lights, he would hare 
seized Bothwell and all who were with hinu But 
the darkness permitted the assailants to escape* Aa 
Bothwell went ont, he shot the King's eqo^rj^ 
who encoontered and attempted to stop him. S&ss^ 
of his attendants we^re seized, and, next day, hangr the palace gate, without assize. 

James was filled with uncere indignation at this 
attempt ; but he was also inspired with a feeling 
of gratitude to the Almighty for baring saved lum. 
He accordingly went next day to the High Chaichi 
to return public thanks for his pieserration. At the 
eonclusion of the sermon, he stated to the people til 
ibe benefits be had conferred on BothweU, and aU 
the acts of ingratitude which that nobleman ha4 
committed in return. He at the same time com? 
^hioed of the * harbourage ' which some of them 
ga?e this notorious pnblic enemy, but thsnkef^i 
die magistrates and people of Edinbuigh for. their 
prompt services against him on the precediiigp 

,. On the following day, as he attended pnbli^ 
wmship in ' his usual way at the High Churcbi 
John Craig, noted in Scottish history as the ma^ 
who drew up the national Corenant in 1584,. of- 
fered him one of those insults from the pulpiti 
which ^ere unquestionably not the least of the 
epwaes which he had for his subsequent atteinpta to 
ittlro^ace a different frame of worship into Sco^ 
land. The insult was the more poignant, that .it 
Wps eSered by one of the chapla^is of, his own 
houeebold. It consisted of an invectiTe against 
him for ha?u^ * lightly regarded the maoyUhiody 


i^ffte presciited to him by bis satgeefeBcmruig jiitf* 
tiee. ' * To reprove tbe King's indiffiireiicey con- 
^ued' Crtagy <God had made a noise of cry- 
lutgy and sent fore-bamraers tohis'door!' JameSf 
much incensed at this ribaldry, requested tbe 
people to stay after sermon till be should say 
something in his justification. Yet tbe only re* 
mark he made, besides what be said in bis de» 
fence, was, that, if be bad thought bis fee*d ier* 
vant would have dealt with him after that man* 
ser, be would not have suffered him to be so long 
in his house. Perhaps, if these clergymen bad bad 
a somewhat greater share of tbe good nature wbieb 
Oferflowed in their sovereign, much disturbance 
might hav^ been spared to l£e country duriag tbe 
succeeding century. It is not even recorded that 
James displaced Craig from bis situation in tbe 

- It would be difficult to conceive a situation more 
^sagreeable to tbe faculties of a king, than tfant 
b which James was now placed* With an un- 
^estionable right to tbe limited monarchy of Soot- 
knd, and the assurance of succeeding to a much 
more important kingdom, with consideraUe powers 
<tf intellect, and much literary accomplishment 
^ih tbe best intentions and a sincere wish to 
consult tbe good of every individual in tbe ldn^« 
dom, yet such was the difficulty of bis drcuB^ 

*- Tbas was an allttaon to tbe cuslmn of the friendacf a 
xsmfdered ftentm carrying his bloody shirt on a pole to the 
Kiog, as an incentive to the execution of tbe law upon the 
guilty. When the Colquhouns were overthrown in battle 
by i&e Macgregors on Lochlomoiid side, in 160(^ tuit 
hmmired bhtidy MrU wen braugbt before the Sing's eyei 

179 «.ff««» 

the> vtale^ aad obtigwd «v#rf dAf inr ihe fT^ld to dl» 
Ihinga the ntsi re^Mg^aoi lo hkinat«ife» Ob tte 
pari oC tim BAbilit)r4 be feiHid liule ^patby, M 
each 9f Aem was eageged ia atndyiiif his ow9 
asiish «ad» ; fitom the clergy he net with stttl lessi 
fee eteiy thing be did exeked in then oolf a ana* 
pioicm of ssiM design egaiast thsur own ordert 
while Us Witless onty afforded then hopes of eavr 
fensiog^ their BKetbitaat daina with the greater 

It' seems. to- hlwe been en thiflif prineiple tfasi- 
thef selaeted the preset jaaetare- lev tho piiii|»eae' 
of iailiefihig what they «aUed ni^^KiimmUhH' mf^m 
him. On the Sthof Deceviber^a^epvtaitmlisd^ 
sited .him^toadniniater a lebnkerfor his negleet of 
Ihe cxeieisea d idigioB in his (hmily} and to mge^ 
him to hare scripture read to him at dMnv aad 
anpper^ instead of the books of wdiaary litarattirey 
wliich^as weleamfiiomlMbBiuilieonDofoaybedei- 
ii§^ted to have pemsed-forliin on these oecMonar* 
•TUb was all thi^ thongbt it dtft€iM4o<say to bin- 
imblicl^l Baton the 17th) one of thetaest foi^ 
rwaad aad sealoos of their oBrtimbsr^ Mr John Da^ 
ndsony visited him privfttely^ to iti apthe grt wec r ^ 
artidea of the dittay. Tluii seferend' gemlenaa 
■* admoniBbsd bin of negleet of Justice and phMH 
lag mfit men in offiees» and iDfe>gnnlmgr<aMsdoaa»' * 
James, with a degree of patience and condescend 
jrfoDy wKcb at oner d^es* Inmlmnoary^aad'siip^ 
plies ns With the real view of his ailhappy dreitttK 
stances, answered, * that he fomud no concttrreareo 
Ja.infiHior magistiates*-4iQ^ not even jigainst Both^ 
'Well, who seii^bk life^ :iH«faer, thai>tiieM«W)Sib 
diiene offices of jastiee^ ' indoding'^liiO'ehefifr • 


Uiip% which WMPB' dtilMd bflieiltage. A« te 

-the fmrdiNw ivUeh hegnttted wkh bis own good» 
wttYy ^ lie woald answer for eyery one* that he gttf«» 
by good ki7*and veaaon. ' As for these which be 
fSrve agvfist bk-will, ' Mcfa was the miiltitade of 
bis bosineeses, that sbmo about him deoetf^ed him 
hf importnidtyy or f;ot stolen snbscri]iftions ; horn 
lAtcb kmd of dealhig he thought no flesb in his 
fij»e% coold well be fine. I9 regard to vnfit ofi^ 
mth be really knew not where to get others, for 
no man seemed to think of any interest bnt bis own ^ 
WtA his own wasso constantly in tbe*way, tbat be by 
oo-cbance €oidd cmisnlt tbat of • the pnUic Da^ 
tidson eppeavsto have fomid this apology bnt too 
saiisfoctory ; for ibe historian of iks dhorch bese 
bmda off with the blunt renaik*-.* Time strait- 
ening Mr Davidson, be desired he might bafeac^ 
OSes another time^ wbich was grained. ' 

Perhaps, the best comment upon the above i^>o« 
lof^y will be the prefiftce wbich James tins year 
affixed t»'a second volame'Of juvenile. poems, en« 
titled < Poetical Ezercuea ; V a composition, as Mr 
Gillies remaiks, < so interesting and nitassamingv 
tbit it cannot fidl td impress the reader with a ir^ 
Tonrable opinion of its author. ' / 

< EiCceave here, beloved reader, a shmrt poetique 
disednrss> which I have selected and translated 
from amongst the test of &e works of Dn Bartas/ 
as. n vive mirror of this last and most decrsepir 
9f^ Here shah then see-deariy, as in a gliMB^ 
d^ inisenes' of this wavering world, '&c.&e. *And 
io^^ase thoa find aswel in this wMk as in my Le^' 
panto follofnng, many incorrect^errors, bolb of the: 
dyteamit and- orthography, I most pray Aee to) 
aeiapt tfH»«rpasonable.«tc«ae, whidi is diis. Tban* 

VOL* !• M 

,d^ yeiani^iwl»9r^/Ni|ti|V9» iC^e^pl. id»9 ;were $k 

Miim, thaiiiqukmun^ingifn^ ami fg^t^t^uUt mp 

my pnkgibh and ^riig$ediAani^fyrim ^owmi 
in^ p^opa^ mw^* Ym^ 4<mvHi9 Imi ai siokm 

papery, and y€t inocht Aai wkh^frm ^mdmifiwsei 
4ptri4 AlvfttWH Tongh and nnp^lkked m they 
•ffo^; I offer tlieia iiDto (bee i wbicb bwg well ae* 
cepted, will more me>io faaele the preeemiiig/iintc^ 
ibee ef my Apoedyps fa pampbiaalic oommeatary 
on the book of tfae^ Kovelati<Hiii which lie bad 
ymttwBk'VtL the year 1^863» a«d also ei^eb number 
of my Paalokg as Jrhaveperfyiedy [a Itaoalatiaii of 
the P«aliBe> whicb Pope coasidered the heat in 
the Eogliah laoguage]) and eiUMiarage me 4^ the 
eodbg out of tbs rest. And tbnsy beloved reader^ 
recoeMnendiDg these lafoara to thy fneadly ae^ 
ceptation, I bid tbee.heartUie farewell* * 

Surely he must have had little experience of 
tbe joya and senows ef . liUNntufe^ aad must hav^ 
Tery ill eonsidei ed the dificulty wHb whieb. eocb 
pursitiis are reeoaciHed with the nBeessitieaof e^eryr 
di^ lifi% who can delibemteiy sneer at this toueb* 
]>ig.appeal» writiieQ as it is with each simple and* 
ttnaffeetedfeelingy and sotttteraaabsenee of alt- 
assamptioii froea laok or other exteroal ekeum*; 
stanceSi; • Yet it was. this same man,, who^ in thai 

iiMMaents:sto]eii fre» soveKeignty luod aadtiess» aadi 


ifAm kft ileiie with tko Eg^ria alf liw own im« 
lobed sad wifyowiied fiiiie]r» wrola'sudi fMetry m 
ihe foUovnng-i^wfaUsh. iy|HMir 8 d» :abcmt the Bame 
fioie, Ai ihe ooooln^a <Mf a Eren/di .tiiiialatifltt of 
bk poera of I4epaal0y f.eseoatod bj ^ibe eelabiatcd 
QitBartas. • 

The asure yaiilte, the ciy^fill cirqlef.bitghty 

The unlearning fyrie tor9fae$ powdered there { ^ 
. The cbangiqg rounds the.«hii»uig beaxoie light. 

The sad and bearded fyrei», the mopsten.faire ; 

Th9 prodigiet appearing .ia the aar^^ 
The reaidiog thunders and tbcb^iMtepng winda^ 

The foulea in hue an^ ahape.and uatMre.rare. 
The prettie notes that .winged mnaiciam finds f 
In earth, the ei^Trie floyrii^ the mtftUed ndnds, 

The. wholsum hi^rbes,. the hafitie. plemant trees, , 
The silver streams, the beasts oC si^ndrie kinds, • , , 

The bounded Koaces and fishes oC the seas ; 
. AIL these/or teaching men the Lord. did finuAe 
To do- his will whose glome shinesria thane* 

< Whea I read thk sonnet^ '^ says Mr GilUeSf h^ 
bis preface to the late jeprint of King. Jameses 
Poems, <I almost fear^ that» at:tbe beginmag of 
t^ese desaltory remarks, I bare top mach underi> 
valued the preteasions of Jamea to poetic merit. ' 
* Oae of the disagremen$, of James 9 situation was 
the necessity under which he lay of, heading littlp 
enterprises a^nst BothweU ; all of wUch were \mr 
successful, and therefore attended with the conse^ 
qoience of lowering him ia the eyea of his people* 
On one of these occasions, indeed, being the mosit 
awkward warrior in the world, he tumbled into a 
pool of stagnant water,, where h^ would have been 

180 tlFE dp. i 

drowned in spite of all the assistaiice Iii» C6artierft 
eonld render him, if a ntstic had not dragged hila 
oat. * Bat the distreMes which had beset the King 
lip to this period, were as nothing to those n^hicli 
were aboat to result to him from a very nnforta- 
nate transaction, whiUi took place on the night of 
the 8th of Fehnuuy 1591-2. For some time 
past, there had been a fend between the Earl <tf 
Hanttur, the chief Catholic peer, and the Earl of 
Moray, who, on the other hand, was one of the 
lea^g men among the Presbyterians. Moray, 
who was the son-in-law and heir of the celebrated 
Regent, and who was nniVersally esteemed fdr bis 
amiable disposition and singularly handsome pet« 
eon, had proroked the justifiable hostility of Hont- 
ly, by protecting a felon, whom he, as sheriiF, en- 
dearoared to bring to jnstice — a hostility, how- 
ever, which never assumed a decided aspect, iS31 
one of Huntly's kinsmen was killed by a shot from 
Moray's house of Damaway, while assisting him 
in prosecuting the ends of his office. Boon~af(er 
Bothwell's attempt, on Holyroodhouse, a report 
baring arisen that diat outlaw had gone north to seek 
assistance from Moray, the King, to prevent the !al^ 
iter from fidling into such a snare, dispatched Lord 
Ochihree to bring him to court, intending also to 
attempt a reconciliation between him and Hnntljr. 
Meanwhile, a second report arising that Moray 
lud already been in league with Bothwell, and 
'Was even seen in disguise among his attendants at 
ibe Rud of the Abbey, James was induced, by 
the importunity of Huntly, to grant him a coiii- 
inission to apprehend the young nobleman, and 

• Gsldtrwood, MS. 


hmg Kim' to trud. Thiur proridedy on'the after* 
lioon of the 8tb of Felutiaryi Hnntly rode with a 
Jacge party of honey from the house of the Provost 
eC £dmbiu^> where the King then lodged for se- 
entity; sod, giring oat that he was to attend a 
ItorBe^rsee at Lmth, directed his jonmey acroM 
Ihe Qneensfierry to DnnnibriaBle honae in Rfe* 
where he mnderstood the Earl cS Moray waa then 
ivsiding with hia mol^er. Thnsy it will be re* 
lHarked^ he made but one stage betwixt the pre^ 
eeQce*cfaamber of his sovereign, and the scene of 
^hat cmel tragedy which he was about to perform. 
Arriving at DunnibrisBler about nddnight, he beset 
the honse, aad caUed to the young Earl to come 
forth and surrender himself. Possibly, if Moray 
had at once paid obedience to the rojral commisr 
91011 which Hoiitly bore, the terms Of that com^ 
inission might not have been transgressed ; for wo 
«an scarcely conceive that a nobleman o£ HnnUy's 
loAOwn good character would have murdered ad 
fliamy in cM blood* But Moray had too good 
iMson Id dread the resentment of a man whom he 
.had sa deeply, injured ; and he resolved to deleiid 
itself to the last extremity* Huntly thea ap-^ 
{died fire to the gatesf for the purpose of fordn^ 
au .entrance* Moray, despmring of hk situation^ 
Jmld . counsel with \m friend Dunbar, the Shesiff 
«(, Moray, as to the possibilky of escape. Dun*' 
.i#r conceived the idea of xtashing out through did 
aasailnnu^ so that, while they were busied in de-^ 
fpatching, or at least in pursuing him, the Eaii 
.aught Inwe an opportunity of escaping compara^ 
tirely unobswved; He accordingly threw himaelC 
amongst them, and was instantly lolled. Moray 
Mlow)6d» m& had the godd Sagtmei as hia gmjer- 

182 LtTBOV 

domjriuid'iDake'liil'way deirn li»a Mi^gMiyavt cif 
the beach'neartlie llMsei The vehrei Mlge-cfr hi* 
helmH, lM>irii«i^^bid fanglil ^r» at fa# rtiili^ 
tfitoagh the fbaeiy^iid tvhHe be was there «iid««» 
voiiriagp'le enaceiiee liinsiBlf ttiodg ihe reekfl^'^ki 
light aitnioledr«the attention end pmnitoftteeflei 
my, whe inm^mtHf^Ml vpett hhoy aad dfej i anl is 
ed faiib byre ^ca ted ^ovada. It i» hoa jnatice^^l* 
Hnndi^to tayv ^hat the dnef perpetracor^iyf thia 
deed ^raa a'faeadatnmg and Tiodusiife cadet ^ tb« 
Umdf^^Gotdotkfiti Bnd de 'Who^Miftctiiiya-gaail 
ea Moray ViMa llwexpifiiig yoathj aoiatfal VfM 
atlhataiiMneiit«f faiadltti^puahedbeanty) mmti 
nrarAt fartb^ '«* You hftre apdlt 'a better hm thaii 
yoar'own*''' Haatly iaaaid «> ha»e appr aw cb ecl ai^ 
far bkyoanger ktmaiaB kaddaapaCdiedtbairTicilai^ 
but Backioi awearkigaa<oadi tbat tba Earl aboahiba 
^^aa de#pliiv^aahianelfy4saaipelledbiflatealigbtfiMI 
ba baai^'T<aBd loiict a few wmiBdi dnthe ia a aB * 
tote eerpaei^ They then handed irdm the ae a a a ^ 
leaniig the* body atretehed efr the^ beaeb) thto hoasa 
boridiig^ mud tmn a fehitiDii ni thaiream wmmd« 
ed ett the grthmd. Yet iheydo aet appear w 
hate^etatertakied aay great afppreheiiiioaa vtguii^ 
iag ihe coaae^eiieea af 'their- misdeeds At tian 
tiiae^'it^waa jiidgid e^paHyiioaoarable^ iff'SMH^ 
lead/ to inflici'T^fngeaaee'0»aa<*eaaiay, aad la al^ 
ferd'taeoola-t»alirieBd« 'The Ewl ef Hmily tab 
Ured<«o»a&]rtr al the iieighbenriag tiHag#ef 'Iflt 
tericeilblDgv' 'whava lie created dbr the aiglrt^< Nay^ 
he efen^hnd tta eeolaeia' to 'aeaNliiia^rieiid Bndde 
hMtedialely baeicto fidinbaq|h» t^iafenii>Ae King 
af -whflit Ui had dflae^'- ^' ' • ' 
' . fiodiHi aami-'lattMl that hi*} ai|^<!i* irerlc wla 

ioteed to do what he dB8i0Bd«'-4eaviBg Um witli 
ft hint that his hestcoane ta obv hin»^.>wo«ld 
he^ pamie ^ inttdsr8n->-^wfaidi thejr kacnr \m 
eould not do«--4irii^iicfa^irar8itpo«ible9 wonld^Btflh 
WinlheirlaFftnr^ at cricnlated to dcrtjoy a Cadww 
Me. James's 4ml7K8oiiMesfafl to poblkh 8 pfoda* 
Biadon, in ^hich he dfldaied» upon his royals ward; 
that hk conconin'tfae alaiigfatar was nogDeataa 
than that of Dand, ivhea Abaer waa kiUadbf 

* BatihegfeateatdiatresBofdw^y'jmiiauiedfiat 
fo take plaee* Lady Downe» asothar of the dan 
eaased £arl» amved at Lditbin a haat» earrji^^ 
arith her the ho^w of: hereon and hia friend tlii 
idierii^ wUeb ahe wished tttpreseat to the gaaaoi 
the people, m order to stiandate the vengeaaoeiai 
the laws against their aiafderafa» To preveat sa 
mdeeant « spectacIey'SHid ona so apt to inflaasa 
Ae public mind, afaready toe mack eaatad, f Jsmai 
was obliged to forbid the hodiea to be brought td 
Ediabnfgh* Lady Downey haiiag thencaaaed.* 
ptotavB to be dmwn of her aon's mangled hody, 
hfoag^'it to the Kiag,. enclosed in a.pieoe of Ifaaa 
lawn dotby and, exhihbiai^ it before \m eye% wilb 
Tehement lameatatioBay: caoastly demanded jaat 
tice* James could enly join: her in menmingitha 
death af her son* - She then took oatiihrset b^eia 
irhieh had been fomd in Meiay's bedyi-and, paaa 
aeattog oae to the King, imd another to a cdm^iBa 
who etood by, said she wonld reserve the thiid ttf 
hemdf, to be bestowed upon him that shoald IdiM 
derjnatiqe*. All that Jaawa oonld do for her gr^ 


iMmiioil, "imM 'io^order-fer eaBedntatmihe' yonog 
uun^wboJiad bean left woiuided by the 6otdoii% 
end^i^oiD flfaefaad bioiight owr. He died, Btrongw 
ly fueteetaig tlml lie. bad bo bend in Moray'* 
dlmaf^ki&Ff althoQgfa ackn»wled§^g tbal be desenr^ 
ed deatb for odier offBoeea** Anotber •peveeoy m 
fMbaen'of tbe Eari of Hnatly, waa eseoKted. at 
Ae wme time^ perbops e<|piaUy innocent, 
r .ThiB was in reality the wbole extent of the jea^ 
tiee; whiob it -waa kt James a potror to exeentay 
Hie Earl of Hnntly bad retired to liia coutfiry km 
Ae NorUi, where be was a far more powerful auit 
fkua the Sang* Eren if be could 4iaTe been ap* 
yvehended, waa it poaable for James to proenaar 
Ua pmusbmeat? i Or waa pimishment strictly, 
tkia^ wben tbe pipotoca^on* the morality oi tkk 
wgBf' and bis net* barmg- bimaelf been tbe bctnali 
aurdeferi were ccmaidered 2 . 
• lb escape^ m some mea8iire» tbe inftuny wbidk 
HoenBjd ta inm on tbas aaconat, tbe King made A 
piograaato tiie Weal agaiaat Bothwell^ uld fixsd 
Uaeoort for some time a^ Glasgow^ ' The devgj^ 
maXit eraed out nioatfttcioaaly against Him%^ wbMi 
tbey^endeaTooied t» get eioonnnmiiGated* Jaanea^ 
Wio jaatly complained. ibat they would aerer gra^ 
lify liim by eBeomonmieating his «Bemyi Botkf 
miklf was maeh incensed wh^ be beard of* tbeii» 
praeeediags agutist Hanlly> whose crime» in Ina 
eatanatien^ waa^not'so great, as not having. faeett 
disBeted against the person-of the sorereign* • Iter 
in bis a^^er^ that ^' it would never he- w^ 

\^n a. cousin of the Earl, it cannot well be said that th9f 
murder of the' Elutof Moray was altogether unayenged* 

« ■. \ 

^ neMMienoilid f«iitl0iD«ii<>gil< Komob te .1wi*ii 
ifiitiiflils' hmdm^ '^Tken wm wmtlb aenee n.tb^ 
Bayingi for it<to plain, thai tbese man teok'too<t 
^oiiii^wiib til ofdera^of tfatir felkNMnmtMiay'tod 
oecasiniied am^h>dbt utbaaco ^ piirety beeaiwa illa]f^ 
dU aecttffe IP«iip«noilal Tioleiice* • 

An afvangenaiitwia at^leogtbvtturis fcratayiag^ 
ibe pnblic appelitv 'fbr ivBgaanoaagidntt 'HnntljKi 
HariiigrreMifwi'arpRNniar ftvm the King* tbal 
Ms p«M*ir*%hoidd(*be«qnita. Mfe, <ke entered* klor 
w«rdi«it :BbRid«M8r €Bitle,< ^ht tfas airowed porpea* 
of «tafeidfaigr|ibiin«l.'i tJIe took earefifaawiivrf that 
be ftfaottld "ktnre Msh «aiiiniber vf faitfafnl Gordon* 
to eb«0r Ma'canfineaKnt^ «a<pnt tbe priaon idmoat 
into tlia own keeping* . When the pepnlap^ck* 
MMmiinbad »4ittle>'tfabaMied|<.bo. cane e«t vpenrei 
ben fd tw^ntf thoeaaaNi poonda ; :and be evantnak 
I7 ^ndttred no trial. TheLedy:Dofmewaarao;nM 
d^inantii hie inipiiflit]rf:ifaatabe<took iM and died, 
leaviagcbea mriedioiioii >«o Kla^tJaoMa.! * Hnntlpi 
anrvi»i^«be' cnuMeetkw inm^mA^foity yeani») ani 
Oordovef BnekioAir^tfeenBtatill longer periodt) 
bat Mb gM«iiy$ig to buMiritbait tbolattn^ wbo wa» 
the teil nmrderwyaftanrmtbr anpieaaed the graatf 
eat contdtiM'for hbdhn^.'' Tbe chief nanltiof 
the wfaoio'taanB0OCion' w«i,' that ^ Bpeabyteriai 
aainiatJIfa'^'.^MabM bf w praper'Oae ef tbe piMio 
ifritottontD fmab Jaaaee<ter]rfaafd*«-4«ow pr e cw e A 
ft parliiaHentaf^f MDCttes for tbe eeCablidMienft of 
their ptan of ehnveb-gonnvBienl^ uvUekhad nefon 
belbiei4te«ft'finmill]^ltllsognlae^ bf tbe lagiahitaie«i 
Thef were therefore erected into a court indepen- 
deikt «f alt' etrtblf iMr, and oolf to be^'gotmi^. 
hf tb^/fdU of the inviBiblo God, at it might pldasef 


tbeinselves to interpret it A more melfiiichely 
)m>of could not be gi^en of the extreme humility 
to which James, and all his maxims of g0f«ni<- 
meiit, were brought at the present mihappjr erisit 
of his life. 

) . 


t' * • ' .. ■ * 

*' ' ' . ■ • 

; • • 'o 

i. • . .- • . • • . '» 



Hm i/m OP 







The eartier past of the year 1592 was chiefly en- 
ployed by Jamee in endeavonn to seise the Eail 
di Bothweli ; bat on the 26th of JunOi that noble^ 
iBaa made a second attempt, in his torn, to seize the 
King. While James was qoietly residing at.Ealk- 
land, a palace of which he was extremely fond» on 
acGonnt of the extensive hnnting-gronnds whidi 
suTonnded it, Bothweli, having raised a eoBsi- 
darable foioe npon the Borders, snddenly advanced 
ckuing the night, and had vi»y nearly sorpiised the 
King. Fortnnately, hovrever. Sir James Melvai 
^ined intelligence of his motions, and was able to 
dispatch a servant in time to warn James of fab ap- 
proach. At first, the coortiers prevailed npon the 
King to laugh at the intelligence, many of than be- 
ingin reality engaged by Bothweli toopen the jdoon, 
and assist him in seizing the royal person. Themee- 
eenger then retired in anger; but, falling in with 
Bothwell's company as he went home, be thongfaiit 
dn^ to IetIl^^ and make a second atcenqpt to 


Hmm bis Majesly. Falling into the noks, w one 
of th^ir companf , he got back to Falklaiid, and 
locked the outer gate of the palace, a few miiintea 
before the conspiratora were ready to make the ait- 
tack. He then need his Toice loudly and rehement- 
)y, to prevail on the King to enter the toweff or for* 
tified part of the palace, and to ronae his attendants 
tohis defence. Meanwhile, Jamea, hearing the well- 
known cry of ' Bothwell ! Bothwell ! ' which att 
Aat moment arose without, obeyed the man's di- 
rections with the utmost haste, taking care to ga- 
ther all his armed friends around him, and to store 
his fortalice with such victuals as might enable him 
to hold out a siege for some hours, till he might be 
lescued by his subjects. Bothwell now sulijected the 
tower to a regular belei^erment : his men fired at 
every a|>erture where they thought a bullet ntifht 
talee effS^ct ; and the courtiers, in their turn, direcied 
their shot from the same apertilr^s against the aa- 
stibnta* At last, Bothwell having become convinced 
Aathe ha d lost his opportunity, he retired in despair, 
and permitted his men to procure some repose on 
the ascent of tfie Lomond Hill, opposite the Pdace ; 
but towards seven in the morning, dreading lest 
the cotmtry people might assemble, and enable the 
King to tarn the assault upon himself, he caused 
his men to rifle the royal stables, the park, and the 
town, of all the horses they could find, and, hav- 
ing thus done all he could to prevent a pursuit, he 
nwdethe.bestof his way to the south of the Forth, 
designulg to teke hie company bade to Hbm fast- 
nesses on the Borders. So speecfily was the alarm 
of this raid spread over Ae eoontry, thut befoae 
night James waa at die head of a body of three 
tboaaaod men^ partly from the Fife towaa, and 

190 ./ liffor 

W90t of .Iione%. and Bodiweira. pcectpitale pq<s 
treaty fi^vAo^. bim bom piUtuig. .(h9iiB..goofi 
fipindfl to nof HflOr . £igl9t#an mao wwe.mU day; 
ati^ oiLCalder Miiir» wWo they had Mien asleep^ 
from «iec0 Aktigne ><^they .were brought to £dtii« 
bvufht widy ^ they rweie .all peraona ei( lofiunona' 
cbvactert tbo.whole wj^co banged Jtt 01109 witboot 

.. The rest of Hm yeer una apont ia ?aia.allonipta^ 
to 0fi«e the tioobleeomofieiaoiif who had tbeat for- 
the aec^odtiioot pot bun into foar of bia life* From 
town to towoi and firoan .vaUefr, Jamea 
oontinnad for aoTend weeka to follow bv Tolatil<i 
enemy, eqioaiog himaelf. to.general ridiciilet« and 
much danger, .witbont efer ones getting «ear.bim^ 
At this p^iiodi moreover^ tho condoet of the cloigy^ 
formed. no amall . edditMn to hia tronbles* Aa* 
might bare been e»pocted, the benefit which bo^ 
had bestowed 1900 tbeeo men, in placing them, 
above all hiw, produced, no araelioratioa in. tbeiiv 
eoT^neaadiAtiactabloehaaacter* Eateemingtbenii* 
selves eqnal, if not auperier to himself they now 
proceeded to ju^t aa a sort of .government, withont 
the least regard to his antbority, or that of any 
other jmisdietioa in the land* It was fortnnate 
for him, that their first attempts were of a xidica«4 
Icpi and unpopubur character. Conceiving that 
the commer<:e, which was then. carried on to a con- 
siderable extent between Scotland and Spaui« waa 
apt to endanger the -Frotestfmt principles of their, 
9^n merehaQ^|. they sodde^ly gave out aa edict, 
forbidding these persona ever agaia to traffic witl^ 
tbec^oB/tryiaqiieeidon, Theyalaoforbade^inapar'^ 
tiei^ac ntaififmf |bat eny . teUow or wax 4M»nld ever 

ibe<Sbii«b mwtAmtA hadihwmm itw M>i| nf 
tfm^ conndenhie ^piaiititiesiof |li«wi- &i$icW«» tci 

aaintSy and for tbe idohlroai 8er?ice» a^- dw mnwr 
Hm w»g» p le t flQd >>» temi ili> ^ tb«^ ,nMtk in- 
9fHited vUb ihA^awne o?eiHpio««f ibovgh.iip dottbl 
•iiieerQ QVlioM JMigaidiiig aTawitol wUoli WM-hM 
Ui Edinburgk ejwy AfondaQTi Uhi^ 'forbiMk^* Ihal 
MiaQioUife^ iWidtr th^ pveiext llvit il€aiisad.i^opl9 
%0nbf^ joomioi and aiMd to.iec«i$r ba^neas on 
Sm^yi Th0:paofda» who. fait loo partioidar a» 
laMwat M dwaa jiiatlan{to4»Took- ialerferoa^ wiib 
|h«Bii aoott oflmmeed Am pastom that they wero 
altppiQfir ^^ ^^* tejroftd dieiT' aooHniaBion; oif 
nMoh ocaaiioDy Jamaa ia mA 4<^iia«e lilted up hb 
bandat a«d eipieaaad hia aaipiiaa* thatahoeaadcafa 
imd .akippeia had doae wWt/ ie bad never baeA 
aUetodOk SiMihwaa.raattytbeiOB$a» Bnthoweyaa 
Vaable thedargif might b»tov}agtelate for the^ pao* 
pki9 they at all tisaea. showad tbaaaaeheapom oi e ad 
balh'Of the power aad the will to tynumise owe$ 
tfaaibr aorereiga* 

' CalderwoodiiBBlatea.nuiona anaadolea of Jmm» 
aaappnapmtatothiaperiod* ItYVvstheeonrntioii 
of tfeua eecMbatieal Uatoriani and probably waa 
alao tbat«of the eleigy ia geimvaU that there aoali 
boijao macore fal%ioA in tbe Kiog'a heart : ha htA 
been beard to oaU Gal?ia'8 Jaa^dtntioii < a oluldisb 
work/' and had- Qoroetimea roppliad tbe> lad^oraaat 
epithet of ' tba holy aiateKa' toaeertaiftvcotemof 
raUgbma. womea who li?ed. in £diab«rgh ! Xbia^ 
waa a eeocunaat ^te- in tbe.ispmtiif lAe agot 
wbes^ -to thinlciUiSmiuly from the aial^tade upoia 
any little loatter ^ifvmt-fXi tomter tbe mm id-» 

iM MMIp^iM of sMieble i«igH«dki|r 4'A«'tigU^ 
rilfhtebiiB,' wM<»a»it(^ to prwsa»tL wnvcenceof 
etcommiitiicalioii. • But the most' eariaos* mtoi 
doieretimkis. Itmiiit be giten in OttldenriMNl'#^ 
own words. « ; i 

* < Tkei^ cttne from Ab«ideoii a yonog woiiimi# 
called ^Helea Gntbiy^ dftnghMr to J^ti Guiktff 
Mdler,to admoniib the- King' of bii daty. Sim 
WM BO disgusted with the simies reigning in ^ 
oonti^, swearing, filthy speakiiig, pfofanation of^ 
the Sabbath, &iB«, that she eotM find no resttiil- 
afa)9 kMrine ttf tfae'King. She pieaented a lettert^. 
him' when he was going to see his hoiuids* -Aftotf 
he hiidiread a little of itj he f^ a lai^nflrthar 
he oenid scares stand on his llaet^ and swofenoifi^ 
bly,' saying the-Tery Women could not spare CV 
reprove him«' He ai^eid if she was a prop b e to a oJ 
She answered she* was a pair simple eeramt nf 
6«fd,-4bat prayed to make him -a aemmt^ of 6od^ 
also, that Wafl^deriimis vice shonld he pmiisbedy-a&4 
specially murder, which was chisiy craved at Ilia' 
hands : that* ahe could t)find no -rest tilt she p«i^ 
him in mind of his duty. After* the Kii^ ^aiid* 
ommdl had stormed a-wrale, she' was sent tiy Ae 
Qaeen, whom she foand more coarteona an<l^ 
hattmoe. Soe many and gtaat were riie enoi miti o a' 
in the country through impunity and want of jue- 
tl($s, that the minds of pair siaiple young wemefr 
were disquieted, as ye may see ; hut the King and 
eoott had deaf earaa to the crying sinnis. ' 

But at this criaii, when Jmnea waa dist re s s e d he*'- 
yondmeasure by Botharelland thederjgy, therahiq[Ht 
peM) an inddeot which oecaaioiied to him, tf poaaUr 
hle^ stilt greater mieminefls nBweiy,tfie dia^ov^ny 
of ^ coaapiwiey»amoBg the CathoHca, . Hioaghtli^' 

194 .Lin 09 

die miBiilen took, it upon dMiii> ia Ttrtwe of 
tbeir wvermgrn power, and .iBfoUsbiUt)r» to -wxile 
fellore to all thek best fnends within a wide circle> 
doairiog tbem to eoaTene at Ediabuigh on tbe 8tfth 
of Jaamry, that .they mi^t coofiult about meja- 
•ores for the safety of the church. When JanaAi 
setomedy he preanmed to chide them ia hia iisjial 
genUe way» for makiDg aa udawfal copvocatioii 
of the liegea* Bat they were too mnch engroai- 
ed by the magnitsde of the end they bad ia yieWf 
to regard his indindnal interesta ; and he was aoofa 
- compelled to go along with the tide of popular 
opinion, aa inspired, and gaided by these mea,j|t 
the nsk of otherwise losing his life or his crown^. 
, James waa exceedingly arerse. from taking any 
aerere raeaaoras with the CathoUca. He had>.iii 
^e first place, strong political reasons for endear 
.Tonring to conciliate them ; for they threatened fo 
endeaFoor all they conid to bar his succession t0 
'the English crown* It was, in a gseat measuief 
«a the price of permisnion to deal leniently widi 
-diein, that he had lately aasented, to the demaada 
of the Presbyteriaas. . Whether he seooetly enter- 
•taiaed any fayour for their doctrines or not, jt 
.would be difficult to dtacorer: probably, he thov^t 
•on this subject, aa his contemporaiy Lord Herbcurt 
-avows himself to hare thought, and aa eyeryimaa irf 
just thinking and hnmenity moat now tbink» oamety^ 
that < the pmnta agreed upon on both sideaaige 
^eater bends of aaafty. betwixt tbe two faiths, tbm 
thoi poiats disagreed oa . ahonld break them ; * andy 
eertaialy, ia all hia polemical works» the only pfWt 
of the Catholic religion which he. aeems to. hold ^in 
^abhorrence, is the Pope's anpiemaey. Among other 
seaaona whkh he. had. for .aoting. leniently ini^ 


{iiuituit caMy WBI6 hiB tpcwonai^ fcif Bflahip for .ifae 
parties aocmed, their tttUchment and good serrioe 
to him— Aogas had' jiut*retiinied frooi the Nonh^ 
•where he had quelled a selious TUffrmrhnnrr and 
-periiapa aGonvicCioii, that thevtmoat object of their 
"OOliapiracy was to procure a retazatioa of the ao*- 
^rere peraecatioii wluch the eatalidiahed clergy had 
lately set on foot againstthem ; a peraecntion which 
iTOiit the length of makiBg ' them ontiawa . in the 
1and» and which was rather increanng than declia* 
tug in rigour* 

But luis own aoatiments on this subject .were too 
completely the rei^rse of thoae entertained by the 
padilic in general, to be acted on* Borne! along, by 
4ihe popular current, which he iiad no means of r»- 
aiating^ he was oUigeA to peiiait the cbcecution of 
'Darid Graham of Fintry, a gentleman inculpated 
by Ker'a dispatches ; aild he had soon after to pot 
Ujnself at the head of an army^: and go to. the 
North, for thepaipose of seising tha three Cathd- 
lic Earls. It was' only at a counderablcrisl;, that, 
on finding the nobles fled from their houses, <he 
eoald take it upon him to abstain from destroying 
'dieir property and incarcerating' titeir.-famtlieB ^— 
die Earl of Angus meanwhile escaped. from Edin- 
burgh, not without suspicions of his. conaivance ;-*^ 
and but for the prospect of seemg -them forfaultsd 
•in a parliament'which he had called tormeet in July, 
liie people would have been^thrown, by these symp- 
•aoms of leniency, into a condition a^ open rebellion. 
- The parliament met on the 14th of July; but 
as Ae popular clamours had abated a little by that 
tfme, he did- not find it necessary to -permit the 
ibrfeitdre to be ptenounead: it waa found suffi- 
to adjoum the paxUament till Noyembari 

186 : :iar!B.or ,, 

fladtirpiiiBiiie.thafr' jintioe ikonUr' tboi.lMr'doiM^ 

BmliweU deeiared gniltjr of hif^ treMdiv aad hif 
wfa^M toUD <ieclai»dt»be fetfiMted; but ■ttaage to 
aay» sfr theveff time' when the Eail was AwBf t# 
fili iip|MMmi60^ Tuned past 'redeiDptioiH*-an- di.« 
Tiifi'daf' vdmiy to: nark hia d^yadatiai fefr wo the 
sank of ft'iioUv asd thft 'dMncter>of «. vaa^ liia 
aaniiB^wow riven by^a^Hiaid aa>tbe mavkte^croM 
of £d]alMigb*-^Iia yn^ on tbe, point of legaior 
ing the place he had loet in the King's eonitr and 

For aome^inie before 'tlna^ Ike oovri had lieeii 
ditidedinte two fiuitioni; oneiof whkb ebaalstejd 
^ Jamea himaelfy i">^ Jiia: ffluthAd* end aagacieaa 
sdnistav Lord. Thiristane ; the> otbev. had> the 
jQneeai for ita head» and ■comprehended lhe<I>ake 
ef Lennox^ the Earl of Athol^' Lord Ochikre^ 
and in genenl aH the noblemen and gentldmea of 
die name of Stewnrt. Thc.priBWv,canae df the 
4taaent]0n had been Tlmifltane'B tefnsaLio. yiel^ 
vp to her -Miyeaty the .legality of Meaaelbmgjb^ 
which, ae part of tke abbai^ of i Dnnfiixs^inei the 
•oeoeeiTed'tobdottgeftighttoherk • Toaroidhcr 
•dkpleasase,. and relieve the King from^ demeatic 
•ditqaiet^ TUrktane had. fetiied lar aomemtatba 
4o eniey* die qidet gbdea and gardens of kk aealb 
of Lethingtoa» In hia abaenee) tfae-Qneen and the 
'^Slewwta ireigned in- tiinnph* Jamaa ai 4ength 
••lanned:them one da7kysleal]ng'> 
koottds and' hunting attoadant% and tridng a 8«- 
oret joorney to Lethhigtoiiy where he spent a Jbi^^ 
fmilik the Chanoellor; after which.aEepod .emie 
-that Ikkktane waa about, torfotam to conrt. Tt> 
fte««at.thi8| the fitenrarte reidyed<to'fariag in ih^ 


Barlof Bodiwell, whom diey bud »11 lilmigfiKrew^t 
ddy and .whote cause* they now thougbl it tlM^ir 
doty to take.iu hand» becme, from Ua name be- 
ing ikB same. with theinr^' it wa8» aeoording.ta the 
ideas of that age, lalmost^ if ii«t entiiely» iheir 
own» *. 

Accoi?dinglyi on the 83d ol Jidy, Botfawell was 
secretly,£dinbnrgfh| with a BingIe<coin* 
panioQ, and iodged in. the hoaas^ of. the Countess of % 
Gowrioi behtfid the palacot During the oonneof the . 
day» the Barl of Adiol0((ft Stewart)i took occasian te^ 
conie.toconrty with.a'Consideniblehandoffetaineis-;> 
and late at ni^ti.the gates of the palace wsra qwetly , 
occnpied by these «ien* . iWhen dm proper asoment 
anriredy the Countess of Athole^ who had been in. 
the palaqe, bidding tbei King and Qneen good mght, . 
passed with' her tiain .through a posterior way 
which led to the bousis.of her inotber LadyGow-i 
rie, whose she was to^.Jodge for the night» No 
spon^.was that dooi^ made ». patent: to her, thsiii 
Bodiwell and his friend ColvUle entered tho pre*. 
cinbts,<tf the. palace^ ajidi' piisdng;up what^was csH- 
ed the Chapdtiair^ got.into the Long Gallery, at- 
A'e end of which was the door of the King^s cfaem-i 
ber. They were disgtdsod : each eairiod only bis 
nakedjsword in hisiluind.; but, to msbe qulte^suvat 
of the safetyiof their persons <aa .they morod atoi|g». 

* la the jreignof J«iiis8 VL, ^lan^ft.WMlt at grnia my 
in the LowUnds, in diyiding «nd assorting parties, as it 
did more lately in the Highlands. Wodrow, in hlslifii 
of Mr David Fergnmn, minister of DttmfennUney > \li8* ' 
Otasgata UnwertUy Idbrary} mentioni^ that tliat mimatar, > 
in a convQH^tioiL with tha King in l^i99; said he wished r 
t&ere wen no such thing as * surname in Scotland, be* 
came there might then be hope of an end to dnl bn^a. 
The Kfaig asssBled^ «> lA ^vish wiOi BMSt SB^hariB. '^ 


the tmiii of the Counter of Athole had retnrneil 
D^th tbem from - the ddor by which they entered. ' 
Od their knocking at the King's diamb^-door^ i^ - 
was opened by the Earl of Athole. James was M 
that moment in a small closet off the principal 
chamber. Before he came forth, Bothwell ioA* 
Coltille had arranged themselves on their knees 
upon the floor, with their faces towards the closet^- 
door, and their swords laid cross- wise before tbent* 
James, who, at their entrance, was in the moel 
^kward and defenceless condition that the read- 
er coald suppose, no sooner opened the door of ins 
dosel, than he saw fiilly before him the man who^ 
for three years, had been the pest of his life, and 
had more than once during that period put it inia 
danger. Alarmed and indignant, but indigna*- 
tlon predominating over alarm — ^as veiation at 
being fonad in nnkingly dishabille was his most 
immediate feelitig— he threw himself into a chair, 
and seemed for the moment to have lost his nsiud 
regard t6 life. ' 

" ^ Strike, traitor ! " he eried, <^ strike, and make 
ah' eml of thy work; I desire not to Hye any 

'■' Bothwelli continuing- on his knees, vehemently 
affirmed that he came only to entreat for pardon, 
and put himself into his Majesty's will ; to which 
James replied, that mercy extorted by violence 
was not mercy, and that it was not the forna or. 
practice of petitioners to come with weapons in 
their hands. At that instant, the lords who had 
contrived the plot, entered the chamber, and, pm* 
t^g themselves between Bothwell and the Kla|p« 
with one voice entreated for mercy to their' supphr 
ant fnend* James then perceived the nature of 


tile €ii»terpriM. 'Be sdced ^hat ibey meiait-b.i 
Came they to seek hie life ?^— Let them take it— : 
Ttey could not get bis sou). And he fiuished by 
crying, << Treason i " They soon snoceeded, how* t 
e«cer» if not in pacifyiBghim, at least in billing him • 
te bear what Bothwell bad to say for himself. The 
kneeling nobleman then asseverated etiU more em-x 
ptetickUy, that his pteDent enterprise was conceived 
in no disrespect or evil intention towards his Ma-: 
jeaty, but only to proenre that justice from the-' 
King which he could not obtain from his minis** 
t«rs. He offered to undergo trial for witchcraftr 
or for seeking the King's life, directly or indirectly ; 
and, after he should be tried and purged, he pro*> 
fessed his willingness to depart from the coun*» 
trj, if such should be his Migesty's desire. ' In tbe 
event of being permitted to remain in Scotland, bo' 
promised ** to join himself to no other course than> 
his Majesty should command, to attempt no nova*! 
tion of the estate, nor change of officers of estale^ 
and to like ofOiem wham his Majesty liked. '* * 
^ James bad all along been, as the reader has per* 
eeived, a sovereign only in name. He bad ever 
been the plaything of one party or another ; and 
Ua only power, at any time, lay in the comparative 
strebgdi of the party with which he happened to 
be connected. Time, in the present case^ might. 
have enabled him to devise expedients for resisting 
Bot^well's importunities ; but, surprised as be waa^ 
i^d completely in the bands of that nobleman anil 
Us partisans, he had no course but to receive hinr 
l^atn into his court. Being- advised to do so by 
theStsariofMAr, wfaowas'faisendMred friend, and 

^ CWdfsrwood, Ma 

die m4f iHMtt {veseiltiiMil iqwnidbe em^WK^p^ to 

BothwdUy . wterebfTf. npoa bit |lriHaii«e of pOMMfUb 
beiuMriQlir^ Md . iioiifint9rferen(60 wtlh . ftlRim ef 
state, lie preaused Um^^ fair tiU, lo^di. ia.c«0e!4if i 
hie beii^ aeqmtledi.>JW0tiw»tM^l^.liie esMaftMi 
leakkiBocielyw. ■.. 

;'Jiist«frUi]e.iiiatt^r niefr.oft Ae ]K>inlr ^f baiaj^ 
idjmted; a band ^of the ieitiami %f Ediaiiwghb 
gaftered at iba aemd of aa.alapnapjbeU^and beaM;, 
by Am JPronoaly .£ir Alewidar Hotti« pf l^nlib. 
l^rwkkr caiDe Jba tbe palace^ for Ibe pocpoee^af- 
protecting the Kiog* . Ubiaeit wiia m».m in^dm 
nte with Jameit taking hia atatioa Maw iba^ifui- 
daws of. tbe lojal aparimaot,. aa M a d far the Kiag: 
to come .and speak to biiii* . BatbtrelL^waft .at' 
deadly; fend. nrkbialLaf the name, ff^ Home) $;a«d 
be fearod liml aay iricdtileft oil tbo ^art of,:thiaiBp&. 
tender aiigbt spoil ^the wbokt of. his pr^jaol,.. Jie 
1i^iefora>reqiiaated tbe King to disaaipsifeiAaRlb' 
a soft answer A . Jomasf aceoidiag^» .1^1 oFta thai bold ooafiH^Qoa witkiiUi friends Msmm 
deaiiedy. ia. the fiiat .place* itO' h0m Jbia Mi^salj^ 
dienanlaaaaa and, wil|» 'ofiiBiiag < .thai shp ' and Ua 
aonpanysboaUDSseiio }iiai^tif.bojw^ie«afestaH8t^ 
«B das *lef»e tbcir &res4 i)Jaiiiaa» |l1 tbe iliatiteM 
k is mxif of the Earl «f .Mar, Answered^ that ^Ai^ 
£arL of . BothiaaB. hfid aofiie(.ia<iipoti>hiiis»iib)E.faU 
^■paolation and fee^kn^vfledga^i .that lia had gnntt^ 
tmei^.&k far tbe te«i% .iuy»i if i ho sboiddikiapi 
tmoy Jie (the. King) jdionldi kaOp...tniat.tahipi«r^ 
ilea^ thanking him aq&ibl cttiaanajfarJbairfaid^ 
aerrips^ be itofaaated thankjtooiiiroito the tktuAt4 
yard behind the pakoe, and he sbonld in time give 
them a iiinher eifdaHtkmdf-hife dronostancaa. 


1^^ t9i6nA%c6(k&m^ r t^ beBig 

iftar ealM liaeky was* told tiist the Kiaf Mi 
Bediwoll WBM BiMy agned. The eiliseni of 
itbtm^-ikptitmA rhot it was impomUo for Bolli* 
WeSk ID oinll tlie opportniMtf of expreflmg hkngaB 
agHUBM the offiebw Promst Lteaniiig mm thft 
aamd.windowy he told Sir Akumdar that " Jiehad 
done, oonld da^ aoid wotdd do, as modi a the 
Kkig's aeririee at aay Hoiiie.Ufe the Mene, ead he 
%oi&' xeekoti ix4th. him aaothar tiaae. " * 'Bei<« 
Kapa no drcMistaBee oo&ld.have heme anoie Kte» 
^ teBttaaoDy to . the nagiilarly nolant teaupcr off. 
tfiie noted peraoiiage. 

* Botfawdl <w«s thiw reatosad te the fa^»«r ofhie 
aorreteigtt hi die atyle and maimer proper te die 
age. But h^ waa not deatined to retain, for anv 
leagth ef toe, the advantageahe had gme^ 
Jamea waa too{ decidJMlly in^icdde tewarda- hiny* 
and wae held hj toe ioaecBie a iMmdage, to eoo^ 
llime long in Ua povver*. Hia back ha<i ae aeoiiee; 
beenittrned ineompltanee' with their ertielea of 
mireement^ diaa the King began, to take meaaaiee. 
for ahaldng him ^. > He re^ppisared on ihe lOtb. 
of Aitgnaty and'waH'^Kqnitted byaneaai^ef the 
cthne of witcAuseaft. Bst> ;tbe King had xbf thai, 
time laid his plana ao weUy..tfaat the Eeilwaa net 
permitted to accompany him to the hunting at 
Falklandw Ob, the 7th el September^-in ee^* 
imtieaiMd at MrUng^ his Mefeaty had aafficftebt 
h^hMioe t» praceraioi' abaoMen foam hie agiae^ 
ment w^ ;Betkwell| 4ndi e cenfirmaUen'of the* 
fomn:«entBao» of foifolt«ro;o The £art:waa then 
ferbidd»% by «J>tnreefaniaiBen^ ^i^ eeme wkhto t^ap 

— - » 


r, ' f. .•'.CM^cfi^i^f/^ 

■ilmtrf' anyplace' TubtrehM M$jeiAy inight -be** 
nifowB into new de8|Hur by thigfaanh pnMsedore,: 
Bothwell entered into an arrangement witfa kisfnend 
llib Earl bf Athole, for bringingi down. a Highland ) 
army to assist him in forcing jostice. But Jranes^: 
by an imcommon exertion, was able to defeathia: 
plan.' He no sooner heard that the Earl of Athole 
was at Donne, than, taking horse at Linlitbgowy'f 
ha rode to meet him, a strong gnard going beiotel 
mder Lord Home, with orders to kill Athole if' 
they conld reach him ; while ' the whole country, ' 
aa an old historian expresses it, • followed thai 
King to give him their best .assistance. Home^! 
wfabwaaaCatholiC) and at this time most zeal« 
one in the royal service, met the Earl of Mon^' 
tme,' one of Athole's assoctates, whom he took* 
into cnatodyi after some rongh usage. When J am e s . 
Cfnne np^ he was so transported with passion against 
this nobleman, that he rosfaed towards him with a. 
drawn sword, and wonld hare taken his life, if he 
had not been preTented by the Lord'Hamthoa;^ 
a demimatnition of temper which seems to be ipiiie 
onpat-idleled ui the history of the pacific King. 
BoSthireU, thos deprived of support, retired for a 
timie into the obscurity from which he had lately 
emerged in so singular a. manner, f 

. • Johnston*! Hirt. of Scot Ma Adv. library. 

, f Connected witii BothweU's unsuceeatftil Mtcoipt w a* 
Anple tale of love, trlnsh tfaiBcontemponuy blstenaiiaave 
tad of relating^ in all its particalan^ tiiongUU faangii as: 
strangely vpon tfaciif' pages as the Italian tapestry en Ifae, 
old storied walls of Holyroodhooaeb It is thus given in 
tlie Biatorie of Xing Jamet tht Sgxt .•— 

' ^n tiiia ^ose tytne it Ibrtanit that a gentleman called 


I M6ftawliile> James waa precipitated litlo near 
qaarrela with Uie dergy. After the .parliament ia 
Id^, wbi(^ postponed the forlettiire of the Catfao^ 
lie lord^'for want of evidence, the S3rnodof Fde, 
at that time the most fuioasly zealous in Scott 

'Weymis of Logye, being also in credence at court, 
delatit as a trafficker wlSi Francis Barl of Bothwell ; and 
be beibg ezaminat before King and Counsel, confessit his 
accusatton to be of veritie, that sundry times be had 8po«' 
)^n> with him, expressUe aganis the King's inhibition prpm 
damit in the contrare, whiBc confesuon he subscry wit with 
his hand ; and because the ^vent of. this mater had sik » 
Sffccess, it sail also be praystt by my pen, as a worthie 
tome, wbilk suld in no ways be obscurit fVom the post»-* 
Qtie, for the gude example; and therefore I haveihoughfb 
glide to insert the same for a perpetual memorie* , 

* Queen Anne, our noble princess,, was servit with dl« 
Terse gentilwemen of hir awin countriei and naymlie wiA 
aae callit Mres Maigarat Twynstoun, to whom this gen* 
tijman, Weymes of Logye, bure great honest afiectioiv 
tending to the godlie band of marriage ; the quhilk was 
honestue requytet by the said gentilwoman, yea evin in 
his greatest mister ; for bowsone she understude the said' 
genulman to be in distress, and apperantUe by his confes* 
siion to be puneist to the death, and shjs having privilege 
to lye in the Queynis chalmer that same verie night. of hia^ 
accusation, whare the King was also reposing that same 
aight, she came furth of the dure prevelie, bayth the 
Qvencds beinp^theQ at quyet rest, and fast to the chaitbeTy^ 
whare the said gentilman was put in custody to oertayne- 
of the garde, and commandit thayme that immediatlie he 
90uld be brought to the King and Queyne, whereunto they 
geving sure credence, obeyit. But bowsone she was come' 
back to the chahner dure, she desyrit the watches to stay 
tOl^ he sqtuld come furth agayne, and so she closit th^ dur^ 
and convoyit the gentilman to a window, whare she mi^ 
nistrat.a long, cqrde i^nto him to convoy himself doun up. 
on ; knd'tiae be hir gude cheritable help he hi<ppiHe escapit 
be the tobteltle of looveL^ 

' More than one imagihadon has been exerted in turning 
Ibb ttoiy to the purposes of Action. There is an old bal« 

kmd, Ailiniiuited a ^flenttaee^^f ^coibiiraftiettiOQ 
mgaiBtt sbeiii. James was ^mamfy ofibndMl at 
fadiaig hb BdiemM tiii»>tMKV««9ai«l>f itien alto* 
getber detdtnte of right to interfete witb them } 
and iie callod tli^ oehbiated Mr Robert Br&oe^ 
Hefore him, to explimi the conduct of his brethreiu 
Briice answered, that none could question, the con- 
duct of the Synod hut the General Aasemblyi, 
V Well, ". said the Kingf, j»stl7'i)reyoked at tfa^ 
wurfMrtioB which' he saw Um clergy were deteiv 
mined to cany into effecti. ** I could have no rest 
fyl you got that which you call the discipline of 
the cfiorch established;. now, seeing I have found 
is abused, «ad nfme lunoiigst yotf hath power to 
stay such disorderly proceedings, I will think of a 
mean to help it. " And he appeals,, after this, Uk 
tuLve jKsolyed upon the i«storado» of the Episeo* 
pal orden as the only Tatioaal expedient for pro- 
earing that correspondence in the management o| 
^nrcn anid state wbicb . he saw. to be necessary 
to goodagovemmentr. • ' 

* The Catholic kttxls Aought Ats« good opportuni- 
ty 'ibr approaching him,' ai^d urging in person, the 
meri|xf of iheir case against tbepeuwcuting dispositioa- 
of thfrdei|^« ^Aecondia^j o» the IMi^of Octt^er^ 
as he was ridinf^ to Lau&r to see iiiB Ctian^ellor^ 
Aey came up to hiin at. Fala, ai^d^ , falling upoai 
weirknees, entreated fliat they mightnot be coa-> 
demnedy as the ^^eigy seemed detemiaed that they 
shouldi withoite being heaidi but that they mig^t 

led, foliiidedentfae{ncideiiif:caUM^.^)^>fdo^Li^ 
which if to be found in OMtt ctSktdonM^ «Dd it ft ifa#sab» 
Jsct of A dsl%^(^til tiOe in, a md^ jroflk, miMt^i Tn 


b0 dMwed B iiirtdaL ' Jaiiie% who 4tfrttAn}f ^m 

aware of tlrafir comiDg, xMd?bd dietii.wilh on ap< 

pearance of eobbaixaniDeiity real ot aflSBctod ; boll 

m the ead/ would alloir ttMm no greater fitvonr 

tbanaproiiiiMlMtfaef ahoUdiiaffaalriaL They 

tboD paited ; ha to hold- a jv8tioa«aiiB at Jedbwgbf 

and they to aaaomUe tbeirfinendai (oaasara tfaeoH 

aal^as of a hk^ orperfaapa #a vhonld ffadier lay^ a 

fovourable assize. When the cleigy learned v^at 

liad taken pkoa^' diey'aent « depiitation} dmiged 

with the BiOit Tioknt dfedanuniont agniiwt tb% 

lordsf^ and' oomniaaoned to insist upon the right 

yrhiA die profeesom of the gosp^ had cp aiSt aa 

both aceosen and assiae^ iipod their trial.- Bnt so 

anraMtitaliional'«*|iroceediii^^ and a Remand so 

oontrary to all reason or justice^ cedd not be to* 

lerated« Jameii ntletiy reftised to ad^ede lo thnr 

wishiss* They then resolTod to convocata ikm 

o mmi r y in anas» ml tfao plaoe of trial, in order to 

tov^raw^ the adnrndatrnteis <^f jnstio^aad iheMaada 

of the aecnsed* < Junes, botverer, eventn^ naad 

neaenres toaoftenraway.tlie aiperiidee of tbeir 

temper; and an aErmgcttieiit' waa'at last nwde^ 

calfed.the Ace ofAbctUUM^hj wfaicb the CathoUe 

lords were iofiea6d>pardan oa* dondition of thehr n»* 

«iiOBndng Fep^, adkd finding seoprity te ^their 

^peaoeable bebanonrl before the iint Of Fobraary.: 

It was in the nudst of these tronUes-diatJiHneB^ 

firet child, i^rinoe Henry, saw 1^ li([^t« After 

having been naarried Mipwards of five yean, the 

Queen was delivered at Stiriiag Castle, on the 19th 

^ Fefamary 159344. The bappy news was re* 

ceired tfaronghoat^Sootlaid with the BB08t.v];«id 

deoionstiBdODa of joy; the people every where 

vynag with eaish odwrin eapresslngtheiclnppinesBi 

8M • ura 09 • 

kjrkuidliag MMmiy by.daiiciif, and (ilayiiig od 
aoBtmnie&to, * as gif (eays honest Patridc John* 
•ton) they had heen mad for mirth.' * 

llie ezcommuticated Earls, aa might have been 
expected, refneed to ahaiidpn their religion ; and 
Jantee was then obligecl to issue an edict command- 
ing them to enter into prison, wider the pain of be>* 
ing denounced as rebels, in a pariiament i?^idi he 
dted to appear in June. 

Before that time arrived^ he had another colli- 
sion with the restless £arl oi Bothwell. It was 
Cold at the palace, eariy in die morning of the 2nd 
of April, ihat Bothwell had come to Leith during 
dm night, with four hundred horse. James, utterly 
destitute of a guard* or standing army of any kin^ 
was under the ' necessity of solicitii^ die town of 
'Edinburgh for their assistance. He accordingly 
went to the churd), and, after the sermon, addr^s- 
ad the people in a speech calculated to inflame 
diem against Bothwell, as die leader of a band of 
Borderen, who would have no. respect for dieir 
licoperty, in case of gaining :any advantage over 
Jym. Thus inspired, the people put on their ar- 
Ibour, and accompanied him' along the road to 
'Leith. ' When Bothwell learned the numbers that 
were marching against him,- he thought proper to 
radre, by Restakig and Daddingston,' to a place 
^colled Woomet, near Dalkmth. James now shifted 
bis position to the Borough-Muir, so as to be betwixt 
-Bothwell and the town. After some time. Lord 
Home led out a party of horse, and attacked the 
-enemy at Edmondstone, Imt was immediatdy 
worsted and pursued back to the main body, by 
' BotfaweU's troopers. At sight of that flying body, 
: diose around the King reconuaanded that be Bbeokl 


leek refiige for bU oim peraMi i^.the-tewn^'Mii 
battle WM now likely to take place. Bot be eaid 
^ be would never qnut tbe field to a traitor." Fof^ 
tonately, as Botbwell wal aidvanciogt bis hone 
fell under bim, and occasioned bo severe an injury 
to bis persQn» tbat be fpund it prudent to draw off 
Ip Dalkeitb. Soon after, becoming disbeartened 
by tbe firm appearance made by tbe King» be die* 
missed bis forces, and once more went into retire* 

• At various times during tbe late disturbed pe* 
ried». Queen Elizabetb sent ambassadors to ntgi^ 
James to proiiecntet tbe Popisb lords witb vigow* 
He contrived, bowever, to evade all ber reqnest% 
by counter petitions, tbat sbe would apprebend, or 
at least allow no refuge to tbe Earl of BotbwelU 
•wbo bad often found protection and even aiisist* 
ance in her domioipns. On ber at last uiiging bim 
with more than usual yehemeucy, be pleaded pover- 
ty as tbe only obstacle to bis proceedings, and 
begged tbat she would assist bim witb money in 
this matter, as sbf bad already assisted tbe Pro- 
testants of France and tbe Low Countries againet 
Ihe. Catholics. . But sbe. did not think tbe danger 
great enough to require that measure of prevention* 
It is to be inferred, indeed, from her whole beba^ 
•vipur during these troubles^ tbat she took, in a great 
Aieasure» tbe same cool vipw of tbe guilt of tbe 
jduree Earls which was taken by James himself. : 
1 Calderwood) in his minute narrative of tbe transr 
4|ctions of thiss time, relates a, characteristic anee^ 
dote of tbe King.. A trpop of horse, which Jainei 
(bad contrived to levy, we^, on tbe 30tb of .Mey, 
•mustered at X«eitb links, to pass in review befoie 

Ufo^ tie wen$ %eng(^ )be ranksB.i9.bia tmim 

MS ' UMM Of. 

ffmifijag'WfKf^ tildbg ^e luane of iBflbh iaAtid««l 
86ldier. Coming U^ oiie whoee iiaifte was Cliri8ti<k 
aoBr he wd " Gii ye were ui SftBCt Geilleci kirk^ 
with aae psaliiie bulk in yovr hand, ye wald bo 
edled eae hidy niaa.'' And the gn^e historiaa 
recordfiy that bim^ profane apeechea were freqoent 
in hi8 month. The trath la^ whereyer tliere ia a 
party of ostentations and immoderate devoteesf 
there will always be a set of people, who^ wilhost 
aerions irreligion, will assume the opposite mode 
of behavionr $ and JamOSi whose rational mind re* 
rdteed at the fnrions eeal of his own dergy, waa 
indnoed often, by mere disgosty to express hiaiaelf 
in- a way that looked profime, whilo in reali^ hia 
nund was impressed with nnidi sincere piety. 
This theory received a thorongh illostintioA in 
the rmgn of his grandson Charies II, when tboad- 
h^ents of die court discarded almost every exter* 
nal mark of rel^ien, purely from a principle of an* 
tipathy (o the pnrilaiisi whose conduct in the^pro* 
oecfing Toign had induced a belief that fnoty waa 
87nonymoas^:with madness and aedition; It is the 
mppiest age which is chsiraoierf^ed by a comfpan^ 
lively ^u^ diffhflion of religkraa fading overall 
parts of the community. 

&otliwetl, who had faithert6 protended great 
«eal for the established dlmrdb, and who had theny- 
fore been conaiderably favonad by the oleigyf waa 
now indtooed, by despair of that comae ci action^ 
to attempt one altogether ^different. He Altered 
kto a coalition wiUi the three Cal&ofic Earls. Poit- 
4iaps, it WAS that dreumstante uiiich ftcat eacdted 
oincere anger in James, against the men whom fa» 
MibjecCs and deigy had ao kmg urged him td per- 
■eciita* Afrtfaasi60ts^o£pafliiukientinJuna^bo 


begm his- speech hy sayings diat ** he had used 
pkBter and medicine hitherto in dealing with hia 
rebellions lords^ but, that not availing^ he was now 
to use fire as the last remedy^*'* And he pennitted^ 
wkhont farther scmple^ the long desired act of for- 
finttire to be passed against the Earls, and made 
artangements with the estates assembledt ' to rais^ 
SB army for their destruction. 

Ki the mde times under review, before stand- 
ing armies were known, it was often foand im^ 
possible to suppress a rebellions noUe, by any o» 
ther plan 'then that of granting a commission to his 
€^ef feudal enemy, empowering him to proceed 
agaiiist the obnoxious person^ with the doubly 
prospect of gratified revenge and cupidity. Jamesy 
in prosecuting the Popish Earlsi was obliged at first 
to resort to this dangerous expedient. He grant- 
ed his commission to the Earls of Argyle aaa 
Atliole and Lord Forbes, who were the grand ene^ 
mies of the Hunl^y in^rest, and who, for the prq< 
spect of dividing that immense estate amongst them^ 
waold probably have made no scruple to fight Pro- 
testants as well as Catholics. It affords a strangle 
view of the age^ that the presbyterian ministers, 
instead of expressing any disapprobation of whi^t 
would now be esteemed so unchristian a mode of 
procedure, sent some of their number to urge Ar- 
gyle to undertake the King's commission. It was, 
periiaps, only in eonsequence of their pious appti-- 
aacestO'these men, that the Eail did eventually take 
acms ; for it is known that he at first expressed 
Bome hesitation on account of his i^, which was 
only eighteen. 

Meanwhile, on the 6th of September, the bap- 
tism of Prince Henry was celebrated at Stirling 

TOL. I. o 

!810 LIJE OF 

Castle, in the presence of ambassadors from most 
of the Protestant princes of Europe, and in a style 
of magnificence suitable to the birth and prospects 
of so illustrious a child. The Queen of England 
was represented by the Earl of Sussex as god-, 
mother ; in which relation, it will be recollected^ 
she also stood to King James himself. The esta^ 
blished clergy were not permitted to act so prc^ 
minent a part in this solemnity as at the Queen'y 
coronation. The ceremony was performed by 
David Cunningham, who still retamed, notwith- 
standing all the late proceedings against Episco* 
pacy, the title of Bishop of Aberdeen ; and the 
only other ministers present were men well known 
to be more devoted to the King than the kirk. 

The young Earl of Argyle moved, about the 
end of September, from his own territory in the 
West Highlands, accompanied by vassals and 
friends to the amount of six thousand men, of 
whom fifteen hundred were musketeers, of regular 
appointment, while the rest were only untrained 
Highlanders, armed with bows and arrows* or wit^ 
two-handed swords — weapons which rem^ed ia 
use among that primitive people for several ages 
after they had been abandoned every where else. 
This immense host travelled through the whole 
space of the central Highlands, till they came to 
Glenlivat, a valley within two days journey of 
Strathbogie, the chief stronghold of the Eul of 
Huntly. If they had been a little more deliberate 
in their march, they would have been joined by tlie 
Forbeses, and other clans, who, from fendal hate 
to Huntly, were inclined to adventure in this 
quarrel ; but Argyle was so confident in his pre* 
sent force, that he wished no longer to delay 


%ogfagement with the enemy. He sent a taunt- 
ing message to Strathbogie, warning the Earl that 
fie was about to visit him : Huntly answered, that 
** he soald be porter himself, and sould mak ^ 
passages of the palace patent nnto him before his 
eoming, and sould welcome him by the way, ab 
Weired/* * He then, with the assistance of the 
-Earl of Errol, mustered the whole of his depend- 
ants, to the amount of twelve or fourteen hundred 
men, chiefly gentlemen and their servants, and 
i^ost * all on horseback — whom he ' exhort* 
lid to defend him in his just cause at that time ; 
for he took God to witness that he had no other 
eanse to fight against the barbarous enemy, but 
first for the glory of God, and for the liberty of his 
aiid their consciences, which were enthralled by 
tnch as were pernicious enemies to all truth and 
*<i^ty,* and who had at this time, by false acts, ani- 
mated the King against him. He assured them 
lAat he loved and reverenced the King with heart 
and mind, as a good subject, and would never be 
prevailed upon to enter the field against him, even 
in a just cause. But, * since they had to do with 
an enemy, in whom was neither fear of God, nor 
<»bedience to the Prince, nor good manners at alFy 
he besought them there, in God s name, to behave 
i^imtly.' He then led forward his forces against 
'Argyle, whom he encountered at a place called 
Salrinnes, on the afternoon .of the 9d of October. 
The Presbyterian leader was somewhat discon- 
<certed at the sight of Huntly*i9t army, for he had 
*4^een led to believe that no stand whatever would 

' '* At WS8 eoBsisteiit with proper eti^ctte -^Higtwie of 
JSfn^j^u^i lAtf Sesfif JSann. CMt^ Ed* p* 339. 

f 18 LIFE OF 

be m$de agaimt him. As h}f pMitiaiv bonrereiv 
was very advantageous, (on the aide of a hill full 
of moss and bogs), and as he had advantage of botli 
swi and wind, he resolved upon fighting. HonUyi 
whose part it rather was to. have hesitated, from 
the comparaUve slandemess of his forcoi sent Ibiw 
ward a vanguard, consisting of two hundred honw^ 
under the commivid of the Earl of Enrol, and couv* 
ageously led on the remainder m persoQ. He had 
four pieces of artillery on carts, which he caused 
to be kept c^cealed from the view of the enemy 
till the moment when they should have approaelip> 
ed near enough to give an e£Esctive fire. His pn^ 

Seas was slow, partly fro^n the steepness of the 
11, and partly from the heath and bogs which n^^ 
dei«d it difficult to the feet of his horse; bei 
he at length arrived within the proper disttpnee,. 
"Pien suddenly causifig his vavgnard to recede 
from the front of the artillery, he fired them df 
with great effect against the massive battaliens of 
Argyle ; who, ignorant thte he possessed this meant 
of offenoe, and reffwyng cewon in the aAMtraot 
with a sort of supesstitious terror, fell, flat on iJieir 
faces, and could not be prevailed upon to rise ar 
gain so long as the noise continued. To improvis 
nis advantage, Hnntly caused his vanguard at this 
moment to make a detour to the right, so ap 
to fall in upon the enemy's flank. They did so 
with all the speed possible on such broken ground ; 
but before they accomplished their object, the High- 
land leaders,^ rousing their men from the ground^ 
caused them to throw pff a flight, of arr<>ws at the 
advancing horse, such as palpably darkened the air, 
if we are to believe the report of some eye- wit- 
nesses, fop a quarter of an hour. Brrol'e troop. 


ttererlhelesQ) dashed ia upon the rear of the Pres* 
iiyterian army, and began an nneqiial contest, which 
■light hare soon ended in his complete destmction^ 
if Hantly had net at that moment advanced, with 
aU the remainder of his forces, and distracted the 
csfaief attention of the Celtic leaders to the front. 
A general and most destractive fi^t then took 
plaee. The Lowland cavaliers every where found 
advantage over the ill-«rmed Highlanders, and pro- 
dttcad a dreadful slaughter ; but the Highlanders, 
aeerer^ieleBs, contrived to give their assailants a 
immher of severe wounds. At length, after two 
hoars of hard fighltng^ the legions of Argyle began 
t^ give way before those of Aberdeenshire ; and a 
S^ht soon after eommenced, which all the efibrta 
oC the chiefs were unable to restrain. Casthig a* 
W|iy at once arms and clothing, and never once look- 
ing h^iad them, the despairing Highlanders as- 
cended the hill, where no horse could foUow, and, 
4esGendii^ the other side, sought their way home. 
AemaU portion, ohieiy natives of the Westerii Ides, 
retired in a more respectable iadbion, und^r the 
etoge of the Chief of Maclean, who» clad ia a 
jack and mnrrion, and armed with the primitl^ro 
weapon called a Danish axe, had acted on this 
day as ArgyWs lieutienaiit, tiad behaved with grefll 
gallantry. Argyle himself Was hurried off the field, 
weeping With rage «t the bad success of his arms. 
' In this battle of Glefilivat> or Balrinnes, full 
S!ve hundred of Arg^'s forces were sliain, indud- 
ing the Laird of Lochaetl And his brother, heiiis- 
presumptive to the commander. On Huiitly's 
iside fell Patrick Goi>don of Auchindown, undo t?a 
the Earl, with a smail nuinber of men ; While Er- 
rol and many others were seiterely wounded, it 

ItHf MFE €>V 

is certainly to be r^eited» that tfae iseal of ilk» 
dergy, moTed as it was by the best intentionsi 
shoald have led to a slaughter so extensive as this» 
and of which the necessity was so doubtful, even 
supposing their ends to have been expedient* 
There is at least something very horrible in the 
idea of enlisting the bad passions of a rude ped- 
pie in a quarrel which was not properly their own, 
and thus, as it were, attempting to perform God's 
work by the agency of fiends. Assuredly, no 
cause, however sacred, could justify means so veiy 
inconsistent with the principles of humanity, so 
adverse to the precepts of religion itself. 

James was at Dundee, preparing, in his own 
person, for an expedition to the North, when the 
young Earl of Argyle, accompanied by only two 
men out of all his late force, arrived, travel-wora 
and exhausted, to relate the news of his defeat* 
The King immediately marched northward, with 
the small force he had already collected, being 
afnud that a little time might allow the Catholic 
lords to become too powerful for him. But by 
the time he reached Aberdeen, he learned that 
Hnntly and Errol were so much -weakened by t^ 
severe conflict they had had with Argyle, as to be 
anable to make 'head a second time, and that they 
were now willing to quit the kingdom. All that 
then remained was to march into the country over 
which these nobles exercised a territorial jurisdio* 
tion, and put in force the late act of parliament^ 
by casting down their strongholds, and taking cau- 
tion from their dependants. For some time, Janiea 
was prevented from doing this by the state of tba 
weather, and by the slowness with which his Je-*- 
vies came m to him; but he at length accomptiaii-k 


«d it, in January 1594'-5. Strathbogie and Slaines 
Castles, the seats of the Earls of Huntljr and 
ErroU were destroyed. The Earls retired beyond 
seas, upon a composition ; but their yassals were 
more severely handled, for according to the report 
of a very simple annalist, ' all gentilmen war ap« 
pardonit for payment of sowmes of money, and 
ibe puir war pnneist to the death. * The ladies 
of the rebel lords were permitted, however, to 
retain the rents of their estates ; the Countess of 
Huntly being the daughter of the late Duke of 
Lennox, and high, in the King's favour. Indeed* 
to ensure that the business of quieting the country 
, should be transacted with a sufficiently tender re- 
f^prd to the interests of this esteemed person, he 
left her brother, the young Duke of Lennox, as 
his lieutenant, when he himself found it ne^ssary 
$0 retire to the South. 

The country was now in some measure pacified; 
and, to add to James*s triumphs, his old enemy 
the Earl of Bothwell at last found it expedient to 
^ek a refuge abroad* A year of tranquillity en- 
. 9ued, marked by no event of importance, except 
an unsuccessful attempt on the part of the Queen 
nnd a faction of the courtiers, to deprive the Earl 
^ Mar of the custody of Prince Henry. On the 
Sd of October, the King and country were de- 
.prived of the services of the Chancelk>r, Lord 
Thirlstane, who, after an administration of about 
ten years, made * a godly end * at his house of 
X/ander Fort, much lamented by all ranks of men, 
but especially by the King. James honoured his 
Biemory with a copy of verses, which, as Dr Ro- 
bertson remarks, * when compared with the com- 
yositions of the age, are tar from being inelegant. ' 

fltf SlYftlW 



-YUBUCAnoir or jta basujcoit dokoit. 

1596— ld99. 

In JBnmry \&B&^f Janes tesoW^ vpdii is mttH 
rare, iiHiidi erentittlly bsd a rery nmtetia} efifecjl 
«pon the ehafacter of Ine goternment, and^ m m 
more particular maimer^ upon the fortmiee of th^ 
chiireh. Hnding, as he himself declares in « pro* 
damationy that the rents of his cromi were in H 
itate of confnnon and decay, and that, by the mai*' 
adm i ni stiati on of his finances, he was at Int ar« 
rived at rach a pitch of pori^itv, that * there wm 
nettiier wheat nor heir (barley), silver nor odanr 
rent, to serve his honse sufficiently in bread and 
drink, or-otherway8;'*fae sdeeted eight gentle 
men of die law, ihe most acute in talent, and the 
most expert in business, upon whom he detolv^ 
die whole management of his revenue in every 
department, binding himself upon die word of s 
ptkiee, to interfere in no manner with their pn»« 
ceedings, and allowing* them the important prrri<' 
lege of fflfing up every vacancy that might oecnr 
in thdr own number. 80 extensive were tii# 
poweia which seemed to be eoafened uponr tfaiti 


body, or ratber so eomirfelely did the King appear 
to have resigned hu own power into their handa, 
that the people, on hearing the pEodamation, nni* 
venally remarked, that he had only left to hixnaelf 
die name of aovereign. The gentlemen of fait 
court had the same impreauon ; and it was gene* 
rally supposed that he must now lose the aerrices 
of eren that small portion of his subjects, from 
itiabiKty to hold ont the proper emoluments. But 
tbe results were quite of a contrary nature* 

The %ist acts of the Octavians — so they were 
popularly called from their namber-^^had reference 
duly to liieir proper business, the puUic finanoto. 
By and by, however, bemg enabled, by the cott- 
Irol they acqmred over money matters, to extend 
Aeir views further, they began to seize the prin- 
rfpal oftoea of ibe - statOy - aiid tb exercise a more 
dllcct influence oitar the machtnery of govemment. 
The offices of Treasurer, King's Advocate, €omp« 
troller^ and Lord Privy Seal, successively fell intl» 
tbeif hands : thehr pMident was only prevented 
from gaitting the Chancellorship, which was the 
very highest office in the Idngdoifi, by the eirciuii* 
stance of hb being obnokious to public duspicioii 
on account of Calhoticism. Their rapid advaooea 
to supreme poWer exiiited the riarm of ^e ehurck, 
because a moiety of them were CathoHcs^^^^and the 
hostility of the nobles, in so^ for as they were i^tt 
3^oanger brothers, or men of no family ; whereasy 
to give an office to any other itian than a peer, 
waa lodced upon in SccAland as someyiing moil- 
strous. Yet, notwithstanding M ihe outcry raised 
H^nst them, they kept \hetF pkces, and managed' 
the vShka of the kingdom wi^ an amtenng degiree- 
if vigour* Talent, ' llie nalced quality for wUek 

919 LIFE or 

the King had selected them, waa foniidy eren ia 
this rude age, so far to transcend all merely ex* 
temal pretensions. 

The arrangement was fonnd to be, in every re* 
^ecty a fortunate one for James. It supplied him 
vith what he most wanted in personal character, the 
power of saying, " No/' to unreasonable requests^ 
and of acting with firmness in the protection of his 
prerogative against the frequent inrasions which 
were made upon it. Nor was he exposed to the 
le^ast danger of having his power altogether trans* 
furred into the hands of the Octavians. They 
were forced, by the hostility of the nobles, the 
church, and the people, to keep close under his 
wing : their power depended too immediately and 
too exclusively upon his personal will, to put him- 
self in the least danger. In effect, his govern*, 
ment acquired, by this arrangement, all the advao<^. 

S» of vigour and accuracy ; and there was now 
ibited, for the first time, in Scotland, a minis-, 
try selected upon principles at all approaching ta- 
these which dictate the construction of a British 
cabinet in modem times. 

It was hardly to be expected that the clei^. 
ifTOold behold such an alteration in the government 
without great alarm. This order of men enter- 
tained sentiments on the subject of an administra* 
tion not less exclusive than those entertained by the 
nobility. The latter conceived that birth and foI« 
lowing were the only requisites in a ministry : the 
qlergy thought it enough if they were sound Pro- 
testants and favourable to the church. Hitherto, it 
liad been only by the weakness of James's govern- 
ment, that the church acquired or held its privileges; 
qf coursoi the clergy supposed that this immenssi 


•Micion to it« strength augtired nnfmTOurably to 
fbeir long poMemion of its pririlegei. They, 
therefore, took every .opportunity of inveighing 
•gainst the Octavians ; declaimed against the King 
on every occasion for his overlooking religlom 
principle in the selection of his advisers ; and did 
aot acmple, in their private interviews, to rebnks 
him in language of the most poignant severity. 

Bat it is evident that the clergy had now ar« 
rived at that pitch when vaulting ambition over* 
leaps itself, and falls on the other side* Prosper 
nty had, to a certain extent, spoilt them. The 
power they had acquired over the public mind ; 
ifaeir exemption .from the control of the state ; 
the deference paid to them of late years by the 
government, which ventured upon no meaiuri 
mffunU begging dkeir consent ; the rapturous idea 
in which they lived, that they were the imme* 
diate officers of the Divinity :*-«ll these drcum* 
stances had had their proper effect in inspiring 
ihem with that degree of pride which bodes a falL 
One drcnmstance, out of hundreds which are re« 
corded in their church^histories, wiil be suffidenS 
to prove this to the satis&ction of the reader. 

James was now anxious to restore the CathoHe 
lords. Finding that the persecution with which 
he had been compelled to visit them, alienated 
from him the affections of the English Catholics^ 
and that, by their continuing longer abroad, they 
were in danger of really attaching themselves to 
the service of his enemies, he conceived it to be 
best, both for himself and hb country^ that they 
should be permitted to return. As it was neces* 
aary to gain the consent of the church to this 
seheme, he took an opportunity, one day, of sound** 


iilg Mr Robert Bnioe, m to the viiBW 'whic^ Vm 
brethren woold pfohahly take of such n meanHB^ 
Bnice» who had been the pmne inetigator of tfae 
Argyle ezpedition againet Huatly, Itiid who was 
mtaaily an archlHshop in the ehuroh, ezpresBedy 
ae might be expected^ great dklike to the •ebeme. 
He W0S at lefigth> howeveiv eo for aoftened as to 
aay, thi^t if Angii9 ftud Errol Would profeM the re-' 
i»nBed religion, Ae^f might perhaps be allowed to 
oerae back. Huntly beiog the maa kk whom Jimtm 
was meet coDOeraed^ he dondeeceaded to itague wkh 
Brace is lavour of that nobleaian, and etrenhad ther 
boldness to say at lest, that if he hrbaj^t any of 
them in». he woald bring tiieBi aH. ^ W^ wttti*^ 
«dd this proad pnSntan, ^ I eeO yemr fesolution is 
|» take Ikuitky is fMroor. Mnrk^ howefer, "tar, 
whait 1 say. If yon-do aor I iriXi oppose it Ton 
BMHt either Wise Himtiy or me. Take yovr ebsioo 
between «s^ f^ both yon eannot keep l** it k 
said that^ ihongh James had fornleriy entertnned 
a^etnopreiraendship for Bmce^-<«wfaom, as has bee!li 
a|en» he trusted agood deal wUle in DeBanrli, mAA 
ewnk employed to pot the toown upon ins^q u e snn ■ 
this e^ibttion of intolerance and pride was too 
SMidi for eten his aatare» and he heneelbrth'stiidl- 
ed diieMit meaaarss with this order of his Skdi^ 

. In Angost ld96,- James snoceeded in pre fc u i in g 
the reMoration of the Cathdic Lords^ sotwitb* 
itandiag all that the eleigy eoold «rg» against kb 
Inflamed to the last degree by tins ottinoe eqgainet 
their a«diority, they estahhshlBd a small oUgpudry 



pf ,tbdyr number ia Ediobiirgh^ to be cpnataotly tin 
tbe w9>Xfih for metbods of imiioying him. But 
^y only [lyrecipitated tbeir own destmction. A 
minislier.of the name of Black, holding forth at Si 
Aji}dxew%f i49ed language of more thvi n9nal io- 
i^l^peranpe in inr^ighing agaimst all the late pob- 
lip mea^ores ; and, resolved to make an example 
o^.bi^i^ James sumrnqned bun before the privy 
conncil. The ministera, whose proper conrae i| 
wonld hay.e been to resign Black to his resenir 
ipeat,.nnfortjanately for.themselye$, made it a con^ 
intQA.^a^e,.and came forward in a body to defend 
Jhim*. A. pcQtro^t^d dispute tbea took place hetweea 
tb(^. Kiqg and d^ church, regarding the roy^l 
right to jfvdgeof any thing uttered in the pulpil. 
Xb/9 clergy. affirm^ that, in all such ecclesiastica} 
iqallei;^ Siey had a right to judge, at leastin the firsit 
lofttftuce; bnt James very, reasonably objected* thai, 
if tb^y commilted secular crimes in the pnlpit» it wiia 
the^ teiApoi;al courts which should try tbem« After 
mfwh wrangling, liowever, bis good natqw w«a ap 
.mMch, wrought upon* that be ofiered to pardon 
TiMi^ if they would only pass from tbe declim- 
tufe wfaiob they bad presen^d against. dtejuri»- 
.diption.of 4)is privy council ; aaarrapgement whicfi 
would have ea^actly undone the. whole process, and 
left the royal and ecclesiastical powers where they 
were before^ 13ut, in the hope, of estabUshing w 
exemption, for their order from the summons of 
that. coujrt» they obstinately held out agfunst hap 
<^ered kindnesS). and proceeded to measures mpse 
turbulent than ever. . - 

Upon the 17th of December, while the pnbKc 
mind 'was, from these causes, in an exceedingly 
feverish state, the King was sitting in the Upper 

fiS2 X.IFF OF 

Tolbooth, amidst the Lords of Session, wben i 
resolation was taken by the commissioners of the 
chnrcb, to present to him a serious public remon* 
strance against his late measures. Mr Robert 
Brace and Lord Lindsay were the chief persona 
in the committee appointed to carry this remon* 
■trance ; and while they were absent, a minister 
regaled the mnltitode with an application of the 
story of Haman to the King. On entering the 
place where his Majesty sat, Brace proclaimed, 
that they were sent by the noblemen and gentle* 
men conirened in the adjacent church, to bewail 
the dangers in which religion was bronght by the 
late proceedings against ministers and tme pro^ 
fessors. ** What dangers see you ? " said Jamea 
sharply. Brace answered, by relating a series of 
circumstances too long for repetition* The King 
replied, by asking who they were that dnrst oon» 
▼ene against his proclamation. Then Lindsay 
ttrack in with an impassioned declaration, that 
ih^ durst do more than convene, and they wonld 
not suffer religion to be overthrown. James, just* 
ly offended, and seeing a great number ef on* 
mannerly people thronging upon his presence, leae 
and retired to the Lower Tolbooth, causmg the 
doors of communication to be closed behind him« 
When the commissioners returned, and related 
the bad success of their embassy, the minds of the 
assemblage, preriously excited in no small degree 
by the prelections of the ministers, were thrown 
into a state of dreadful perturbation. Lindsay 
declared, " It shall either be theirs or ours**^— -when 
there ensued * a clamour and a liftbg of hancit^ 
and none could hear what another spdce* * * One 

* Bpottiswood. 


indmdual was at length heard to exclaim^ ^< The 
sword of the Lord and of Gideon ! " Otherft 
cried, '* Arms, arms ! " while a person of the court 
faction, ohserving the tumult, and willing to fool 
it to the top of its bent, cried in at the door, " FyV 
saye yourselves ; *' on which there was a rush to 
the street, and all who could command corslets 
or weapons put themselves into ' effeir of weir/ 
and thronged hither and thither in search of the 
enemy, which existed only in their own imagina* 
tions. One immense party crowded to the dooffe 
of the house where the King was sitting and, ex* 
claiming, ^' Bring out the wicked Haman I ** in 
allusion to the text of the late sermon, showed a 
determination to put {m end to his life. James 
was now seriously alarmed, and not without reason* 
He sent a messenger, however, by a secret way^ 
to bring his friend the Earl of Mar, with a party, 
from the castle ; which, soon after arriving, over- 
awed the multitude. The Convener of the Trades 
of Edinburgh, at the same time, did what he could 
to allay the fury of his fellow-citisens. The tu- 
mult finally subsided in a manner almost as un- 
accountable as that in which it began ; tod the 
most of those who had been concerned; sneak- 
ed home, ' as if ashamed of the irritation into 
which they had been betrayed. When all was 
quiet, James himself ventured forth from the Tol- 
booth, and went down the middle of the High 
Street to the Palace, guarded by the magistrates, 
and accompanied by some of those very Octaviaits 
whose counsels had been the ostensible cause of 
the tumult. 

This a£yr, which was long after remembered 
under the epithet of * the Seventeen' Day of Do- 

lumber; ' prated b ^laggemg Uow to the pralc^ 
^ons pf the dergv. The, Kiog did not appear 
At first Tejy muco ofiisnded by it. Oa refleo- 
(ion/ howevei^ he seems to have conceived the 
id^a.that, by stigviatizuig it as treason, and a£- 
if(^ctiQg; to be enraged beyoi^d all moUificatioii^ 
be might nse it as a capital point of reference 
whereby to establish the evil tende.ncy of a chnrcli 
capt loose from aU cItU power) ana break the spi< 
rit of tbotaesecajac persona who fortified the uuni^ 
ters in th^ir demands. Retiring^ thereforci early 
next momiDgy to LinKthgow, he left a psoclam%^ 
tion to. be uttered at the market-oron of £diq-. 
bqrgh, commanding idl persons not zegidar inh%- 
JhitoQts to remove immediately^ and ordering tb^t 
tbe courts of law should thenceforth be held i^ 
Perth. Ob a submission being wade to him tmo 
days after by the magistrates^ he refused to liaten 
to iu His immediate attendants, taking their cme 
from him» talked of razing the city to toe founda^ 
tion, and erecting a pillar on its site, with an ii^* 
.acription relating the story of its nisdemeanourp- 
He also caused his privy, council tp declare 9)1 
who had beea ooQcemed hi the tumult guilty ^ 

When the citizens learned the extent of his io- 
dignation^ they at once fell to that pitch of humi- 
lity which he desired, and, being much more wip- 
ing to want the gaqtd than the, gave up.thepr 
clergy, who immediately fled to England* They 
further oiBfered to give his Majesty thewseforwacd* 
the power of chusiog their magistrates^ and aj^o^ 
lo tflJce no ministers who should not be honoured 
witb his appiobatioa. For a long time, however^ 
be kept them ia euapense as to hia intentionfi s^^ 


{^iirdiiig ffaem; but, at length, when be thought 
them sufficiently depressed, he relaxed a little, and 
permitted them to remain in possession of their 
former pririleges. 

With the clergy as a body, he made much hard« 
er terms. Placed by their imprudence in posses* 
aton of considerable power, which soon began to 
mcr^usie very ftst, as his prospect of succeeding to 
£iizabeth became more near, he contrived, in the 
et^rse of the three ensuing years, to do away 
with a great number of the worse features of pres- 
bjrterial government, and eyen to get a moderate 
aoH of EpisGoi^acy established in the coantry. It 
irtme, he did not succeed in these objects with- 
out many struggles and much opposition. Some of 
the ministers even contested erery inch of ground 
with him. One day, in the assembly-rcom of the 
synod of Fife, when his measure for allowing a 
certain number of the ministers to vote in parlia- 
ment was under discussion, David Ferguson, the 
oldest clergyman in the tdn^doin, irreverently cotn- 
pared it to the Trojan horse, and warned his breth-' 
ren how they broke down the walls of their sanc- 
tuary to admit any such deceptions intruder. 
** Busk, busk, busk him, " cried a still more fanci-^ 
inl orator, in allusion to the disguised form into 
which the measure was thrown, " busk him as 
bonily as ye can, and bring him in as fiairly as ye, 
will, we can still see him weel eneuch— we still see 
the horns of his mitre I " On another occasion, 
Andrew Melville, whose free remonstrances to the 
King are celebrated in Scottish history, appearing 
in a General Assembly, although he had been com- 
anuided by James to remain awky, the King- 
took him to task for his' disobedience* But Ask» 

VOL. I. F 

286 LlFB ov 

drew, acoording to ^ lepon of hib nephew JaoMM, 
[See his Diaiy,] discfaai^ed his eonbcienee to -di^ 
King ^ ffter Me atdd mamnet^'-^^Jtlmt is to say, is 
the style of fervid invective pecnliar to faim--4»iifr« 
dndiiig bypnttkag his hiads roond his Beck, and 
sa^ng, '^ Sir, tak youthis bead, and gar oas it fdif 
gif ye will ; ye sail sooner get it then I betray tlie 
cause of Chryst. " Yet these expressionsr of dia^ 
satisfaction were oldefly confined to those persouii 
who had been in the habit of leading the cbvneih* 
ceorts, and who h»d gieater oeoasion to lament 
the change, vs it tended to Abolish tbrir poweri 
When the whole ehnreh is taken into •afecount, tiio 
north as well as the sottth, it isprobable that the 
moderate Episeopacy introduced by the King wm 
sincefiriy approved by the majority, as tending 'to 
produce better order, and prevent the whole power 
ef the chnrch from ftiUing into the hands ef a few 
persons, sudi as tboae whv bad lately all but pot* 

Some historians, in detuling this pert of Jasnee*e 
life, have invMghed against him with great tan* 
eour, for having tadchug advantage of so riigfat* a 
tumult as that of tbs 17tb of Ileoember, iu eider 
to get' the clergy bumiliased. Allowing, how^ 
ever, that the tumult" was 8light*-<whicb it by n«i 
means appears to haw been<p--Jame8 was surely M 
justifiable in malang this use of it, as the eleigy 
had been in taking advantage of his weakness ifl 
along, and of every accidental disturbance in flie 
country, to proevo the extension of thenr privi* 
leges. Those whtf acquire wealth by unfair means^ 
have no reascm to complain, when the in^viduah 
Iran whom it has been ravished, succeed, by si^ 
luiiar HMthodS) IB getting it bad& 


The life of JattM, iMMrsen 1696 and 1600, i« 
marked by only o&e fawiitontof nole^ the pablica- 
taon of bis book- of inetmctiona to his eldest son, 
caUed 7%a BanUoon DorOn, He had scarcely 
been a father ere he set abent the oemtMMitioii o(F 
thia treatise. The- ancerlMnty of hia own life» 
wlttcb led hiiB tofeaf that he aboold never have ia 
ia his power to oottiHMiiikate oral iastntetion to 
bis SOU) was hia chief reason for writiog the work 
eo n«iy years before it oould be ^iplied to ita oa* 
lensible use ; and in order that it might be sore lo- 
vaaeh its pr^er desdsation, be eaused seven oo-^ 
pies of it to be printed^ each of wbk^ he d^iostied 
in the hands of soBietnuited officer These per*- 
SODS were enjmned Miict aeereoy aa to the estist* 
ence of anc^ a treatisef for it eontatfied some ok* 
frfaiiatioiiB of tba«ttthor's aiind on aMtt^sof churah 
government, ^ioh he did not wish to be divulged 
till his plans were a little better taatored. Unfor'- 
tonately, however, a gentleman whom he had em* 
ployed to tranacribe itidr ^ press, sbo«9)ed the ori- 
ginal to Mx Andrew Melvilte^who ^thwttfa selected 
thopassagaa onfavomrable'tothe ohureh, and, threw* 
ing them before tho eynod in Fife, spvefid a pro* 
digions alarm amongst the clergy throngbout &:ot» 
land* James, sedag ^at these ladaEted paasagea 
gave an impression which the wb^ was not oai- 
onlated to convey^ then saw fit to consent to the 
publication of the work) which acoordingly took 
pbkoe in 1599. 

The Basilicen Doroa is by many degraea the 
most respectaUe of bH James'e pioae compositioBb 
It consists of three parts; one of which refm to reli« 
gimi, a second to the art of government, imd a third 
to personal oondncti The whole ia written in n 

SSft. Lm OF 

style whiohy however nnsohable to the taste of the 
present age, was then thought excellent, and mayi 
still be deemed good. In regard to matter and 
sentiment, it is entitled to even higher praise. James, 
according to unquestionable authority, was a good 
father. His bearing in that capacity was more 
manly and respectable than in any other. He ac- 
cordingly displays, in his instructions to his son, 
a more solemn cast of thinking than in any other 
work ; he blurts out fewer of those grotesque fan- 
cies which deform so many of the rest of his com- 
positions ; his whole mind seems to have been un-. 
consciously elerated in the p^formance of this 
interestmg duty. The hoijk is a short one, be- 
cause, according to his own explanation, it is dif-t 
ficult to get princes to read in youth, from the. 
number of amusements which distract them, and 
equally difficult in mature age, from the perplex- 
ities of public business. As the whole book, how-, 
eyer, is not more brief, than the indiYidual senti- 
ments are concise, it contains a prodigious quanti* 
ty of matter. The profound and varied learning 
of the author is proved by a thick margin of au-. 
thorities, partly from scripture, and partly from, 
the classic writers. 

• Some passages of the Basilicon Doron are curi- 
ous, as containing expositions of certain points in 
die King's character and history. We learn from, 
one, that, in the earlier part of his reign, he was 
induced to pardon a great number of offenders, in. 
the hope ibat his kindness would make- them 
thenceforward good subjects, but that, in reality, h» 
only brought the country into greater disorder by 
bis clemency, and got no thanks from any one for 
Ids benerolent ii^tentionst H^^ tells, w at aaothoD 


place* that he ever found the persons who had taken 
his mother's part against himself in his minority^ 
become, afterwards, his own best friends ; an in- 
sinuation that he believed it possible to make the 
English Catholics good subjects. He also re- 
marks, what is historically true, that all those who 
took a conspicuous part against bis mother came 
to a wretched end. 

There is great humanity, and much correct feel- 
ing, in the following directions : ' And, although 
the crime of oppression be not in this rank of un- 
pardonable crimes, yet the orer-common use of it 
in this nation, as if it were a virtue, especially by 
the greatest rank of subjects in the land, reqnireth 
the King to be a sharp censurer thereof. Be dili- 
gent, therefore, to try, and awftil to bear down, the 
horns of proud oppressors : embrace the quarell 
of the poor and distressed, as your own particular, 
thinking it your greatest honour to oppress the 
oppressors : care for the pleasure of none ; neither 
spare ye any pains in your own person, to see 
their wrongs redressed. Remember the honour- 
able style given to my grandfather of worthy me- 
mory (James V.), in being called the poor man*s 
•King, And as the most part of a King's office 
0tandeth in deciding that question of meum and 
tuum among his subjects, so remember, when ye 
sit in judgment, that the throne ye sit on is God's, 
as Moses saith, and sway neither to the riffht hand 
nor to the left ; either loving the rich, or pitying 
the poor. Justice should be blind and friendless : 
it is not on the judgment-seat ye should reward 
your friends, or seek to cross your enemies. ' 

He makes a curious observation regarding the 
Borders. There are two reasojis, he says, for 

280 XI FB OF 

fivmg no directions about tbeif manageme^ One 
19, that, if bis sbn becomes sovereign of tbe whole 
islluid* * according to God's right and his lineal 
descent, ' then tbe Borders will be in the middle 
of his empire, and as easily mled as any other 
part of it. If, on tbe ether band, he does not ac- 
cede to that inheritance* then it is equally unne- 
cessary to trouble him with directions, for he will, 
in that case» iftever get Uai)e to brook Scotland ei" 
^er^-^^noy not hU own head^ tohereon nAe eroum 
slunlld itaiUL Jamea feared, with great justice, 
that, if the Catboliea sacoeeded in their aitii of 
getting the Spanish Infimta to succeed Eliaabeth» 
his present kingdom must also fall into the hands 
of that usurper : A notable reason for his leniency 
to the Catholic Lords, in opposition to the wishes 
of bis s«l)^ots« 

There is one passage in the Basilicon Doron^ 
which excited no little reouurk at the time : it re* 
{ere to tbe individuals whom the reader has seen 
anvyed in such violent opposition to tbe King in 
almost all the acta of hb goyemment^-the leaden 
of the natire olei^« On this subject, the royal 
ai^or speaks with a degree of warmth and ear* 
nestness proportioned to the annojraace which he 
bad received from those zealous defenders oi the 
Presbyterian chnrch-pelity. There is also, in whal 
be says, a candour and simplicity, an onbesitating 
eocpression of real feeling, which, though it can 
acaroely be expected to decrease the reverence 
home by the Soottjsb people in general towards 
tfi0 £Athers of their chiirch, must yet have its el* 
|ect u)>cm the mind whioh simply endeaTonrs to 
jofm a correct bisitorical estnuate of the motives of 
the two grand paities. ^ In Scothmd, ' aaya-dii 

fillNa JAMES THE FItlST* 281 

Co^Tftl aotboc^ * tin. rafomntion of religkm beuig 
extnordioaiily wnragbt by God» and muky tbiogi 
being mordiaately done by m popular tumiilt and 
nhellioiu of such as were blmdly doing the work 
«f Grod» bnt dogged witb tbeir own passions and 
particnlar respects^ as well appeared by the de- 
etmctiim of oar policy, and not proceeding from 
Ae prince's Qrder» as it did in our neighbonr count 
try of England, as likewise in Denmarky and sun* 
dry parts of Germany ; some fiery-spirited men in 
the ministry got snob gniding of the people in that 
time of -confttsion, as, Ending tho gnste of goyern^ 
went sweet, they begoath to fantasie to themselves 
» donocratic form of goTemraent; and, baring by 
the iniquity of the time^ bemi over*well baited in 
the wrack, first of my giandmoth^, and next cf 
mine own mother, and alier nanrpiag the liberty 
oi the time iamy long mincnity, settled themselves 
80 iast in that imagined democracy, as they fed 
themselTes with the hope to become tribtmi pUbUf 
and so iaa popular gomnunent to heap the sway 
^f aU the nile. And for this cause these never 
Tom fiiction in the time of my minority, nor troa- 
ble sen-syne, hut they that were upon that fiictiow 
part were ever careful to persuade and allure these 
unruly spirits among the ministry, to spouse that 
4{uarrel as their own : where*durough I was oft ea« 
lomniated in their popular sermons, not for any 
enl or Tioe in me, but because I was a King^ 
which- they thought the hig^t evil And becanae 
they were ashamed to profisss this qaarrd, they 
were busy to look narrowly in all my actions; and 
X waxnnt youa mote in my eye, yea a fiftlse re* 
port, was matter enough for them to work upon : 
muLyet, ior all didr cunning, wiMKeby they pie^ 

892 I'lFE OF 

tended to dietingiiith the lawfUneas of the oflkstf 
from the vice of the penon» lome of them would 
aometimes snapper oat well grossly with the tmth 
of their intentions, informing .the people that all 
kings and princes were naturally enemies to tho 
liberty of the church, and could never patiently 
bear the yoke of Christ: with such sonnd doctrine 
fed they their flocks. And because the learned^ 
grave, and honest men of the ministry, were ever 
ashamed and offended with their temerity and pre^ 
aamption, pressing, by all good means, by their an* 
tbority and example, to reduce them to a greater 
moderation, there could be no way found out a# 
meet in their conceit as parity in the chuidis 
whereby the ignorants were emboldened (as bairdea) 
to cry the learned, godly; and modest, outiof it: 
parity, the mother of confusion, .and enemy to^uni* 
ty, which is the mother of order. For, if,* by4ho * 
example thereof, once established in the .ecdesia»« 
tical government, Uie politick and civil estate should 
be drawn to the like, the great eoofumttt* that 
hereupon would arise may be easily didcemed* 
Take heed, therefore, my son, to such PmitanB^ 
very pests in the church and common-wealthy 
whom no deserts can oblige, neither oaths or pro^ . 
mises bind, breathing nothing but sedition and ca* 
lumnies, aspiring without measure, railing, without 
reason, and making their own imaginations, with* 
out any warrant of the word, the square of- their 
consciences. I protest before the great Gods- 
end, since I am here as upon my testament, it ia 
no place to lie in— -that ye shall never find in aajr 
Hieland or Border thieves greater ingratitude, and 
moe^lies and vile perjuries, than with these (iuuui 
tick spirits, And suffer not the principals of theBt 


^ brooke 3r(iar land, if ye like to ftit at rest ; 
€qfi ye wcndd keep ikem/ar trying your paHenee^ 
ms Socrates did an evil wife* * 

He concludes this department of the subject^ by 
secommendittg it to bis son to establish* or conti* 
ntte the establishment of a moderate Episcopacyy 
as the only form of chnrch-goyemment which could 
consist with order among the clergy tbemselves^ 
^ or the peace of a commonwealth and well-ruled 

monarchy.' ' Cherish no man/ says he^ 

* more than a good pastor; hate no man more than 
a proud puritan.* ...••* What is there,' bees* 
^claims at another place, * betwixt the pride of a 
gloripus Nebuchadnezzar, and the preposterous bn* 
raility of one of the proud Puritans, claiming to 
their parity, and crying, <* We are all but vila 
worms," and yet will judge and give law to their 
Kbg, but will be judged iior controuled by none ? 
Surely there is more pride under such a one's black 
bonnet, than under Alexander the Great his dia- 
dem, as was said of Diogenes in the like case.' 

Many amusing and many wise instructions oo* 
cur in the third part of the work, which refers to 
personal conduct. He recommends frequent din- 
ing in public, and says, * In the form of your 
ineat*e«ting, be neither uncivil like a gross Cynic, 
nor affectedly mignarde like a dainty dame ; but 
eat in a manly, round, and honest fashion,* He 
t^ls the prince, < to take no heed of his dreams;' 
to wear his clothes ' in a careless, yet comely 
form ;' to use, in common speech, * no booke Ian* 
guage^ or pen and ink* horn terms ;*" and never to 
atake more in' gaming than he would choose to oadt 
among pages. Among a multitude of other ad- 
ho insists^ witb a vehemence which goes far 

jkK prove the parity of his own life, upon the vip 
fm of continence, and, in a particular manner, vpat* 
plores his son, in the event of .bis marrkm^, to pa^* 
^ inviokhle regard to. the- nuptial tow. Every 
mob transgression he esteemf as a serious niiachief 
to society, and also to the pertles concerned, her 
fddes being, what few ever remember that it is, an 
fraction of the divine law. And, as a mere j^oof 
of the inexpediency of such vices, be instances the 
illegitimate children of his grandfather Jamee V«, 
one of whom (the Earl pf Moray) ' bred the wrack 
of the lawful daughter and lieir ' of that monaid^ 
while the child of another (the Earl of Bothwell) 
bad been the pest of hia pwn life for several 3^eara. 
, Such are a few of the more remarkable pa ssa ges 
in the Basilicou Doron, selected rather with the 
view of affording historical light, or mere amuse- 
ment to the reader, than with the hope of ginng 
s favourable impression of the literary merit of the 
work. To claim in this age any approbation for 
King James as an author, may perhaps excite a 
emile. Yet, there is a good deal of truth in what 
Mr D'Israeli says regarding him, that he has 
more critics than readers. Johnson said of a duU 
<iovel by Congreve, that he would rather praise 
it than read it ; but the public seems to have been 
animated by less benevolent reasons in regard te 
King James, and resolved rather to condemn than 
to peruse. It must at least be said, that, in bis 
0WU age, before Bacon and Cowley had improved 
the national taste in English prose composition, the 
literary efforts of this monarch were among the 
very best extant. It is an historical fiaet, that this 
very Basilicon Dwon communicated to the Eng^ 
liah people en impressioe of the anthor'a 


and character, which was highly favourable to his 
views of becoming their sovereign. There is a 
degree of nervousness, precision, and smoothness 
in the style, which nmrks it as the production of 
a good intellect. Occasionally, too, there is play 
of fancy, that shows the wit and the poet* Piety 
is abundant ; but it has the merit, rare in that age, 
of being a tranquil, rational sort of piety, the piety 
of a gentleman and a man of geqius. In the Ba- 
silicon Doron, good sense, and a shrewd observa- 
tion of life and its ways, are the predominant fea« 
tures. 'And, assuredly, it would be difficult to 
point out any code of morality in th$it age, or for 
a eentury and a half later, which is either par^ 
HI ttei sentiments, or niore elegant in its diction. 
Indeed, bat for the limited nature of its object — 
iht instFuctioa of a young princei-^ven at this 
day it laight be put into the hands of youth, as a 
safe guide to virtue and happiness. 



THX OOW&r C0X87»ACr. 


Amidst the traDquillity — for such it wa», compa^ 
fatirely speaking — in which James spent the latter 
years of his residence in Scotland, there occurred 
B transaction, in which his dignity was more vio* 
lently distnrbed, and his life also more imminently 
threatened, than on imy former occasion. This 
was the affair known by the epithet of the Gowrv 
Conspiracy, which occurred at Perth, on the 5ta 
of Angnst 1600. 

The reader will readily call to mind the Earl of 
Gowry, who was executed at Stirling in 1584, for 
hb concern in the Ruid of Ruthyen. That nobleman 
left a large family, in which there were &ye sons. 
After the expulsion of the Earl of Arran in 1585, 
James did all that he could to compensate for a 
harsh measure which he could not formerly pre« 
▼ent, by restoring the title and estates to Gowry's 
eldest son, and taking all the younger members 
of the family immediately under his own protec- 
tion. Two of the young ladies he placed in con- 
fidential stations under his consort ; others he 
married to respectable noblemen— <4>ne| in par« 


ticnlar, to his most favoured courtier, and the pre- 
mier nobteman of Scotland, Ladorick Dake of 

The eldest son, dying in 1586, was succeeded 
by his next brother^ John, a young man of talent, 
BGComplishments, and the most prepossessing exte- 
rior, but who, it afterwards appeared, cherished 
passions which are not calculated to lead to happi- 
ness. This nobleman, when yet under age, was 
induced to engage in the intrigues of the Catholic 
Boblee, mainly, it is supposed, through the influ- 
ence of the Earl of Athole, who was married to 
one of his sisters. He afterwards went abroad, 
along with his younger brother Alexander, and 
completed his education at the famed university 
of Padua, where, among other branches of learn- 
ings he studied the pretended science of magic^ 
for which Italy was then distinguished above allf 
Other countries. Returning in 1599, he was re- 
ceived by Elizabeth, as he passed through Eng- 
land, with marks of high distinction, allowed 
a retinue of guards, and in every respect treated 
as if he had been the Prince of Wales. Her Ma- 
jesty's only reason fordoing so was unquestionably 
to pique the King of Sciots, Gowry being a re- 
mote pretender to the succession. Tliis eclat, how«>'' 
ever, acting upon a mind naturally ambitious, and' 
perhaps strengthening impressions which had been 
preriously made upon it by the responses of Ita-' 
lian conjurors, seems to have inspired the young' 
man with a most extravagant notion of his own 
destiny, and to have disposed him to a conspkacy 
against his native sovereign, to which the recollec- 
tion of his father 8 fate was no doubt a strong ad- 
ditional incentive^ 

83S ijFE or 

His reception in Scotland, where he arrired in 
May 1600« Was of a nature calculated to confirm 
such a mind in its wildest schemes. The iune of 
his accomplishments,, his handsome person^ and of 
Elizabeth s kindness to him, preceded his arriral^' 
and, being associated in the minds of the mnltiitada 
with a recollection that bis father was a s6rt of 
martyr in the cause of Prebyterianism and popular 
goremment, every wha« excited a lively interest 
in his favour. Like every other ambitious man,.' 
even while he listened with gratification to the ap*" 
plauses of the crowd, he secretly despised, the flat-i 
terers ; he reqaarked, as he made his way threugk 
die mob which received him at Edinbcligh, '^Pshau^y 
there were as many,I believe, to see my father's ez* 
ecution at Stirling*" Still, these marks of po» 
polar favour madt have tended to foment that very, 
ambition v^id^ enabled him to despise th^ni* 

What precise form his views assumed, hea not 
yet, and [nrobably never will be discovered. Though 
he BO doubt cherished some vague and indefiniteide- 
sign of revenging his father s death, it cannot be 
made to appear that he designed to murder the 
King. The more probable supposition is» tb^t he' 
intended an entc^rise like diat of his father and 
olheis at Rutfaven, whereby, luwing secured the 
royal person, he might revolutioni;Ee the cabinet in 
favour of himself .and friends. But the most extra* 
ordinary thing about this codspiracy, is, that he does 
not i^ipear to have had, beaidea his own brother, 
more than one associate ; and with that associate 
— the famous Logan of Restalrig — he was only on 
the point of making the concluding arrangement!, 
when he and his brotbev, of themselves, and with- 
out the foreknowledge of a single aenran^ pat tha 

KING jaMes the first. ^39 

pTot into execution. We find that tbis feature in 
the transaction was entirely the resuh of a theory 
entertained by the yonng nobleman, regarding the- 
best way of conducting a dangerous enterprise. * 
William Rhind, bis tutor, gave eridence afterwards, 
that, baying several tim^s conversed with the Earl 
on this subject in their walks, bis lordship always 
professed, for his opinion, that ^ be was not a wise 
man, that, having intended the execution of a high 
and dangerous purpose, communicates the same to 
any second person — because, keeping it to himself, 
be could never be discovered or disappointed. ^' 
That be should have attempted to seize the King, 
without any other assistance than that of bis brother, 
and without having made any arrangements for the 
subsequent management of bis prisoner, is only to 
be accounted for by allowing a great deal for ^tpb 
miscalculations of an extravagant mind, wbicb was 
furtber deranged by assurances oi supernatural as- 

His associatie, Logan, was a gentleman of ancient 
family and considerable landed property, the uter* 
ine brother of Lord Home. His chief estate 
vras that of Bestahig near Edinburgh; but tbe 
family bad recently become possessed, by marriage, 
of another on the coast of Berwickshire, wbicb 
formerly belonged to a branch of the Homes. In 
the fortalice belonging to that newly acquired pro- 
perty, ^ perched on a lofty precipice, from tbe hot-, 
torn of wbicb tbe tide of tbe German ocean never 
recedes, Logan lived in baronial state, occasionally 
giving protection, in bis unapproachable eyry, to 

* FaMcastle, or Falsecastte, now a ndu— ^liie Woif*ft 
Gmgp of the ABtbor of War wley. 

t40* LIFE OF 

BQcb outlaws as Bothwelly despite of all the threattfr 
of King and cquncU. In addition to dissolute 
character, irreligion, and other matters which are. 
apt to dispose men to engage in hazardous enter-' 
prises, this baron seems to hare had some personi^ 
gmdge at the King, some nnstannched Scottish fend^^ 
which made him readily enter into Gowry's Tiews.. 
We learn this from some letters of his which haTe^ 
been preserved, in which he speaks of his prospects - 
of reyenge with the complacent feeling of one who 
ejects presently to have a feast upon that terrible- 
dainty. It is strange that, althongh fonr of these 
letters are addressed either to the Earl of Gowry,* 
or to some fourth conspirator whose name is noir 
known, very little b to be learned from them*. 
Allusion is repeatedly made to a story of a gentle* . 
man of Padua, which Mr Alexander Rntliven had ' 
told him, and which he says is a propos to the* 
design in hand— probably some dark taleof Ita*' 
lian vengeance. He talks with lively and self-gra- . 
tnlatory feeling of a dinner which he proposed to 
give to the person addressed, next year, in case of' 
their enterprise being successful. He speaks with' 
keen anxiety of a promise made by Gowry to give 
him, in the event of success, a present of liie estate 
of Dirleton in East Lothian, (then his lordship's, 
property ;) from which it would appear, that he 
was in a great measure only an agent in the enter* 
prise. To assure the person addressed of hii re- 
solution to go through with the plot, he deseribea^ 
his desire of revenge as so keen, that he would not- 
be deterred from gratifying it although the scaffold, 
were set up. But, further than these dark hintq, 
the ultimate and chief object of the conspiracy<^f 
it really had any such-^^^ceives very lilUeiihiilia^ 
*Um from these letters* 

KINO 7/llf&8 VHE FIRST. 9^1 

•^ A4teleHgH p«#li8p^iste to dEtwii firam tk 
tiondiiet of 4lie Baii doing thd brief inteiralwliieli 
elapsed heWma llie period of ha- anml in iho 
HBOciittiywMitbedenovoBientofthecimspiraoijr* Hii 
deportment, m ins oecasional Tieite to conrt» wM 
fhat^ a man wtapt up in^ hk own haughty thoogfati^ 
tnd who dieregttrds all minor concerns inhis^ui^ 
siety respeeting some important end. One day, 4m 
June, as he was entering what was called the img 
yMery of Holyroodhonse, for die purpose of vistt* 
ing the King In hisduunber of presence, which waft 
^tnated at the exMmity of that tipartmenl, he per- 
<Seived Colonel William Stewart, of ihe royal guards 
<6nter it from the btb»r end,' htfiring just Uit the 
King. As this officer had. hcfen^asdire in seiifciog 
his fetlier, he, from anatilral repngnance, wibIhmL 
4o ofoid encountering him>; «nd he therefore step* 
|>ed' aside, in order to pefmit Stewwrt to have fine 
^^way almig the gallery. A servant, howevw> iak«> 
ing a different view of the ease, called o»t, *^ What, 
ttylord 1 wiilyoaglvebackiliyranymaii here? Gome 
forward, I pray^oOy-bddly* " ' Gdwry then thought 
•t»rdpev 16 resume his Wttlk aloti^tbe ^entie of ^the 
loom ; which behig obseirved^by Stewart^ and con; 
^ttriied into an insult, he etapped hack into the 
ICbg^B chamber, and eniered aviolent'eompltunt 
agidnst the Eari. f Sir, wHl it please you, '' said 
l»i ** to listen to this stiratige matter ? Heto comes 
•rne-m the Earl of Gowry, to hOMt and tkoreatenall 
who haver done sorvice po fowi Higlmess. He pro> 
poaesy I see, to begin witnme. But, beware the 
ie* of yott all I '* The Bad entering the apartment 
itt this moment, Stewart withdrew without saying 
wv more^ To the sitfprise of i^l present, Gowry 
-paid^no' atteatton to the mao ^ his complaints^ but 
V0&. i» q 

tut UFB 01* 

t K mr e mtA. witb the King about imdUhnioii lOA^Iemi 
Being afterwards asked theeaase of thia, be answer* 
ed by qnotiiig tbe signifitcimt prot^erb, " The Eagle 
matches no flies ; " from which we are to argue, that 
Ills mind contemplated h^her objects of reyengi^. It 
is purely jnstifiabley also, from Stewart's, readiness 
m taking offence, and from his emphatic warning 
to the court, to suppose that he bad good reason to 
suspect an explosion- of wrath ontbei part of Grow* 
ry, against all who had been ^concetned in bis. fa- 
thers death, the King himself not excepted* 

In other respects, Gowry's condact was such as 
to make a favourable impression oo aU around him. 
At Perth, where he was provost, or cluef magistrate, 
and where he generally resided, the people r^gariJU 
ed him with the greatest ajBfection and respecV It 
is commonly affinned, .also, that he endeavoured, 
:by sanctimoniousness of deportment, to gmn.the 
esteem of the clergy, a mode of attaining to public 
honours which has always been found both easy 
and successful in Scotland, and which might have 
Jbeen suggested to^ Gowry, if there bad been no 
other example, by the history of the Regent Mon|y, 
lor whom it gained everything but the crown. .It 
also af^ears, from the evidence given by his inti- 
mates after the conspiracy, that he continued,, during 
this interval, to study tho occult science which he 
had learned at Padua, and was careful always to 
bave about his peison, a scroll of magical characters, 
which he/ believed to be possessed of some high 
influence over his fate. 

.- It waa.on Moiiday, tbe 4th of Aagnst, thaa he 
made bis. first known movement .Umj^ the. per- 
formance of the plot. After supper that eveman^ 
being in company only with his brother. and A»- 


'<3rew RenderBODy his chamberlun, lie asked this 
official what he intended to do next day. Hen- 
derson, who seems to have been a simple-heated 
man, answered, that he thought of riding to hia 
'lordship's estate of Ruthven, some miles off, ifi 
order to confer upon soine matters of business 
'with the tenants. The Earl said, *' Stay that 
journey ; you must ride to-morrow to Falkland, 
with my brother and Andrew Ruthven : see that 
you be ready at fotft* in the morning ; and, if my 
brother directs you. back to me, with a message, 
pr letter, make all the haste you caii. " ' Accord- 
singly, Mr Alexander left Perth next morning 
early, accompanied by Henderson and Andrew 
Huthren, and made the best of his way to Falk* 
land, where he arrived a little after six o'clock, 
the distance being about a two hours ride. 

King James was at this time residing at his fa- 
vourite palace of Falkland, ♦ for the sport of buck- 
hunting, of which he was very fond ; and, as the 
morning of the 5th of August happened to be sea- 
sonable for this recreation, he had already break- 
fiuted, and was on the point of mounting his horse. 
Young Ruthven sent out Andrew Henderson from 
lus lodging, to ascertain the King'is motions, and 
soon after learned, that his Majesty was walking 
through the Palace Square, in his. boots, towards 
the stables, which stood, as their ruins still stand, 
at the distance of three or four hundred yards 
^om the house. Having made up to the King 

' * tn consideration of this pifice having been James's 
/aRrourite Scottish residence, a view of it has been selected 
.to adorn the front pf t^e present volumeb We are indebt^ 
ed for the design, to Mr Brown's beautiful and interest 
tag pubUc^tioB of Uxe Royal Fidaces of Scotlaiid. 

344 LijEov , J 


al» Ruthren bow^c) tp tbe.eMiui^ 
iiaiy depth of bis Miyesty's kneei and addreavr 
4)d him with a countenance which bore minaai^ 
'marks of rererence. Tben drawing him a little 
aside^ be began, with eyes bent nppn the earthy to 
telate an adyentore of a sipgolar. kind, which be 
iaid bad befallen him cm tbe precedbg ni^t. Ip 
taking a walk throngh the fields near Perth, be 
'had encountered a man of mean appearanceji whofiid 
person was unknown to hiqi, and who wore a 
doak wrapt carefully over tbe lower part of bis 
'&ce, as if for tbe purpose of concealments Hija 
curiosity being excited regarding this .person, hcl 
asked bis name, and bow be came to be wande^ 
fng m so solitary a place ; when the stranger, by 
faltering in bis speecb, and other. mark? of coi^iip 
rion, excited such suspicions in. his mind, tbatli^ 
thought it necessary to examine him. farther. Obn- 
ierring that be appeared to carry something niidqr 
Ills cloak, he cast by the laps of that garment, and 
discovered a large pot full of broad gold pieces^ 
which the man bore with difficulty under bb amu 
He immediately judged it necessary to take the, 
fellow into custody, till he should give an explapa- 
tion of bis business. He brought him to a private 
place in bis broiber*s mansion, locked several dpoiji 
upon him, and, believing it to be his dinty to make 
the King bis first confidant in tbe transaction, be 
had come thus early to Falkland to impart tbea^ 
cret, with which. even bis own brother was not as. 
yet acquainted. 

According to the KingV own account pf tUe 
conferenee— -the only one extant— bis first aosweiv 
•after thanking the Master of Gowry for his good- 
iifil, was| that he could not properly mtvtm ik. 


mich a matter, ad tbe treasare of no free subject 
could by law belong to bim, except it were found 
under the eartb. « Well," said Rutbven, " tbe* 
fallow confessed to me' tbat be was going to bide^ 
H under ground ; — only, I bad no leisure to inquire' 
▼ery particularly.*' To this ingenious aftertbougbf 
James replied, tbat an intention was very different' 
froiik k deed, and tbat be could not yet see wbat- 
ifgbt he bad to meddle in sncb a matter. Rutb-* 
ven, put out of bis' fence a second time, observed' 
{^ttishly, that be thought bis Majesty over scm- 
piilous in a matter which prpmised so much profit 
to him ; and tbat, if hh persisted hi refusing, somo ' 
others — as bis brother, for instance — might med- 
dle with it, and " make his Majesty the more ado/' 
James, then suspecting that the man was soma ' 
{Aacttsing Papist, w;ho bad come to Scotland with 
riibney to stir up a new Catholic rebellion, inquir- 
e'd !f Ruth ven could recollect the species of the. 
dbin, and what sort of a fellow' he was that car-' 
ried it. Here the conspirator's ingenuity was a- 
gain conspicuous. H^ answered, that the coin 
seemed foreign, and that, although tbe man ap- 
plared a native of Scotland, yet be could not re- ' 
obllect to have ever Seen him befote. > James still 
hiBsitated : be would send a, warrant, be said, to' 
th'e inagistrates of Perth, to receive the man from 
tft^ Master's bands, atnd subject him to a thorough ' 
ex^ination. Ruthven, however, remonstrated ' 
vMiem'ently against this proposal. If either bk' 
brother, be said, or tbe bailies got their finders on ' 
i&e gold, bis Maje^^ would g^t but a pdor ae- ' 
count of it *y it was only for tbe p^irpose of making 
the ^in^ the first ineddler iq this business, that ' 
fafll h»d l^keh all liua tnjuble to apprise Umof it.^ 

346^ LIFE oir . 

And he eagerly requested that hit Mqeety wooU} 
ride with him in a private manner to Ferth» an4. 
take cognizance of the man and his precious load* 
, James was still irresolnte. Surprised alike al- 
the strangeness of the tale^ and at the coafnsed 
manner of the reciter^ he could not decide whali 
course he should pursue. He found his mind# 
perhaps, in that obnubilated state, which we ge* 
nerally experience when told any thing very much 
out of the common way, or of wluch we cannot 
well make the different facts tally. In such a 
mist, the mind becomes in a certain degree insen^ 
eible to danger which it would otherwise snspectf 
because all those powers are engaged in unriddling 
the mystery which should properly be employed 
in the more important duty of circumspection. 

Before the King could make any deeisimi^ his 
attendants had all got on horseback, the game waa 
found, and the huntsmen were ready to do thm 
duty ; so he was obliged to break away from the 
Master, with a promise that he should give ft re* 
flolute answer when the chase was . conduded* 
Rnthren expressed great vexation at the delay, obip 
serving, that there was not such a hunting to bft 
got every day as that which he had purposed to 
his Majesty. 

The King had not been long on the fields, bar- 
fore the tale of the treasure came again into Us 
mind, to the exdnsion of all enjoyment of his fia» 
▼ourite recreation* The curiosity which be had 
resisted before, now overpowered his better aenaey 
and he formed the resolution to accompany yosng 
Ruthven to Perth. Sending a messengertOihaiiig 
^ Master, he infomied him of this dfitean- 
nationi and proniisad to amy it into effait i^ 


nam w lihe^ fAiae dhoidd be eaded. Ritthtea then, 
tfi'oenoertedihe night More» desired Hendenoa 
te rMe to Pertli with all poettble speed, and in- 
§bnb the Eari lAa brothor that the King was to be 
iMk him incootineati and that a dinner ibouhl be 
]irepared« This, of coavse, he kept concealed from 
the King, heing direetljr contrary to all that he 
haA tekl ifia Majeafty regarding the propriety of go« 
iag aloae^«nd wfthontthe Earl's knowledge. He 
fottowed James throngh all the windings of the 
duiae which ensued, taking every opportunity he 
coidd get to nrge him to i|mt the haat, that he 
Vigbt nde to Perth. . 

'lA^ont eleven' o'^ioek, aCter a very hard chase 
oC fonr hoars, tbe buck was brought down abont 
the distaace of two arrow-flighfeB from the royal 
slibles,' and the Master of Rnthven proceeded to 
entreat the Kingv in more eanieat langnage than 
evet, to make haste with him towards Peith. it 
wns James's usual practice to superintend the curty 
or dissection of the deer; but on the present ooca- 
iion, he was prevailed on by Rnthven to remit that • 
duty; Without -even waiting for a fresh horse, or 
till his sword could be brought, or till the Duke of 
Lennoz, the Earl of Mar, and «other conrtien, could 
chsBge their horses in order to attend him, he was 
induced, by the solicitations of this strange youth, 
4o set off instantly on a long ride ; only observing 
tb his train, that he was goiagon a hurried visit to 
'IVlrth,' and should be back before the evening. 
< 'The first idea that occulted to tbe courtiers^ 
:^ipbea they saw the King go away in this abrupt 
.manner, was, that he mten£d to institute piooeed- 
•iagS' against' the Master of Oliphant, who- had lat^ 
% jtiiiarhBd the publio peaoe id the tftttrict of 


A9§f»i nAd thejr lotteAtly et^ltod .tb^ni^lv^i.. 
ill g«t freflh homW) .tbn^.ibey migiu b»«9abled ta 
'aotpvifisny him. Some were 00 ^pediuow in 
tbis duty, as to overtidie die Kieg wbbm tbe &vt 
few milef. Witbio oqc^ 9Mle be vaa oTertfdcin^ hy^ 
ik&e#h horie^ wUeh Ufi, aerraote had s^nt aftee» 
bim. Beiog thus beHei in<Mvi>ed tban ^athvens' 
whose horoe wee much jaded by the cbase» ha? 
wes easily able to outstrip bioo^ ia speed ; yel». to:- 
his saq>rise» that young omhh contiaiied as e^gnf* 
and importanatie m his entreaties to bim to mslqa*' 
heatet as, if he had been .worse mounted, or ctia*^, 
posed to ride at a slower pecie» This cyeimi*. 
smioe» Joined to the exM^hiary deportment of 
the young man, his wiM staring with hisses, ht$% 
opcasionM deep thougbtfidnsesi and the great aa^^ 
xiety he betrayed to prerent tbe courtiers, fi^mi ^ 
foUowing^ led tbe King to suspect thet his witfr 
were .unndiering. Tbe firs^ nmn who came i^> 
heppened to be tbe Dnke.of LennoXf who wna 
married to one of Anthven jsjistera* Jamest taUngt . 
thi9.noUemaa eside^ said to htmy '' You could nol- 
guess what errand I am riding, for ! I am §oiagtai 
Berth to get a/wias [a coneeafed treaeuie]^ Mt . 
Alexander Rutb?!eii has. informed me that he bee 
found a man that has. a pitdber MX of ooined gcdd 
of great sorts. " Anilbe askftd the Duke» '« Whai^ 
humour he thought IVfr Ale«an4«r to be oi^B " 
I^ennoi^ answered^ that he Imew nothing else, of 
him, *} than that he w«s mi hoAesl disereet yomig 
nian* " Jaagies then related to the Duke idl the 
panieulaia of Buthmn's ppretiQnded adventure f t0 ; 
whi<^ the Duke repUed, '* Sir, I like noitbalri i^i 
Uuol Ukely* " Kererlbdess, tbe King went en. ^ 
Wheitthepitftyhid;Mmpv!ithii)a.i93aofBeilA ; 


ly^ Alexaaider reqnmtod pAnaiaatim toiide. on bef. 
fyre, in. order to. make :8onie. preparations |p^ Ua. 
^jeaty 8 ar^val ; to which hia MiyaBty, Qonana^edr 
». Uend^iaoo, who was diapatchod fo Portly al 
t|^. beginning of the hnnt^ had arrived a^ ten. 
olotpck) fMad, immediately proceeded to deliver hi|ii 

SBssageto'the Barl of GoWry% At hia entrano^if 
Qwry wa# engaged in conversation with three < 
geatlameni ^hp .w«ce. p&yii^. him a looming Tisit.;^ 
l^t he instantly withdrew ta another room, and 
cpgerly .inimire4 if' Hen4erson had bnmght a letter 
from his brother* ^* I have no, letter. '* said Hen* 
denoD* " What ansareir, then, have yon brought ? ** 
V'l was desired, to inform ypnr Iprd^p,'- sj^ 
Binwr^d. the d^jambefrlaun, '< that the King's Ma^ 
j^^ wonld be \ie^ incontinent, and that ypn mniH 
prepare his dinner." The Eiurl asked how tha? 
Kiog^ seemed to have t^ken with his broker. *<. He 
w^ weel tana iivithy." aoswered t^p mpss^Dger ;, 
^. wbeahe n^de his co^oiftesy, thp King kid bis 
hand npon bi^ sbpnldar.''' Henderson tbexi.r^:*: 
t^ii^d to bis oiwn honsp, a^d di^jj^d his travelling' 
for his ci|stem9ry dr^ ; after whicby rplnn^^g (O: 
Gowry House, the Earl requested hi^n ^.pnt on. 

slee^i^ as he '' bad, a Highlai>fimi^n tp tiJs in.tbe > 
Sl^p^gate,/' (the stsept in which the honse viffi^L! 
sit^aled). I^^he n^a^ 4i<i c^ hei ^ra^ bi^ 9t^d i^fitfO!- : 
vwds assisted iq tf^wig up the Earl's dinner, 

I Gowry bad tb^ dsy ea^n^pd h^mi^lf tpWk 9^ : 
ten^g a me^tipg pf t)ie tpnin'tcquiLd^ p;^ tho • 
pnile:[( having biqi^nass pf bis awn van^l^.H^^ 
pf^ntly, tbfLt.l^e '^igbl; the better ai^ppfir *^' spt- i 
prispd host i^hiph ike Kiflg w%8 to e^ept.h|.iz\ ti^ , 


from those roniiBTly mentioned, trivo liftd lnpipelii«>* 
ed ta wait upon him. As he was sitting at table 
with these' gentlemen, Andrew Ruthven; who bad* 
si^companied Mr Alexander and Andrew Render- 
m)n to Fa!klahd, came in and whispered into fai^* 
^ar an annoancement that the King was on the- 
way. Soon after Mr Alexander himself came iii»' 
iCnd proclaimed the fact of his Majesty's approach 
to the town ; on which all rose from the table,' 
and' the Earl hastily prepared to go out to meet 
the King. The meeting took place on the South 
Inch, a common immediately without the town 
walls. The King, with his retinue of about fow^ 
teen persons, was then brought into Gowry Hitose, 
attended by the Earl, and nearly a hundred of hk' 
friends and fellow-townsmen, who had turned out 
tb welcome his Majesty. 

' Th'e house into which James was thus con* 
ducted, was a huge edifice, which Cannot be de«' 
siciibed better, without the assistance of a sister 
art,' than'by stating that it was in the shape of the 
letter L, haying its shorter di^sion parallel with 
the rirer Tajr, and a garden extending behind the 
longer division, while a square, or, as it wbm then 
Cfedled, a chse, was formed in front by a wall 
starting from the various extreme comers of the 
btdlding, and meeting in an angle, where there- 
was a gate. It was a house of three Jki:& or 
storeys, the lower being occupied by cellars and* 
medial apartments, the second by a dining-roetn 
iKfld'hall, and the third chiefly by a long picture-^ * 
^ery. The principal access to the rarious flIKH 
li^ 'was by a spiral stair, called in Scotland -ti 
ibStt^nke^ wfaidi was situated in the angle of the 
bmOiog. Bvl therewM tiiddicnr aad mMit MBSt^ 


iMttod itt IJm subBeqaent narratire as the Blaek 
Tumpihey which ascended near the upper extra* 
inity of .the l(mger stroke of the L, giving admia* 
flkrn to ^ chamber on the third floor^ at the end of 
t^e picture-gallery. It is necessary that the reader 
^ould mflJs;e himself acquainted with these miniv 
^fffi iu order to understand what follows. 
/ The Earls reception of James was precisely 
Quck^ as be m^ht have expected from a persoa 
whose house is honoured with the unexpected ar* 
rival of a too numerous and too dignified company 
of guests. His Lordship .was polite, hut con^ 
6|9ed ; fpreatly anxious, it appeared, to do the ne- 
cessary h<mours to his sovereign, yet embarrassed 
tQ the last degree .regarding his proper entertain* 
ment. . He was even worse provided than muaL 
His principal household servant was sick. The ' 
Tjanda prepared .for his own dinner and that of • 
t^. friends, were half eaten, and entirely out of . 
season. The King, though very hungry from the 
effects of six hours hard riding, was obliged to 
Hpit a whole hour before any food could be set 
bpfoie him. During the interval, his Majesty took 
an <^portunity of asking the Master in a whisper, il 
tfipy nodght not now go to examine the man and Vm 
pot of gold. But Alexander told him that it would • 
be bett^ to wait till aftw dinner ; and in . the > 
nean^e, he entreated the King not to seem too : 
^yo^iar with him, lest it should appear strange to . 
the £arl. James then addressed himself to Gowry^ 
for the purpose of whiling away the time ; but ho • 
9F99 siirprised to find that there was no possibility 
^ ^^I^S^^'^ ^^> penBon in any thing like conveT' 
fiation, his whole disconrse consisting of * half 
Woids j4a.d inflect sQnteiiQ«a»/ 

'1 > 

252 ' 1.19% C^T ' i 

< Hb Majesty being eet'doiifii to hie ^bser, til^.^ 
Earl atood rery penaiTe, and with ^dejected eoon-^- 
teaance, at th*. end of his Majeetiee table) ofb 
iHWiiiding (whi^9eruig) over his ehoolder, one ^hoia : 
to oneof bis eerirante, md another while to an* 
other ;. and oft tiaea went out and in to'thaoham* 
her.' * When the.Kii^ had ateoet dined, li^: 
host 'conducted the convtien into the adjoining 
hall) and. saw them set dom, to meat; bnt^'ioi- 
ateftd of ti^dng hia own proper place at the board#' 
hi^ iatmadiitely retncned) and renmied hia eilent 
and stttittfied attt^de at the bottom of the King's > 
table. Jnst as Jamea 6oncInd«d hia. diniiec^ M»'« 
Alexander' whispered into his etfT) ik$Z, a$ tbe^ 
cenrtiers. were now all engagedj the present would ^ 
be an excellent opportunity for stepping away by^ 
themselves to aee the treasure, if his Majesty could 
only shake oS the. EarL At Runbveneanggestaoiiy'' 
James tose firom table, and, addreasing Gowry in i 
athomely • mannner, desired him to carry his^ eup'' 
into ithe hall, and act aa hia proxy, in drinhing the > 
heakhs of the guesta. Atexand^ Eothvetfthea' 
lad the King forth itom the chamber into the^haU, ' 
wftece the royal attendanta were takii^g their dhi^ ^ 
ner; crossed that roam ohUqnelj^ toward^ * the ^' 
door by which it was entered from the main stailv ' 
case; ascended that staivcase' to the ne|:fe fleot ^ 
above ; and entered the piotntv-gsHery. • While ^ 
James advanced up the atatr^ Bvthven lookoii ' 
back into the hall, and intimated, as his Majeat/o * 
eemmand^ that none, shoofai follow. After, eut^ ^ 
ing the picture-gallery, Rothvea lodced the doOt ' 
canefully, muttemig half aloud, ^ Well Mke veiy > 

« Tbe King's Ktfiatfv^apad'PitfsinUiTH^ * 


uix» oC hini, "*by way of excnse for » precantioil 
Sfrfiich might have otherwise raised suspicioos in 
|ho royal miodL . He wu now remarked by the 
King^ tO' assume a smiling and pleased look, whick 
he had; not exhibited at any former period of the 
4ay« . It should be specified, that the conspirator 
)iad a. f word by bis side, while James had nothing 
jbnt a bnniaBg*honi, wbich, in the harry of that 
^may morning, be had never found an opportunity 
of laying aside. 

At tlie end of t)ie pioture-gallery waa a s^fuare 
A^mber, already metttioned'as having a separate 
pommunicatioo with the cqurt-ysrd, or «/ose, by 
foaassof the JBlack Tuampike.^ Into this cham^ 
Jber Ruthven now led the King^ locking the door 
^iund him, as he had done that of ' the* gallery^ 
and muttering the same excuse. In the comer of 
tfae>room, was a door opening into a small cbam- 
boTi or study,, wbiph was contuned in a turret pro* 
jeotingfco^ci |ihe main building. Rutbven ushered 
the King 'through the cumber into the study, the 
door of wbicb he immediately locked, as' be hod 
done all the r^st, ; 

. Here t;he King observed, instead of the boun4 
treasurB-keeper b^ had been led tp expect, a man 
pot only free, but having both defensive and off^a^ 
rive- arms, being no other t|^an Andrew. Hender- 
son the chamberlmn, who, rat half an hour before'^ 
had .been thrust into t^is room by Alexandf^ 
Butbven) and the door locked upon him, without 
any intimation made as to -the purposO iot whietl 
he was to keep that strange pose The M«b|^ 
^ow suddenly changed his smiling demeanour fot 
A ferocioua frown ; dipped his hat upon bis head» 
AS if to signify tiiat all respoot for die royal p«r« 


ten yna at an end ; and presenting a dBgg&i?p 
which he snatched from Henderson's girdle, at the 
King*s hreast, exclaimed, " Sir, yon must be my 
prisoner ; remember of my father's death ? " James 
was, of course, greatly alarmed at this riolence. 
Yet, though it is generally supposed that the sight 
of a drawn weapon was sufficient to deprive him 
of his senses, he by no means lost his presence 
'of mind.. . He was beginning to utter some remon- 
strance against Rnthyen's conduct, when that 
youth fiercely exclaimed, '* HbM your tongue, sir, 
or, by Christ, you shall die ! " There is some ^s- 
crepancy in the evidence regarding Mr Alexander's 
belmWour at this point of the story. Henderson 
at first represented him as having appeared so de- 
termined to kill the King, that, if he had been peiv 
mitted to hold the dagger as much longer as a 
man might walk but six steps, he would, for cer- 
tain, hare struck hb Majesty to the hilts with it. 
The same witness afterwards gare a softer account 
of his appearance ; and, in all probability, as the 
King's imprisonment and not his death, seems to 
have been the first object of the conspirators, if 
&ot the whole extent of their intentions, the se- 
cond account was the more correct of the two. 
Be that as it may, Henderson completely disap- 
pointed the expectations of his masters ; for, in- 
stead of assisting Ruthven in his task of intimi- 
dating and binding the King, as nine Scottish ser- 
vants out of ten would have done in that age, he 
wrested the weapon out of the hand which point* 
ed it to the King's breast, and vehemently entreat- 
ed young Ruthven to desist from so cruel and so 
dangerous an enterprise. The King, then reliev- 
ed from the fear of instant assasfluwdon^ proceed^ 


ed to expofltdate with the conspirator. ^ Miister 
Alexander," said he, in his nsnal broad Scotchi 
^ you and 1 were always rery great (friendfy)^;* 
'touching your father's death, man, I was but am 
minor at the time it happenied ; my council mi^it 
•then have done ony thing they pleased. Further, 
man, albeit ye deprive me of my life^ ye will never 
he King of Scotland; for I have baith sons and 
dochters. And there are men in this town, atfd 
other friends, who will not leave it unrevenged. " 
Ruthven, somewhat mollified, swore a great badi 
that it was not his Majesty'a life that he craveck 
'** What reck, then, " said the King, *^ although ye 
tak off your hat ? *' Ruthven uncovered himself 
end hi» Majesty proceeded to say, *< What is it 
ye crave, man, an ye crave not my life ? " Rntl^ 
-ven replied, <' Sir, it is but ane promise." ** What 
promise ? *' inquired James. '< Sir, " said Rutb- 
ven, '< my brother the Earl -will tell you." The 
King desiring him to brmg that person, Mr Aleii^ 
ander exacted a promise from his Majesty, upon 
oath, that he should not open the windows or cry 
out, while he was absent, and then left the rooniy 
locking the door behind him. Immediately iafter 
he^was gone, James entered intaconversation with 
Henderson, who all this time had exemiplified,by his 
conduct, how unfit he was for the part which the 
brothers had designed him to act. ** How cain 
ye in here, man ? " said the King. '< As Grod 
leives," answered the unfortunate chaknberlain, ** I 
was shot in like ane dog. *' '< Do you think my 
lord of Gowry will do ikie any evil, man ? " inquir- 
ed the King. The man soiswered, ** I vow to God, 
air, I shall die first." James, then revolving Jiis sitii- 
iatiott, conceived .that, although he had promiaed^not 

|Ws wirefobed muiion to do^o.for jiim. Oa beiBig r^^ 
'jqpested to perform. tliipi 9fir?iee> Henderson, opeoed 
«f the Jlv^ jnnall .windows by wbi<^ die tnire^ 
lighfeed--^aofe \h9A which Joo^ed towmrds ^. 
^Befiirt*-y!Brd« when^ iisaislancQ was to be ei^pe^t^ 
imi the opposite oaseipenty which, had its aspeeft 
iowttds tth^ pUUiq streeiU '' Fjr' orie4 tl^e Kii^ 
^ the: wrong wiodojsr, man ! " liepderso^ instantp 
lyperoeiTsng Uui mistaket crowed towards the op^ 
^OBite window ; but, before :he reached it» Aieza^^ 
4eD Bntb^en Ugaia hxicst into die fipai^mei)t» osr 
daiiaing, **. By God^ Sir^ there ia nae re^neid ! '! 
jilter wl^h he apnHig at the Kiqg, seized hie . 
Juuads, and* began to Mnd them with ^ garteiv 
mhi^h h6 bad brought with him.' : , . ? 

: In the ihean time, the elder brothejr was plaf^ 
Jig Us own part in the conspiracy. After the Kins^ 
end ATeiander had passed through the dining-hslk 
Ub tordifaip asked the guests to step with ham iW^ 
Aerg^rden, andtid^e an additional dessert from hip 
'eheary'4ree8« Opening a sido'door in the haU> h0 
jed the way, by an outer stair, into the garden b«kt. 
-Imid the bouse. They bad not beeoL long tbefi^ 
Iwwever, when one of the domestics came to thei^i 
&iiBtily»8nd informed his master, that the King had- 
fast, ridden away to FaUdaqd, and. was i^resdyi 
afarovgh the South Inch.. The courtier*, accusK 
tomed to such piactical. jokes on the part of Ue 
Majesty, l>etmyed no surprise .at the- informatiQi^ 
-Imt rushed throng^ the house into the eKteriar 
•«Mirttyard, crying for their bonesi aqd ez|»esaiog 
.the greatest anxiety to be gone. Among aU ^ 
-Ihem, none cried with more yehem^ice or YOcife* 
tation than the Earl of Gow7]it^ who aa doubi 


wH k bA to iaerawe the impstieiiee of hkpbBkmt^ 
qtot ihe hoose. A serraat infciriiilag Un thai bia 
hetse was at Scone, and ef comae beyond reaeh^ 
^be aibeted not to hear, and still contmned his erf 
of ** Hone ! Horse I " At leqgth, <m cmning to 
-the outer gate» the Dcdse of Lennox asked tin 
porter, if hie Majesty had gone forth. The man 
'anawenng in the negative, Gowry sternly told him 
•be Ued, and proposed to go back to the^honse to 
aaieertBin the fact.^ He ran np the prnicipid Btair«< 
oase, as if for that pnrpose, but in reality, itia 
aQj^Nided^ to hold a conference with bis Inrothert 
for thai peiBon'a retirement from the turret conre* 
.q^ded in point of time with the Earl's going, np 
ittto Chouse*' Soon returning to ^ conrt-yant^ 
hemformed the courtiers that the King had really 
left the houses > faaTing-: goUe by the back<*gaie. 
^ lliat cannot, be, my loni," said the perdnadoqa 
porter, *^ for I ham itn key of the badc<^gale, ani 
■ofall the gates of the place." Puzslad by thia 
oomradietory intelligence, dm- King's attendama 
' rolled out to the street,- and went Juthw^and tfai* 
•Ifaor in all dirtfctionfi to aii^uive in^rmation; \ At 
that moment, a cry was heatd^-a cry so divill and 
pisrt&ig^ and so comploteiy^ betokemng .the esctrs- 
mity of mortal fear, 4m^ the Jbearm many days af- 
terwards dedared, that they should nerer forget it. 
1^ Duke Of LemiOK. said to the Earl of Mar^ 
^ That is the King's roice, be be where he will 
• himii^f I " Bpsseatly after, as thuy gazed bquir- 
ing^y up to thewalia of ^ bmlding whence tbe 
sound seemed to have proceeded, they saw. the 
King's elbow and head partially projected from the/ 
srin^w of the Utde turret which overhung the 
stRHH, the head, uncovered, the cheeks red,, and a 


vf-iW* -i .LIBS liJf i. t . J '. 

ihood gmaping tlMiinia«th» at if to pvtvwit qMi^ 
»aac»^ iriule die yoice esckdmed* with difficult bx^ 
ftisBdatioii, bat the saiM itone of extreme dialreto 
\mid teiTor^ '* I am muidered I Treaeop^ traaaoi^I 
<Mx Lord of Mar> belp ! '' Bat it ia Jme iiec0a- 
tsary to revert ia the forooeedinga of Alesander 
i&athTen, in the torret. 

1 When that penea entered the inrret tlkd aeeond 
<lime, and maide an attempt to hind his vic^* 
-James appears to have nnderstood^ from his actions 
(and .langiiage^ that .there was nothing to he eoB- 
»peoled hot iaatani deatbi .tJnder soch distressiag 
-draomstaneesy it. might have been expected, ihikt 
<his Migesty, who n^her possessed miidiconrngt, 
,Bor mimhstiiBngth^ vroold have at once sank nn- 
^der the ^flEerts.of the aoppoosd aasatsfau Oa tbe 
.amtrarjr, he 4icqaired: at;once magnanimity and 
: physicid force . from the emeige&ey* . F«Tchiimiiig 
: that.he was bora a £ree Kiagt rad.wonld di^ * £n|e 
« King, he wrniched his bands looaa iipem 
rof the oon^intor, 'and,sprang once mora fieet^ 
-on the floor. Heademon^ait the same time^ anatcfa- 
red away the garter*. BnthTen h)st no tira^ iaa- 
.gsdn springing upon the.King« .>Seizing. Ua Ma- 
jesty by the tknmt with one handy be throat, de 
-other into Ua mouth, to prevent him fram.cryiag. 
.In the violenee of this action» Jie pressed Jmneifs 
.ahouldem against tbe .waU, .deae^ by. the half open- 
ied window. While .they, were in' dmt attitade^ 
-Henderson pat his hand over, the King's left abald- 
f der^ and drew np the. moveaUe woodeni boasijly 
riliiieh, according to an ehaosfc nni^ersal practice 
' in Scodand daring the uicteenth and seventeenth 
t'€entaries» constitated the lower, part of tho «aae- 
•iment- Jamea then r shifted iaa. positloa in sndfea 

KING JAff 99. ^^E FIRST* 850 

itmfr mtt^cvmhm filc^ ^ Jte tbiUe tliraigh ibn 
i» A'gropp «f Us atieHdanls oti tb6 public 
M«e|.b^tovm mmMig itrhoiii:lierQCQgm^hi0 84*bo<Ai> 
AVojir .awl 6i€9Hd (he Eiifl lof Mur*: At that mo- 
aeaty. Heii^enM (hawing Batbten's l»&d oS the 
JKiog'a moathy' lie mrae enabled to alter those eriea 
jfbr eiic0oar. wbiofa have jaot been particalariaed. • 
, X4!»iti0x aad Mar, iHio first obseired tbe'Kiag'a 
Aioe at the, window, had hut lUtle time to speech 
late upon his extraordinary circajtastaneea; fbr,. m 
0lfpei9x0i to. theia^ he was abio$t ilnaiedAitel)^ drag- 
jg0d baek .bfeo. the chamber b^ the, plersen: vnlA 
,wfaima he seemed to be etrqgghi^. \ The twO no- 
rUemen insftatlsr cashed ia at the. gate^^roeted Ae 
tdjtatft'T^ diagOtiaUy towerd8:*lhe itaaikistairemy 
aecetided that $teir till they sesished the Mw m 
iwiiieh Aegr ^ehe^rved .ll^e King,: ^and^ eiJMriiy the 
jeHeryy: whidi was now :opea,)*.endeav4iired to 
iMBoetopw.the door of tbd .cAiatnfaw :at its n^per 
-eKtramity, ,whieb» bowerer, resisted all their ef- 
rforn, althoagh they vsed :a laddelr, Which th^ 
'^Mmd yi the rofmiy as .a blittermg-sam a^aintt it. 
(Fortmiately, wlule Aey Were tbaa; pat har^th' 
fitmibettf some other >iTiibad8 of tibe King itook a di(« 
rfei|Bnt and pateat way t^Mn^s.the seend of starii^. 
iTbe fin^ mafi to rMsh. tjbat, seene wito a pi^ of 
?(he same . of i John Ramsay» an .femdistingaished 
;y0aift of ibieeraad'twenljry.whQ^. On rieing ftom 

^ > The cupcumstonce of the ^aU«ry-d<Kn> wbich.wt^ lockr ' 
^'f»d by Alezanqec RuthTen, being .open, when iLeiinoz an^ 
'Mar went up. to the ^^g*fi rescue^ s^ems to. proves thaub 
%he Master came out tojthe 8t^!t»8tf, or elsd admitted hit 
(brother into the gallery,, ibr .the purpose o£ haviog'a eoi»- 
ibMBcf^ with hi]n,^ttniig«t[he tl^e xf ]u# abumce ftom tb» 

.... , .. ; . .1 ,. .. • • • ( * 

V 1 

%ifl diiiii0r in the biH, had been iiitrttMie(} bjr ttlfei^ 
iant with the keepbg of a bawk> whk^ had thai 
iiay been presented to the King, and w^idy'^atlM 
moment, carried the bird fastened * npen faialeft 
hand.' Ranasay had the good fortune, In hiatflft 
tempt to reach the King, to select the ^adc TnrdL 
pike as what appeared &e nearest way. it* is said 
that that access was nsnally-shnt np air diso]ete> 
bat was, on the present occasion open,' i^ppare&l^ 
•for the nse of the conspirators. - •' t 

• After James had nttered his cry l^r help «l^th^ 
window, his stm^les ^th'RnthFe^amaled'^ 
much more desperate character. <"• The MsfSMiPy 
'tfaeii casting a reproachful look *«t-thrd<Maetiib 
*whom he haid expected to imsist'him,' saiid> *^ Wete 
worth thee! Thou witt cause tis all dieP" Ti«rb1^ 
bUng with exeeesiTe rage, he pot his right 'hand 
Upon his sword, designing, as- we are to soppoiN^y 
*to.drawit^ attddispatdithe King. Btit James, 
whose strengfth rose with Ins dang^, 'to' iStM*^ 
^Rnthreh dedined with his agitation, pnt Ms^haM 
so firmly npon the faih of- die weapon, AttT iSe 
Jronng mlGui was unable to misheath' it ' AttUa 
moment, Hendersoti went into the diambe^, anS» 
finding the key in the door which' opened flipta 
^e Black Turnpike, turned it abtfut, and epmiM 
^the door, for fte double purpose^ according M Ms 
sdeckration, of making his own escape, aftd iMlig 
in the King's servants. The straggles of Ru^lrvlsn 
^diheKiHg; meanwhiTe, increased 'iif'^bletfce. 
'Clasped in^Lch other's aims, eack ^vtog ^dfte 
ibetween life and' death, they tottered forth ftom 
•the closet into the cfaaimber,. -wlnther HendeMn 
liad gone before them. After wvesiihg' if IMe 
there^ Jamer was fortunately etUiSyled^ bf'tiie 




aHMigtii iribieh despair hadlentlmii, to teoe dowa 
Jmb antflgookl upon bis kneei, and to catch his 
kUtA anderhia aim. Tbejr ware in diat atnatioa 
r->*'R«th?e& a head preaeed under his Majesty's left 
asmpit, and his hand thrast iipwards against th^ 
£iBg's iMse-— when John Ramsay, who, as already 
HMeationed, endeayovred to seek the. King by as- 
.aeadiag the Black Tnmpikey pvshed np the door» 
fttdeutowd the apartment. 

- James was at first nnablei ' either iiom breath** 
Ussness or the paemnre of Rathven's hand, to prm 
.pipage any directions. The yoang^ man,' how«< 
atvar^t^eoald easily peroeire that his proper duty 
ilvaaMk rolon a e the Kiagv by whatever means, froin 
4be^ haods of the Mai^ of Gowry. Stopping 
haft a moment to cast the hawk from hia hand, ba 
j di QW >the t whinyard, or shwt sword, which he wore 
98 part of his himting-dress, and, making a half > 
^MKBit round the parties, attempted, with proper 
aei^iect ior the royal person, to inflict a stab on 
Bnfchaen. James at that moaMOt mumbled forth, 
^ Strike him low — ^he has on a doublet of proof/' 
aiHaot which he had ascmtained in the strogKle.. 
Bpt Ramsay appears to ha^ only succeeded in 
wmmdii^ the conspirator on the &oe and neds* 
Ue idid enough, howavw, to cause the Master to 
jrabK the hold he had upon the King, who waa 
ainr' able to thrust' Hm out of the apartment, and' 
40Wn the stiur. 

^ Tha rescue so (bt effiicted, Ramsay went to a> 
^•ipdowy ^r slip in the staircase, and, semg Sir* 
Thomas Erduae in the courtryard, cried to him, 
Hfy^.Sir Xhoaaas, coma up this tnm*pike-»-up to; 
ti» head of at." The person so called upon en- 
JaraA thiEi ■tprcase acebrdingljr. Mowed by Hugh 

Herib^ ^ Kliig^d phyhW i h ,' art 6<k»^Wawp|^ 
arMr^Bnti Aa be wm Itscisodiiigy fa»^iiiel Aiex^t 
ndsr B«difita» wbo was staggarin; downwtaW 
wiA a bloody fiuse and neck. luBtaady: m |i *i o*> 
hndoig tbat tbk was ibe tiailary he eriJednpan 
bii folloiren to strike ■bkuy hmog binnelf vo^i 
wiBapon^ and Hngh Henrite aeeordiagly gave then 
ironndedman a mortal Mow, which canaed'hiBB? 
to fall at the bottom of dmatairy wheni he a hnO a at 
instantly expired. As he tornaid in the dealh- 
agoiiy»hemi^fct6red» <<Alas! Ibadnetthe^iVTle^f 
cf it;" an exprasnion #hich was afterwards harp^ 
ed npon by tfaosd who disbdieved in the nalityof » 
tliis CQBspiiacy» as eyidenfee against the King, ' bntr 
which dertainly dekuHtee no moio than that? thef 
yonng man was led into'the' plot bytfae laflnemHi^ 
ef bis eld^ brother's more powerfoi- and mnUtknii^ 
Hand*' . t 

^ The King was not yet by any means Mly tea^ 
saed; When the Eaii of Gotny heard the KmgW 
iM&ce proceeding ^frem the window^ iie. afieeied tii 
be ia great snrprise at the effect which itihadnpoi^ 
Iieanezi Mar, and dthemy and repeatedly aakedi 
them ^hat they meant, as if ^he himself had noli 
btfMrd the sennds Mich occasioned their w e mhmi 
Sir Tbdmas Erskine^ huwmwm; penetnted bhi 
thought^ and* SBiaiiig him by the collar^ exclaaih<«' 
«l^«<TrBator»thisisthydeedr' Gowryateeve^ 
Hrted that he knew not of the matter; bafr£nkiaB> 
discsgarded hia WordB^and dashed him to* die 
earthi whare» if we may beliisTe his nwn dedara* 
lion, be woddhafeiatabbed him, if he badinif*' 
poned to harehis dagger abent hiab< The Ead'i' 

f ' Bliiim 

*••* • • * 


^iSktjTkanmf -lAo then fBaderlntta^ lis alreedjt 
HWHtlMnd^ %B MCt»db Um tviopike -^ the Kia^ 
It;iiciift'tliu M&eoliuter witbGowrym^idi ^fevvnfepf 
eiiiim £Bom fwhing ok dvti vMy^nt, with Lemum 
aiMl Mi^ sp the Mam tthireabei which if he had 
deoBy he it viniaEiBefl^ -Alennder Radvpea would 
IPDt hava heefi kUied in the wa^ detcnbedy-aep 
wieald.the King hnrei had the nJnahle n»niitamie 
ef * Bnkiae and Herani in proteetiiig him frem m 
dhagery die grealeat which had-? aa yet .he&Uen 

^'Qowtfi on mmrngftom' dke graimd where Etn 
ddde .had laid hini» dinw 4wo aworda which hei 
iMweim one aeahfaardy and, with one in^each hancW 
aitor-the Italian ftaUen^ mahed throni^ the crowds 
eesdaiming, that ** he weald either be in hia own 
boaaey or die by th« way ! '- Some persen on* 
lomm pnt a alael bonnet on Us head^> aa be watf 
CDterhkg: the oeart«yard»" Thaa armed and delendn 
ad»> he craned the/oonrt» jtewanb ithe doer -of* thar 
Black Tninirikef p ro cad e d tmd frilowed by nhoa^ 
Hafattef hii principal ntaiaen* Thomai -Cran^ 
etaaat who want hefoiehiaii pdnted eot the c o rp oi» 
af*. Alexander RadiTetti which 'waa Ijrlng -with 'that 
fcOB dewiawaida at the' bottem df the attiuh Bntt 
Gowty waa lee ntent 'opon. actire exertienyt tei 
iiagar'a amnent eyan^oTcr the.bodyof a aUat 
huAeat^ *^ Up the-atair ! " wasthebiief bat aigM- 
Mfiaaat aaawev he gare to Ciantiami*a lemarMtf 
Hbs denoeatic aocdrdiai^y praceaded; aad theEail 
wantailer, with the I'eat el. hia>8aneiala^' aaelawHi 
ittgiLali the wiay^ dnt: he windd} pnashia a r aa poa i 
tbmgh the fiiatnan he met. r 

'. . TheJEuigt whoee Meada wfEe odyifoar in 

'jMr ' Ibr "Hiudgmm' had dlipfQd'iwayNiflirtdiiM» 
/Jy aliflr Bwkh^n wm diip<tihad» 'Vnd - gwtfy 
ilpiinnil when he petceired tlik Itigv^Mftyc «» 
jam aboul to enter the voem* Hi»«oiini|;ey boi^ 
«vec» such as it wm, did not ibneke hhii* ]|ft» 
lieying that Aieiender RuCbrett had dropped-hit 
aword amongit the rashes wUeb were at ie w ad 
••Ter. the apartmeaty he coninianced. a-aeMeh-focil^ 
intendiag to use it against the Eail aadhis sei> 
vents,, as he had noweapoa of liia jowiu . <^JIgr'« 
^Dore fertnnate. reselation, his Mencb thepv^^^^^ 
would be best for both himself and theoif as .wall 
as for the oonntryi that he shonldtieiire'.fraBi ithe 
scene of strife ; and ikef accordingly thraatrbidi 
hastily into. the tonnd ehMet wUfaon thet im a s t i 
Jnst as they did so, Gomry entered with Us iri^ 
liane, and began to fight* .' • . ''•:} 

This battle was Qneqi»al» to the aslenti of tun 
10 one; and what gave the asssilants s^ graaftsa 
adfantage, Gowry was a most destanm^. adsptfiar 
the nse of the d<rable.sword| while Herries^'eB^ 
#f the King's partyr ww emhanassad .in his«* 
Intions by a clnb-foot. Is was.with the 
difficnlty, At fint» that the weaker partgreoiddidai! 
fwd'thmselvea^ /Eertuately, however^ GasirySa 
aanmits, thoaghdi^«sedto%hlfor)4hsv 
aS'amatter of conne^ were. avrad and dashed 
aideiably by the reflection that, in ihe. present' 
ibey might oommithigh treason asrwett aa< 
afanighter; and aecor^ngly» thag^ didfjjuit 'Jicalia 
(to nse ihe Somite phrase of tho time) .with than 
enaiiiiy which was dieidayed* by die opposita'flMk 
aM»e despesate* party. • For aaoM timeiwenncin 
were given and taken, on both aidsa. As Itayh^ 
Banmq^ nsed .an aiynssian which did 


«MttiMil tot tw^iris eoM have cloiie. ^-VIlM 
^fnHen iii "hmM 1mi << to fight 11010, smce owdeiis 
-MMteriiitliMigliteKedr' Atthki,tbeE«riofG«wtf 
4ropfiBd tli»poat8 of his swords upon tho fiooi^ 
«siifo«Bdfed, as' it would appear, at the idea of 
moA m catastmpbe, where he had oonteo^ilatad 
aaaw Bt hing so vraeh mora ianooent. Bonsay took 
.dM opportonitf to run him thfougfa Ae hody ; anA 
-tho ^mfortwuiitie nobleman dropped on the floor 
«rithoBt saying a skigle word. His servants theu 
Asd down the tanipUce, leoTing the King's friemk* 
Id possession of the bloody chamber; 
f Dosing sM tho time of this fray,* the Dnke of 
iMnnoacaild the Earlof Mar had been beatin|^ 
iMently at the door whieh oommoaicated betwial* 
the gaileryand the ehamber; giving thereby aa 
addittcmal shade of horror to Uie sosne, as at first 
the royal party supposed them to be another eom- 
paoy of Gowry'o sertmrts, bent on rescuing their 
msster^ or ettgigod. on some other dirision of thoi 
Qswpiiaey*' Itvbebg now ascertained who the;f. 
wen, means wore talcen to op6n the doer, ttMSl' 
idmit the iwo- neblemen> who^ as might be ea»*" 
fobtody ■ expto ss e d- n» sniaB di«pprisoat findiagdie^ 
Sfrtof Gowry^ whom they had just parted, witb* 
on tho street, Ijnng dead at his Migesty's feetb* 
Jbdks, now assmdihat the worst oi the dongd^ 
^■■r ofor,' fiooslykndt down upon th^ flour, aiadr 
mitli«H his ^Hends in the eame attitude aroundh 
him,. aBtuvnedifefTOttt (hanks, ** out of bio owil* 
mottth, lor tet miiaadeue deliverance and victory;/ 
mmvisig himselft " a» bo talis us in his nmnAwb' 
of ^onffiiiiV '' that God had praserved him frcsn' 
tftdsapeaate m foritt, lor «ho poHitingv of sfluset 
gaosterwodtbohuid^^ Ua gMi^ and far {smmo*: 

•« i .' i %fV£ '■tt^ • • T, ' ''. Zl 

iMniiiiitted to hit ohar^e. '* ' Eitiier b«fdr0 ov aihai 
Ij^devbataiitfoity. weing h]8il»«k'*teit«r wikttjfr 
thftoogli theapintiDeiit, ^ 60t kis iao% nffm imm 
liAsb, tnd eatiied her to bi» token m. charge b]p 
bv former keeper* ... . j 

: Another danger yet nim»iied* Tho people' «|t 
Berths on hearing of the fimy all Gowry Hwise; 
had'IflMAiblediat theeomid of an alarw-bell, taad/ 
being prepoaBesBod in- the higfaeef d^rao in iwroiar 
of ithieir yoathfol provost, they coold not act Bx9ii 
believe lliat he was* the aggressor or ^conafMratDty 
ftat'irori leonvinond' that^on the coDtraryfthe 
whole affiiir #aa a plat agabsH him and hia^bredierl 
OB the part of theKing and covftierk Wfaeniir 
kT0coHected.tbatGowry*e serranu were eqnallyf 
igooraat of . the reai natnin of the ebospifscy, m^ 
dhst'tfaey- weie «ven more aealmnly disposed ikmtf 
Ike 'tikiaens to •revenge thwr^ Hiaater^s deaths '1^ 
rnoAt the eiTiderit that James, ' with lictfai' more thav 
ifr.dbaen servants in the town, and only Uie hM 
of'draaein immedkle attendanis^ was'-skllxaverf 
periioiiA dreomstanoes. ' Rwnthe'wmdowsrof thor 
lilAe l»rret, he conid at this moment hear tfam 
fliosv dieiidftd tfaieata directed agamst hknsrif hf. 
die people below^ Some were crying, ^* Woe biM» 
ftli:.tfae^ bloody bntdien, that have mnrderad theae. 
tanoeeBls i '^ Others, addressh^ theb. feUosrtf 
tbwttfmen, cried, '*< Ye aits not gsde veighbounr 
that help not your provost !'" One woman openl]^ 
tfaemrteiiedy that^the green coats of the King andt 
Ua'OomrfieA shonld-yet make atoneaMut §fm''Aim 
Hwe h ety y and » gentleman of Gowry'a name aad» 
fiM9y wttrheaidaotery fora^beam to break opev 
^^ioor of tb«»vmilt8y::aBd gttapo#«tn''ito Uoaup^ 


nuDgM . witkf * the citV5eii% TiiBhed^ «p tbe ' Bteek* 
Tiifii^ke';-ftiid, if the royal parijrhni.&ot ttkwv 
the prvcvatimi to that and lock tfai ,do»i motAA 
have imm into the rooia/aiid prohdbly pat an iodr 
to ibe King^ life. As it waa, they teatified tkek 
htaatUe iBtmiio&B b^ rimlatnlg pikea and uwmdm 
thsailgb the amaU'aqiiam apaitibay wfaushy aeeoftk 
iiig:tO'an oldcdatean'in: SoMlaoA, a^l eomnlmi m 
the tlw^llinga of- the comaoon fieopi^* *waa hh in 
tjhakm^ oonier' of !the door. By one of t h aa di 
waaptma a 'gentleiiUai area; wean Aed in. the leg« . ^ 

•tfortnnatelyi the iilagiatmtes of. the toifniDOk« 
^ftifaok vienr of the eama !of this taaoalt frona 
iriMit itba mobi were now aatkig apod. Ftftlyt 
frem the feeling of their office^ which natiBaUy led 
thete'toaida wilii dignt^flft, and poirtly, pethapa, 
bate (ihaicrhaiHt'Of qdcllmg i^ aBobs, however onn 
giaatad^ dieaegatttkanen canoehred it theiv daty to 
eaart theaMelyea in- pacifying, lathte thair indani4 
idglto faMiona y^iah yo oo e m ad the aMiltiiadftr 
HafnDg-aioeeadidaOtfa^xinidoiiig.aot they approaebi 
ediherhoaaey'aadB^aified a wish to mo the Kingie 
andiiaar iktaidwn aoooant of the maittar. . Jametf 
Aabappdared«t » wiadowyraftd favediaDii a'ahat^ 
eapfaidatibnrof ndiat had takett<pltee;«nd t>f hiaipaM 
amb circaaMTtanoBs. The 'crowd was then 'yMh$ 
didwB^ftom file Blade TnfBpiket'.and a aieMnt^ 
aiMledibetweear:.thei'inanikipid aothiMtiei'aBdr 
tbasr.-lHiiiriatakL aevtoeign.' - . .. f 

\1m is one of the bbos^ carfoaa.anbordinate.laBltt 
oamieciM. tfiib ihe GowryconspirBeyv ihat^lhe 
BMia olv:lhia:popnl(M tmnte trttyeUed^in an mui^»i 
ifl^y'imf'a{meof lndeitDl>iii^ toaniriip>^ 
wafidKoitmitfiBaglkhlanlaBrdirtaafe^ limMmA^ 

MS' -T *'■ JATLxn ■ 

gmn up fo fiUage for tiw traBsonoas condtad of 
itti' AitiseiHy ctme np in a tiody, before Aof efoniagf 
was te apeaty ^beariog amn in dieif liMid% whna* 
wink to fit themielTaB for «fae datj '<if epdt^oK 
li was bi oaafleqnenoeof an anciaat dispale bar 
twaea the two towna for baiHid preoedencfi wfakh 
had lately beeo condaeted wkh an iuiexaBai{4ed da^ 
^greeof. asperity, that the people of Dniidee was 
^movad la take this pieoipitale st^. Wo »iaaf 
theiafore sappose that» whea they afriired at Perti^ 
and found every thing qaiel, tlM triwsph of the* 
iidiMtants of that town woald be as great in lidi- 
aaioi as that of the lahahilantsiRf Dondee was «b> 
facted to be in a s B Bi e w h at BBoia aobBtaatial iaeiEft 

. Assared ol'the praleotbn of tha Bsagiatiatesb 
James now descended to the lower and betlar 
apartinents of the honseif Bnt faafore doing. ao^ 
lie*ooniniit|ed the bodies of the two slain i>roliMf8 
to'the haads of these-dignilaries, to be kepti tiH 
A^shoald be examiaed by the law aath<Msitia9» 
and tieatod'ia tho naonep vsaai m* cases-of 'higli 
iMsaDn. .It was then vennriied^ with the* svpiB^ 
alkioaDf.tfaat'age, that, onGowry'sgisdla^ba^g 
saoiovad (in which part of Us dnss ihe -had «Qli* 
aaaled the magicai'ScioU already mentiaaad), the 
klaod'forthe first tine began to- flow .frons'kfs 
wannd. Of oaniaei thatrna onnseof that l y p a 
asnt phenonumoDi was the Biodoa of tha body^aa*^ 
aasiaaedin remaviag the gisdlab 

* Jaaes left the town at el^ o'doek,. tUnUsf 
kdjaiter to btasa the tanoas af a savaiiliat site^ 
asy iu§^t» than tanmain' longer amidst a peofda 
wm wbssa^^ amiad passiaiw ha had aaahiaada^ 


^iM itaMH^tof^ defiftiidiBg bimftelf/ 'AsIi^'MdS 
loivwdi FalklnMH hB fomid, noiwithslaiidnfpdit 
llttktiew coddle' 8tonii,> the road evMry wibeM 
, aw nidb d wkh the iaittdrilanto of tlie adjtfcelit di»» 
«riot% who iMd drMdy heard obwnve repoM ef 
Me daager, andnow flodced 4o eeoertein daH ht 
^ttMsafe. ' The cobgntahntfoiw whith'these peo^ 
pie poured upon biniy the very cinsemstanee <ef 
4li^ aaeembliiig in raeh a way, profe that, liy-4he 
aMbn at large, estcfairiTeof aome of the elwgyv 
:h« was regarded with fe^g» of wamn alfeeikili. 
^illter a aingidaiiybmy and eveatM day, he'm^ 
^iwaed) Jate ia the evening, to the boaom o^ Uk 
"tenly at Falldand, fram wtdoh he had set out 
Hint nianiiiigf witfa to IMe-eKpeetation of exti» 
ordhiary adrentnreB* Happdilyi the tranaaetioot 
^ • Ae day iireaght no miaehief to liia eonaert, whts 
«fei llkia^tiaro, ^was ik ciokitha pvqpuait wi^ the 
«hild, afterwaida Charlea L ^ > • 
-^ Her neaA aaovaiag conoeifed it to be neeeflaavjjr 
io acquiuiil the idlabitaiita of Bdmbnrgfa wiA thb 
«fent,*throagh the medittni of bis PHyy CowMil. 
^6 first, ^en little was lamwa^'befeMiee that the 
^Kiag had' been deHtrered from as hnmineat^datf* 
^ges,'the tiews was reeeired with expresnon of^ssh 
'Skfaetion snefa as coaid not but 'be agreeable lo 
"^^K^g« ^aewfaerei ikm popnktr ^liag mm 
«preeMy ihe same : at Aberdeen,*the'niaglatraiteB 
4vmit dttong^ the etraets tingittp psalms ^ r^om- 
4Hff, ' But, when thepartieolaia of the strange'tale 
reached the public ear, dooblBand^uspieiena bi^ 
')gan to take- place of these eiq^resBlotia of leyidty. 
-Shewhole^Ur was sa strange and improbsMe— 
lAe story told by Alexander Ruthtea to ikie King 
ntlio notjha^pearaiwe^rf'aiy a ss osl a tes indie^^CMih 

9$^ j»d, tbMgk \tmt sot leas^ the- eifergf wiA^ 
(vliidli fth» King Depretei^ted bimself to bare n^ted 
.-p-^hul; it Wiis^ diQoolt to ree^Mtcile U'wUb tfiooi^ 
idKnory coorao^ of worldly e^mtas aa4 ^o publio 
4rtuid father kKdmed to bofoyei wbat was cerfgialy 
aa likely in the abstract' tbat it ^was a con^inaef 
Hef the ^xNiFt agaiiist the two tMrotben^ 
V ' JaiHea aeon learned tbat»s«s[»eioii« to tUe eflM 
,wera afloi^ ;. and, for tbe fmrpoae of proGqriag'evir 
.doBee in bia- own ezeolpation) he edFor^sed a rth 
jnodto theoNwof thetairet»iwho bad ne^fer dicir 
ibaen seen, ptofided he wonld ^Ve himeetf np^iani 
mbvit to an anamination* Headeiftdn- did ^ao^ 
4iidfrom bis evjdeneoi atoagiKib tfaiit of .otb^ 
p0mm €oncamed> a natfatiYO waa ^wn up by 
fb^. Kifigi and pvibli^bed. Tbisr aanrntifia, bpww 
fiWV B9;it waa written by James in tbe-ainipli» bop 
nesty of bis heart^ with' the loll imp re s siOft of hii 
<|M|iaw>iyrni iipen' i1» -a^d tbesefOKe» pertiaps^lft lift- 
Ad eitaggeratedi 60rved liitle.toicoitiect the- eifiL 
ja^bax) previonidjr lekea tibe^evtraoiedinar^ step^^ 
Hgpivtfing m si«te fven: the cii^ tUsfrket-cresi^ and 
^p0iac«att)r attesting, .with bis.'oim moiAb/ evi^y 
4md of a diseonnie wbicb bia iohi^lain iGalkrway 
delireiied on the snbjeet |w>r th^^ess^Ued txiwi^ 
{Ramembeijng idso die ifamena^^infti^ceof the nii- 
Aiateia oyer ^ poblici be vaqvestedth^m'to-tondt 
aqHkn.thissnbject in their isermons; aeoordington 
^bmnla wbicb^be prmevil^ tik»g,aii,fl|9ortBnl- 
^at tb0 imme time to incline tfa^; beans f^ their 
.QpUpcgationa to thank bee.y«9a for its- jniracidona 
jnttfEpositM>n in his fiiyoar. U is atWap* bQW«^v^» 
;0ui.^nbippy thintpforatnim:0frank torbe^throvNi 
^4PW^.tbo: nieo^ ef^ ^.-infeiKmi ., Tbe ^fjatBftma^ 


«9giiua*> . Under the {Nrotext pf ^ <»^aciiri^.p^ 

^tb the edicts of trashy th^ fe&u^ed %o. 4P.£Mivr 

fUnoryttioQ oC the Kilig,V ILfo^ : Jw«^;W^<^ ip^ 
^■erared with pain <ibe b«4.>#iiaaipla/^ey wctv^ ibop 
iMUiiig to Us 9iikject^^ «q4 J^ba QQji4d,not:iM;(t jar 
JlGl^l»her • Jiavr. smtcmpidjiHi^y! ^97 Wl ofi^jfH^ 
muled fais.own. ehwi^WK oJid la^ainr^ /frcn^.n^ 
f» the w^f^ii^jii^wmhi ^cyiigbt jit. f4^^ 

yariooB places /tbrooffhoiitt.^jikhlgdoips..^ 
4heut .oint proper, d^nnsbes. ffud) % pfo^fed- 
Jiilg:}i]}ftf.Mw.b«^.dMa^od4 andjerepft ,|]^nu^ 
.!<fii on. Jameses part^; >bvit di^ £|i^ipi| of, ^andU^ 
Heooljff tmatters i«. ^ pvlpi^ wm, V^tgroda^isdv^ 
4b0 pteacheiB.. tbeoiBelveS) i^i >;9PI <init0 j%,:%- 
jbM«ible4mtoiAattb«ttiiine^ iV^^lxt^j^usfgr 
;Im; thus }9^. wt^ (be AiBi9d'»Mr; JQ^pb^rt; J^mc^* 
.Wiifebbm Jaiiiea co«d0N»i|d«d»t€( hi^y^ /9ey^f>e^ 
f Moet uitWFiew^ i»jpit]Ar,,tfti<««limfie,b^^£itl«» 
oiedil^ pf Ike •attempt iipoa bis.jyife^.. .^TAry <^?<^ 
•def^reaee) iboprerer» t^ affi^n.^ of tbift qr^ei^: ^s it 
ieOBsUid bis.'OpiaiQntefi)bm9elf»,w]^ piijy, €0a4ai* 
^ itn ^inake him, tbe :i«^f^A .nni^jj^^gf. yV^ 
fJhtiiiel fonnd aU ,bi9HbindQes^ ^in^spent ; i^p tba 
/ 4irQ!Ad puritan^ ' to d^ri^ ^hiiii.pji; bM b9nf(%99» 
,a0lt ba^idied. hipn fp^m 4ihp«,ky y dft' W ' ^ i^^Wg^lP 

«3dl6 dn tUs aeedunfy ra^ thni pdcetlie yrd^ 
per aoknowledgemeiito to-the Kin^, akliovgli lottg 
before the expiry of/Aat period he bad cmed t0 
entertain any doiohte of the eonapimcy. Hiato^ 
liana are usaally load in airlanding tfaia adiierk 
ence to principle^ aa they ddl h ; bnt anrelf 
Brace shbnld not have donbted the King, af- 
ter he had condescended to make pei%onal aaanffe 
anice of the hict ; nor wbb it right to abandon a aa* 
erod charge, in which he waa acknowledged to be 
eminently nsefol, for a matter so Tory inaigmfieanl^ 
fliid' 80 personal to himself. The proper leeling rah 
garding this case shonld be one rather of ^ty than 
admiiation— -pity for talenta, piety, and good intev* 
ctions^ all- sacrifiiced td the meaneat emotiens of oor 
*natine, ihe pride of singularity in triiesy and the 
>mdgar pleasure of trinmphing over a si^erii^ when 
"netSdOit has pot it' into our power. 
' It ia. now doing- nothing bat jnatioe to the 
*King, which was not done to him in his own time^ 
tty say, that his sitnatiofn on the 5th of Angoas 
1600, was leattyone of eztnamdinary p^il, and 
"Aat his oondncC tbroogliont the whole of the tv^ 
ing sdene, seems, from all the known ctitoonHlMoes^ 
*to hare been lilike honooraUe to ' him as a king 
"and as a man. From the issne of the oonspiacy^ 
aoi fatal to Ae conspirators, and to them only, wn 
are apt to oyerlook his dangers altogether^ and W 
aay lightly that he was more frightened timn fanvt. 
Bat, thongli he happened to escape, we shionhl 
recolleet thst, for several hoarB,'his life was thinas 
ened by many yaried dangen^ whieh^ bnt for Us 
own discretion, and extiaordinary sood ftttnaa, 
' he eonldscttcelyhaire evaded. In ue Ifavt plaea^ 
-nithoagh Alexander Radiren mi|^ only havo dn* 


flifaed to «aiae'hia penox^ k it •ndaiU thft^ be 
1W8 8<MNi indooidy by fear of discoreiyt to isb8o1v«i 
i^KKi the last extramity of Tioleiioe-«*to bind^aad? 
tben to raarder his yictiin* Let the iieader oaly. 
pamae- a little to GOBBider the Kioga circamataiieea' 
wben thot yooag mail bant, into the doeel a ae^t 
odiid time, and made- his. declaxataoa, that *V there, 
waa^no ipaaeid.; V asd he will seaaeely fiul to be> 
atmok'bir the pacnliar honora of the caae* laoti 
biiDi conceive the deapeiate straggle wiueh enaa* 
^«,.i.4t 'Straggle between a youth of full growth» 
aad etroDgii). and a man whose coaatiiatioii; Mas 
ari|^ni|lly the. faeUaat ^«*»let iiin» eonsidar the imn 
mole'«ad loclEf&st f^aee*-f>the ^weaknaaa of thor 
myal ratune^ conprnd with that el the Both« 
igjaw "the «ttar isolation of the Kiagf so to speaks 
flmidata wildeaeaaof.dangeiBt and ba iwil) find 
it difficolt to wilbhoMihis'sympathy from.a fellow*. 
QvaattDe -rnkdier ancb an; ektraoidiaary tM* Be it 
la^aoUected, thatan3«iannedman,.expoaed'to on^t 
who trpoaseased of weapoB8» as apt sto bare yeryy 
diftr0ttt feelings from one whoia- broogfat face 
fttpe in the msmL way with.a<feir antagonist* N<» 
^ksgaeo^of arhatis called oomage may avail inaaefar 
%tBtei^ To -part with life, moreoneri 4a the heaft 
iti eomhal^ ia vevy diffiBBant^in anticqiaitiim froaur 
the idaa^of >a«haiitting in toM blood to the kaiiii^ 
4f the^aaaaaaiBh Whenall ^theso iMnga ai». eoii^ 
aidaaed^ 'WO era apt to aUowawt only the reality 
M. tiba King^a dangar, wbichiiinaa aoloag dm04 
I^Mi paalyv init- the great merit .'he 'hfKl in. preaafv^ 
iag hw pic a e nce oS msndj and.being>able tor exac^ 
fcilMBliB- fi»; hia own deliroiUMX, -imder oirenmr* 
plaabea stf apt to shake the> nerves of even thoao 
nboLmako baroiaip thair boasttandthaurprofiiHitta^t 
VOL. I. a 

874 xivEow 

' A'-qliekitiaQ sray ttiUpflriae in referanee to Ae> 
moving pfinciple of this nogular compiiucy. But, 
ftirtiier than what is suggested at the beginiung of 
the present' chapter^ it is impossible) while pos- 
eessed of the present limited evidence, to pene- 
trate into the mysteiy^ The svm of the whole is» 
llutitwasthe nirii and itt-provided nndertakiiig> 
of two faetdiBArong ^yonng meni in aUiaaee with a' 
more aged and .vicioiis assoeiate, having for its* 
flsotives some vagae desires of rengeaace for real' 
or fancied injaries, mingled strangely with some' 
aaBhitioos political viewsi whicbappear to have b^ea: 
0t81 morerindefiaite. If there is an nnnsnal iiiysteyy > 
in the case, it is to be attnbttted solely to the siar-t 
gnkrly small nmnher of the eonspbntorsy their- 
having withheld their secret both from writing and- 
from the earn of friends, and the circnmstanee of: 
their having died withoot examination* Shonld. 
il still l^peor wonderM that die two brothers^ 
aihonld have made each an attempt unassisted^ let- 
the cause of dM wonder be sought in their peon*' 
Mar character, as eftpkined at the begmaing ^of • 
tUs clmpter. It is surely mndi more- l^ly,- that 
two such adventnren as they, should form a wildi 
wad hopelem project for theur own aggrsndiaeaMnlf . 
than tlMt the King, s man never chanu^teraed as 
mo^uiaary, and tdiose eirenmstances and pro»; 
■pect» in liifis were the v«ry heat pomible, should^ 
mive thoi^t of hasmrcfing life^ character, con* 
adenee, and< all that he eitiier possessed or ex*. 
petted, for the purpose of destroying two men' 
igaiatt whom he had no imaginable cause of of* 
fence, and whose deaths, it cannot be made to ap* 
pear, pvomised him the least advantage* Had there 
been no mystery. in the Gowry Conspiracy, iu* 


fi^d h»re long ago been n^gacded w a aimple 
and onimpoitaat maitter : bad the brothen qot beaa 
unfortunate^ and the King unhurt, we believe 
that the guilt of the former would nerer have been 

. . J^mes^s conduct in regard to thoee concerned 
or oonnected with the con8|nracy9 waa such aa 
might hare been expected in that age ^m a mo- 
narch who had often been exposed to such at* 
temptS) and wi«hed to prevent their recurrence. 
He caused three of Gowry a aenranta to be ex^ 
cnted for drawing their swords against his attend- 
anta in the gaUery^chamber, although it never could 
be made to appear that they foreknew the con- 
epiracy* or acted from any odier motives than the 
wlinary ideas of the time regarding the duty, of .a 
aenwil to a master* The estates and titles of the 
Earl he caused to be forfsitedi all his near rela* 
tiofia to be baoishedy his very name to be ex? 
punged from society; and the bodies of the two. 
bvotheiay being dismembered, were dispersed (^ 
permanent. exhibition on public places dirougho^it 
ibd kingdom* * So con^letely auccensful waa faiii^ 
attempt to depress the family, that no male d^r 
aoeodant is now Imown to exist* But» with the 
impleaaing details of judicial vengeance, we should 
also relate, that, out of the rents of the forfeited 
estates, the King granted the large, sum of a thou- 
sand merka yearly to the poor, as a mark of hia 
giatitude to the Almighty for his deliverance,. 

It waa not till eight years after, when Jamea 
me removed to Loadon, that iK^gan'a share m 

* Their heads remained on the western pinnacle of the 
Tolbooth of Edinburgh, till some time during the Civil 

276 LIFE OB 

the oonspiracy was discoTered. Logan had em" ' 
ployed a man of the name of Bour as his mes- 
senger in communicating with the two RnthVens. 
Bonr, being nnable to read or write, although in 
every other respect well qualified for his duty, 
was obliged to call in the assistance of George 
Sprot, a notary at the sea-port of Eyemouth, that 
he inight have the letters which LiOgan addressed ' 
to him read. Sprott; who thus became in some 
measure privy to the conspiracy, kept the secret 
till after the death of Lc^an and Boor, when he 
was so imprudent as to utter hints that he could 
make some discoveries regarding the mysterious' 
enterprise of the fifth of August. The Privy 
Council immediately caused him to be apprehend- 
ed, and, having examined him with the assistance 
of the torture, induced him to make a full con- 
fession of all he knew ; after which he was imme- 
diately hanged for misprision or concealment of 
treason. Five letters, written by Logan, were af- 
terwards discovered among his papers, and served 
to throw the ieeUe though forttanate light upon the 
conspiracy, which has been already presented to 
the reader. Thete valuable documents, having 
been engrossed in- the records 6i parliament, are 
yet preserved in the national Register House at 

' It was a fact noted by the amialista of the time, 
that the unfortunate Charles I. was bora on the 
very day (November 19^) on which the -dismem-' 

^ i* Ahnost evsiy known er irttaiaable document ragaid- 
ing the Gowry Conspiracy has been engrossed at length 
in Mr PUcairn*s Criminal Trials ; and the present account 
of the transaction is chie^y drawn up from that immenae '* 
mu Ititude of testimonies. 


berment of the tWo brothers took place at the 
cross of Edinbnrgh. Before this period, James 
bad become the father of a daughter named Eli- 
zabeth, distinguished in British history as the 
grandmother of King George I., and therefore as 
forming the channel by which the blood of the 
fkmUy of Hanover reached the throne. The King 
was beard to remark, on the birth of Charles, that 
the nineteenth day of the month seemed to be 
consecrated in some peculiar way to his use. He 
was himself bom on the 19th of June; b^ fitftt 
saw bis wife on the 19th of May ; bis eldest son 
Henry was bom on the 19tb of February; his 
daughter Elizabeth on the 19th of August ; and 
now his second son was ushered into the world 
on the 19th of November. 

n^^ ^ 

S78 lIFE OP 





The Gowrjr Conspiracy may almost be conkiAer' 
ed the last e^ent of Kihf^ James's Scottish reigii. 
The time betnrixt that and his accession to the 
English throne— about two years and a half — was 
spent in a state of tranquillity^ to which there was 
no other exception than the hopes and fears aris- 
ing from the intrigues which he set on foot for se- 
curing the object of his wishes. 

James's right is so clear, in a genealogical point 
of view, that he is generally ridiculed by modem 
historians for the extreme anxiety and tenderness 
which he displayed on that point. But he bad» 
in reality, great reason for the fears which seem 
to have agitated him. Although the claim of the 
Infanta of Spain, founded upon a remote descent 
from the House of Plantagenet, was the most Vi- 
sionary imaginable ; yet it was held up by a great 
portion of the Catholics, in whose eyes religion 
went far beyond hereditary right. The claims of 
the descendants of Mary, the youngest daughter 
"^ ^onry VII., were nothing in heraldry against 


those of the ScottiBh roTal fiunily, which traced 
its descent from Margaret, eldest daughter of the 
same monarch. But, as Hemy VIII., hy act of 
parliament, and hy will, had excluded aliens from 
the throne, and as it was anticipated that a consi- 
derable part of the English nation entertained an 
actual antipathy to the King of Scots, the here** 
dttary enemy of their country, there was consi- 
derable danger that the laws of primogeniture, al«' 
though favoured by the very principles of nature, 
inight in this case he little attended to. Above 
idl, there was the great difficulty of Queen £iusa«^' 
beth's good will and pleasure to be taken into ac^* 
count ; it being treason, by an act of the 19th of 
her reign, to dispute, that the reigning sovereign 
could, with consent of parliament, alter and des- 
tine the succession as might seem most meet. 
' It was under the compulsion of these good rea<» 
Bons, and partly from the natural anxiety whi^ 
'must ever attend the expectation of a large inhe^ 
titance, however certain its determination, that 
King James thought it necessary, before the pe* 
Hod now under review, to send emissaries to alt 
the principal courts of Europe, and even to some 
of the minor states of Germany, setting forth his 
claims, and representing his disposition to be on 
good terms with them, in the event of their {iEtvottr*' 
ing, or not obetrnctihg, his succession. For the 
latter reason^ he took every expedient for gratify- 
ing Queen Elizabeth, upon whoih he hoped at last 
to work BO far as to procure from her a declaration 
of his right to be her successor ; by which all his 
cares would have been at an end. 

In conducting his various negotiations, he was 
l^t to great difficulty by die different faiths of 

88© tLIFE OF: 

those whose favour be had to seek, and die ho»« 
tili$7 w^ch some of them bore to bis great Eog* 
^b patroness* He was troubled in. a particnlai: 
^foanner by the necessity under which be supposed 
himself to .lie, of conciliating the King of Spain 
fod the Pope, two personages who were at open 
war with Elizabeth, and were tbe most odious pos^ 
itble to the .greater part of his subjects, preseii| 
and future, as the arch«eneraiea of the Reformed 
feligion. . For attempting, to |»t»cure the goo4 
will of these potentates, and of the Catholics ia 
general, by holding out hopes of toleration to thia 
party, which he certainly did not afterwards real* 
tee, James is generally blamed, and surely no| 
without reason, as guilty of a certain degree of 
meanness and duplicity. Yet it must be dilowed 
in his favour, that he showed, throughout bis whole 
life, equal favour to the Papists. and Protestants, 
eo far as individuals were concerned, and might be 
really unable, after his accession, to perform the 
promises of general, favour which be had held out. 
His correspondence with the Pope was disclose^ 
to Elizabeth some years before her. death ; but, as 
the grand r^on for the Protestantism of that 
princess was nothing but the non-acknowledgment 
of her title by the Pope, and as she lost all feer 
on that score in her elder years, she does not ^- 
pear, to have conceived great indignation against 
her Scott^h cousin for his tampering with the 
Pontiff, to whose creed at least, it is commonly 
imderstoody she never bad any violent objections* . 
. Jama's hopes of the succession were agitated i^ 
good deal by the proceedings of the famous. Earl of 
Essex, EUsttbeth's last, and best &vourite. Essex, 
Jfrko always. pfo£9sse4 to be a fnend to the King of 


SeotSy entered inta a correspondence with his Ma- 
jesty, in 1600, at the time when he lay under the 
displeasure of Elizabeth, for having left his army 
in Ireland, and for the innamerable instances of 
caprice, and insolence towards herself, which mark- 
ed the end of his life. The object of Essex's 
whole thoughts appeared to be a triumph over the 
party of his enemy Robert Cecil, her Majesty's 
sagacious secretary of state ; and it was probably 
with a view, solely, of employing the King of Scots 
for this purpose, that he urged him in this corre* 
^ondence to take up arms, and join him in an at« 
tempt to force Elizabeth to declare his Majesty 
ber successor, promising, for the encouragement of 
^e northern monarch, that Lord Monntjoy should 
bring over five thousand troops from Ireland, to fui- 
ther the same object. James was too cautious, and 
possessed of too little of the necessary means, to do 
whaX Essex prompted : the failure of such an enter* 
prise must have been destruction to his hopes ; while 
its success might only promote the views which 
Essex himself was suspected to have upon the 6i»- 
preme government. He fortunately resolved upon 
the wiser course of waiting till Elizabeth, now in 
her sixty-eighth year, should die, and leave her 
9eat vacant for him. 

. Essex, as is well known, made an irmptioa 
[February 8, 1601,] into the city, at the head of 
only two hundred of his friends and dependents, 
^d, in imitation of the Earl of Both well, attempt- 
ed to possess himselif of the person of his sovereign, 
for the avowed purpose of deposing her ministers^ 
who, he professed, were favourable to the claims 
of the Infanta, and adverse to those of the King of 
^ts« Being foiled in this most rash and ill-con- 

282 LIFE OF 

certed enterprise, he- was tried for liigh-treason, 
and found gniltjr. A man of more worldly wis- 
dom coald not have failed, by working npon the 
absurd passions of Elizabeth, to procure mercy ; 
but inflamed by disappointed ambition, instead of 
taking any pains to soften her Majest/s displeasure^ 
Essex uttered the unpardonable expression, that 
** her mind was as crooked as her body, *' which be- 
ing immediately carried to her ears, threw her in- 
to an agony of rage. It is said that, even at the 
▼ery last, if he had sued with proper humility for 
his life, it would hare been spared. But, as no 
petition of that kind reached her, and as she was 
convinced that his death was indispensable to the 
security of her government, she at last gave re- 
luctant consent to his execution, which took place 
on the 25th of February. 

On hearing of the seizure of this Earl, James 
bad hastened, with feelings of sincere friendshipi 
to tend two ambassadors to sue for his life, giving 
them instructions, in the event of entreaties being 
found unsuccessful, to try the effect of threats. 
The first of these ambassadors, John Earl of Mar, 
the King's friend and school-fellow, and who pos- 
sessed diplomatic ablKties of no mean compass, was 
prepared to perform his duty with all the earnest*' 
pen which a warm personal friendship could in- 
ifpire ; and his co-adjutor, Edward Bruce, Abbot 
of Kinross, from attachment to his lordship, was 
inclined to be equally zealous. But they did not 
arrive till the 6tb of March, ten days after Essex's 
execution ; when they could only congratulate the 
Queen on her delivery from the conspiracy ; wbidi 
had been assigned as the ostensible object of their 
ntisflion. - James afterwards oonfessedy thai tks 


^Ui of tbis Qaforeiinat6 noblemiin, alihongti it at 
£r8t appeared the kies of a prime partisaay -vnm 
evenuially iband to be adrantageoasto his inter* 

* On the 8th of April, James wrote, firom the pa^ 
lace of Linlithgow, a long letter to his ambassadkm 
in. England, enjoining them to beg a promise from 
the Qaeen, that "she sbonld do nothing in hw own 
time to prejudiee-' bis right of snccession, * nor no 
dieece ander care resenred against me^ excepted 
al wajris if she be not to endore as long as 1^ sanno 
and moohe. ' ' It is carious, at the pvesent time» 
to observe some of the instrnttions which the King 
flives'them in this letter.' ^ First, yon- are toob- 
tttine all the certainty yon can of the tonn of Loa* 
idoni that in dew tyme they wilV faToor- the rycht. 
•Next, to renew and confirm yoar acqnaintanca 
•with the Lieutenant of the Tower. Thirdlie, to 
i>btaine as great certainty as yon can for the fleete 
^y the means of Lord Thomas Howard's nephew^ 
and of some sea^ports. Foarthly, to secare the 
-hearts of as many noblemen and knycbts, as yse 
•caii get dealing with, and to resolve what every 
-one of their parts shall be at that great day. Fyii* 
ly, to forsee aneat armoarye for every ^ire, that) 
agains that day, my enemies have aot the wfaoio 
commandment of armoore,- and iny friends only 
be unarmed. S^ctly, that, as ye have written, ya 
may distribute good seminories through every sfaira* 
Hiat may never leave working in the harvest^ till 
•the day of reafmig come, and generally to leave 
all things in such ordour and certainty iJiat the ene- 
mies will not be able in the mean time to lay sudi 
barres in my way as shall make thia^ • renradi* 
4aes when the time dmll CK^e4 ' ^ 

'7^- . • 

j384 LIFE OP 

' The ambassadorB, as James anticipated, were 
not sQccessful in drawing from Elizabeth a decla* 
ration of bis title ; bnt thejr procured from her the 
lesser benefit of 2000/. additional to the pension 
of 5000/., which the King had enjoyed for some 
fears. They also obtained, what was ahnost art 
good as Elizabeth's declaration cOnld have been, a 
promise from many of the chief councillors and 
nobility of her court, to the effect that they would 
espouse the claims of their King, and be ready, al 
the Queen s decease, to assert them. In these ne* 
gociations much was owing to the address and 
seal of the Earl of Mar ; but perhaps the most fa^ 
▼onrable circumstance was Essex's recent dead^ 
which had occasioned a dislocation of parties, and 
turned the eyes of most men upon the King of 
Scots. The Secretary Cecil, a most cautious pet* 
eon, but who had befriended the Scottish monarch 
flome years before against his mother, when attend^ 
ing the English embassy in France, now thought 
firoper to open a secret correspondence with him ; 
It being better, as he himself said in jusUfication 
of hk conduct, to keep the heir-presnmptire quiet 
with good hopes, than, by neglecting him, to ex- 
dle him to turbulent measures, which might eveii 
touch the life of the reigning monarch. Many 
other individuals about the same time also began 
tor give James private hints of their forourable dis- 
position to his claims. 

*An amusing story is told regarding the corre* 
•pottdence wfaidi Cecil maintuned with the King. 
SHaabeth one day took an airing in her carriage over 
iSbfB heath in the neighbourhood of Greenwioh 
Palace«<-Cedl being with her— -when a Scottish 
courier happened to approadi ; and, as. she ba4 


heard no news from tbe the North for some con- 
siderable time, she requested that the man might 
be brought to her, to delirer his letters. Cecil* 
who had every reason to fear that the post-bag 
would be found to contain some clandestine com- 
munications to himself, was thrown ii^to a state of 
great alarm by the incident ;. taking the packet,' 
however, with' an air of proper alacrity, he called^ 
for a knife to rip it up. Ere thi^t could be brought,^ 
he pretended to smell the disagreeable effluvia of 
a nasty leather bag, and suggested that he might' 
take' the letters home and give them an airipg be-' 
fore presenting them to her Majesty. To this the' 
queen readily consented; for there was nothing 
^e dreaded or detested so much as an offensive 
smell ; and thus Cecil, by a simple effort ot 
presence of mind, evaded an escposS which must 
have proved his destruction, and which he could 
by scarcely any other means have avoided*. Cecif 
should by no means be blamed for the duplicity' 
which he displayed in these intrigues.^ Consider- 
ing the temptAtibns which Jameat had to try force; 
uf ^xms in asserting or anticipating his right, aOr 
English minister w*^ justifiajble . in adoptbg every 
measure to keep him quiet- At this very time, 
not to speak of the recent temptation offered by^ 
Essex, his Majesty was solicited' by ^e Kin^ of' 
Spain to invade England with an army of that' 
nation ; and by the Pope to give up to him the 
education of Prince Henry, for the sake of serur-^ 
ing the attachment and co-opera,tion^ Catl^o^^ 
Itcs. In all pirpbability, we owejt to tbe^ex^rtioiHii 

of Cecil, interested though they were, that lil» 
succession was achieved without a civil war, or at! 

least tome considerable and sanguinary insufree-* 

988. UFBov 

tion ; to.miich msy tke wisdom of one naa sememe 
tiipes do for a nation. 

; It does equal credit to Cecil and to James, that 
the latter, with all his natural impatience on this, 
snbject, had the cool sense to appreciate die seda«, 
tiFe lessons which the other read ,to him* The^ 
minister having assored his Majesty^ in a letter^, 
of his sincere zeal in his service, * althonglkhe, 
would not| as others had done, needlessly haaard 
&I9 reputation and fortune before the time ;' James, 
in his answer, thanked him for his plain and honest 
offer, and desired him to be assured that * he. 
i^wald have no pleasure in seeing him hassard hia 
fortune, and reputation, since Ae loss of these, 
would make him of less, value to him ^ adding,. 
< ^ protest, that, for. your cpnstant and honest be*, 
haviaur in your sovereign's service, I loved your, 
virtues long before I coi|ld be certain that yoa- 
would deserve at my hand the love of your per**! 
ton: wherefore, go on and serve her tmly that, 
reigneth, as you have done ; for he that is fislie to 
the, present, cpuld never be true to the Intnre* ' * 
The magnanimity of this dedaration is entitled tih 
Wrfi. praise* 

It is a remarkable thing,, throughout all Cedl'a- 
o>rre9pondence, that he endeavours, by insinna* 
tions against most of the other persons who iu'* 
trigaed for James's &vour, to draw his M ajesty'a. 

• f 

* Cecil's correspondence was ni«iuige4 by dpher let- • 
tera, which were chiefly conveyed by the circuitoiifl route 
of Ireland. Copies, dedpherea by the Earl of Mar, have 
been preserved in the arebives of that family. The above 
sKtiacta we fiom the Life of Elisabeth, by Birch, who 
faadseeu leeond copies in the possession of Lord Hard- • 


vM» depettdedce upon lliinself*' He speaks wttir 
peculiar severity of the Earl of NorthninberlaBdy 
a poweriiil and acoomplished nobleman, who had- 
proposed to James to be ready with all his yassab 
in the northern connties, to join any Scottish force 
yriAch the King might afterwards find it«necessary 
to bring into Engkmd for . the yindication of hia 
title* ^ According to Cecil> Nonbumberland, al« 
though pf ofosedly thaa fayonrable to the Scottish 
aueeession, was secretly adverse to it ; and was^r 
moreover, too vain and foolbh a man to be tmst^ 
ed in any great undertaking* In proof of this, he* 
rdates a dialogoe which was said to have takeir 
l^aoe ' between the Earl and^lua Countess, and 
wbkhy if tme» certainly gives a curious view of 
theiaognage ei the better orders of the people in 
thaft age* Northumb^land had said to bis Counr 
|ea8> dbat he would ratbec see King James buried* 
than crowned, and that he and his friends werar 
liVM^ved to lose their lives before they should wit- 
aeas the latter events The lady<-^a sister of thet 
late Essexy and. therefore favolnriible to King Jamea 
*«<«iid wbo, moreovier, had no partiealar r^ard for 
h^r husband— -responded to this declaration, tbat^ 
yatber than see any other .than the King of Scota- 
le^m England, die would eat the bearts of him>. 
and bis friends in'salt,,- although she Were sore off 
the gallows immfK^iately after I That Cecil wuaf 
fight in cauticming the King about Northamber«' 
kmd| is evidei^t from a laet mentioned by the sa«) 
lirie Osbom, that bis lordship vapoured in aU: 
places, and in all companies, about what be should; 
do for tbe settlement of tbe succession, avowing, 
that be should bring in King James by the sword** 
Wheii we know thisL^WQ are Ijsas. at a.lo8S to »f^ 

98S xxnm 

eoant for the disfaToar into }irhieh Northvinkeipv 
land felt after the King had acceded to his £ng» 
Ibh seat. The tnith is, he belonged to a small' 
party of unprincipled and irreltgions men, then be-« 
ginning to be formed in- England, aveho regarded 
▼ery little besides their own advancement, and 
endeavoared to make a taste in letters and pbil<M 
sophy atone for the want of all more solid qnali^ 
fications ; the foundation, as it may be calledy of 
that sect of men, who, under the denominatidtt» 
of Infidels, Philosophers, and Utilitarians, haw 
figured more or less in erery ag# from that tiroes 
to the present. Among the other members of HIm 
fraternity, whom Cecil warned King James- to he* 
ware of, were Lord Cobham and Sir WaHet 
Raleigh : they, to use his own quaint phrase, eaok* 
pleted, with Northumberland, ' i^ triplicity wfatf 
denied the Trinity^ ' and were equally daDgenmtf 
with, his Lor/iship. 

It was during the interval between Essex's dealb 
and the demise of Elizabeth^ that James publish- 
ed his work entitled, * The Trew Law of Fr09 
Monarchies, or the Reciprock and Mutuail Due** 
tie betwixt a irae King and his Natarall Subjects; ' 
the object of which was, unquettionabiy, to prov# 
himself to the Engli^ nation as fitted to become 
their ruler. We diraw from this work a very cleaff( 
view of the grounds he had for those nodons r»* 
gflxding the extent of the royal prerogative, and 
the sanctity of the persons of kinas, which aie nA 
the present day so frtiitful a subject of ridieolo 
and invective. The tWo gmnd foundations of Ui 
errors on these subjects, were his interpretation off 
the ecriptura) accounts of the Jewish monarehy; 
and his habit- of arguing in, what is called tte 


maiiiier of the scheols. He takes it for grant-* 
edy-for iilstancei in the rery ilrBt sentence of the' 
treatise, that monarchy is die best of all possible 
forms of governments, because it resembles that 
of' Hearen by the Divine Being ; a most flagrant' 
inatance of the absurdity of scholastic logic, so 
eoastantly contenting itself, in moral conclusions,' 
with one external and nnimportuit resemblance*' 
Itt the same strain he proceeds to show, 'that,' 
arhiie kings are to exercise an unlimited control' 
over their* subjects, as the anointed lieutenants of 
the autocratic and unimpeachable Deity, they are 
10 have no reflective power over him, not even the 
privilege of complaining. They are to obey him* 
at ^1 hazards, as they would wish to escape thc^ 
Divine wrath itself; and, even if he should become 
a perfect monster of tyranny, 'they are to take no 
measures against him, but leave him to be cor« 
rected by his Divine constituent. His' theory is^ 
that the errors of the people be corrected by the 
king, the errors of the king by God ; and the only 
arms he allows^the subjects to 'use, in any case, 
nepreces e^ hchTyma, time out of mind described 
as &e proper Weapons of the t;hnrch. In his opi- 
nion, a bad kin^ must occur rarely, because there 
are so many reasons why he should be good ; but 
when such a contingency does occur, the subjects 
are to consider it as a judgment of the Almighty 
for ^eir sins, and are to kiss the rod. At the 
very worst,- they can console themselves by the re- 
fle6tion, that God, who is the sharpest and sorest 
of all schoolmasters, will amply avenge their cause 
in his own good time. 

It would be an absurdity, almost equal to any ever 
committed by this literary monarch himself^ to at^ 
VOL. I. X 

tepipt a,B«riaiia exffm^ of ^^n^te btyol^nwown 
«iid umppUcubilit]^ «f hi» sifgaments. Bu^ it ia 
eqaally clear, that be mi^ eiUertaiA all tbeie do^ 
lgioii9, aad act upoA tbem in bin owa piactice aa a 
Kiogy withoat iacmriiig any blaioe. Tbe Uotb if^ 
be theoriiBed exactly in the atyle of the age in whid> 
£e livedo or rather iu which he wa9 ed^icatad ; a 
£me when there was no argm^ent which c^ndd 
stand) in popular esUmatftm, against a teict of 
acriptnre ; none which could bei^: up^ in the ^yas 
of the pldlosophicaly against.a syllogieni. I| mm 
from these snperstitionsy ai^d such as thepoi tbi^ 
the greater pai:t of the iniseries of the seventeenth 
century took their origin ; aud» atiauge as it iumj 
appear, the contest wUcb had Mubwtad fo^ W 
inany yeais betwixt James and the Scottish chw»bi 
depended solely from two conteudiog teats, by i^ne 
of which tbe King thouffbt him^plf insespansiUet^ 
im people ; while the dergy w^i^e piiiauaded by 
the other, that they Oivght to bo ^^m^pted fwn 
the control of a otvil magistracy. Was there aay 
greater absiundity i^ the idea elakiog^iuTeMod with 
an absolute power ^7«r the mwds and parsens #f 
his subjects, than m diat pf a huge body of pre- 
fessional men being exeffq;>ted from every Vind -of 
control, and paying no obedience to the state ua- 
iier which they wofked for their subsistence, and 
by which they were protected ? These wer^ the 
errors of a time when Intellectual light was imper- 
fect-*tbe efforts of men to see the sun of know- 
ledge through tbe mists amidst which it was risiiig. 
But perhaps tbe best apol<^ for James, in regard 
to his notions of governments is, that eyaB» at the 
present time, it is a science about which gy^at 
doubts prevail among the wisest, and wlucb^ >a 


Ifm mm adwiQBd of aU iMmtmki Iwir yel teareit 
ty passed i|» inliiiicy* Tbtir^ can be fto <io«bfe that 
a time wSl arnva wkea tfci9» like odier seieneea^ 
win be Ytadeistood with a degree of eactaess such 
as to pceckicle all posslbilii^ off disoaSBioiiy and 
when men wiO look faaok npoa the ifiiiatiobis whick 
Ae subject ocoasiiKis in the present age» with a 
|iity and wonder greater tbsn what we bwfeaw apoB 
the theories of Kmg Jsmes^ 

IF s»y man entertains a gradge against this mo- 
narch fwp tbaUgh notions cSp the kingly c^ee xtpm 
which he acted in his own wgn* and by wUdi 
be is supposed to htf^o oeessian^d the rain of 
his mmt be woold he completely mollified by k 
{feomsal of the treptise wUcb has ocoBsiened thwe 
tamarks. It is them appsrent that» if preten- 
mon to arbitrary role W9» inspired in the royal 
author by any either thing d»» an idte of its con- 
sonance with sfcriptore, it was by the pni>est Is^ 
ings of benevolence in regard to his people. Hib 
pampUet bneatb^s throaf^ent a strain of the kind- 
liest sentiment : it conti^ ecsrei^ly a Hngle fasnh 
word from beginmiiiP to end. The very reason whii^ 
he assigns for the puMieation in the &8t paragrsphy 
IS one of pnre> tbongh perhaps mistaken kindness* 
namely» that, by bebg made better acqmunt^ 
with their dofty to their 8oyere^> the subjects msQr 
avoid those rebellions by wbidi the conntry had 
been rendered miserable almost ever since the Be- 
formation ; despotism bdng dinsy by a strange er- 
soTi though one quite natiural on his part, assigned 
as a cure for disorders which bad been occasioned 
in a great measure by itself* Throughout the 
whole tract, he talks rather with the benignant 
confidentisl tone of a father lecturing his cbildren> 

S92 ittK OP 

than thtt of a long giring orders to Iiis peopled 

* The natnrall zeiJe, ' says he^ * that I heare to 
this my pative country, with the great pittie I have 
to see the so-long distnrbanee thereof, for lacke of 
the trew knowle^e of [the lave of free monsfi^ 
chies], bath compelled me at last to breake si^ 
ience, to discharge my conscience to yon,- 'my 
•deare countrymen, hereiuj that, knowing .the 
ground from whence these . your many endless 
troubles have proceeded, as well as ye have already 
tasted the bitter fruits thereof, ye may [hereafter] 
escape and divert the lamentable effects that ever 
necessarily follow thereon. ' • Further, he proceeds 
in a strain of still purer and more touching philan* 
thropy : * By the law of Nature, the king beconies 
a natural father to all bis lieges at his coronations 
And as the father, of his fatherly duty, is bound 
to care for the nourishing, education, and virtuous 
government of his children^ even so is the king 

* bound to care for all his subjects. As all the toile 
-and paine that a father can take for his children, 
will be thought light and well beistowed by him, 
so that the effect thereof redound to their profite 
aqd weale ; so ought the prince to do towards his 
people. As the kindly father ought to foresee' all 
inconvenients and dangers that may arise towards 
bis children, and though with the hazard of his 
own person presse to prevent the same ; so ought 
the king towards his people. As the father's 

* wrath and correction upon any of his children that 
offendetb, ought to be by a fatherly chastisement 
seasoned with pity, as long as there is any hope of 
amendment in them ; so ought the king towards 
any of his lieges that offend in that measure. And, 
shortly^ as ^e fadiers chief joy ought to be in 


|Mroci:frii%'hiis children's Welfare, rejoicing kt their 
wealy sorrowing and pityie^ at their evil, to ha* 
kard for their safety, travel for their rest, wake for 
their sleeps; and, in a word, to think that his 
earthly felicity and life Btahdeth and 'li?eth more 
}n them than in himself; so oaght ift good king 
think of his people./ 

. . Surely it is impOssiUe to read this most amiahle^ 
tnbst c&ndid, and most earnest piece of self*por« 
traitare, without being couTinced that James's er* 
rors as a king must ha?e proceeded from his head* 
mpd not his heart. 

( One of the most remarkable things about this 
little hook is, that, although written by the author 
f6r the pul'pose of Recommending himself to the 
English people as their King, it makes no attempt 
to gain updn them by appeals to their prejudices) 
pr by insidious promises of popular goyeriiment« 
It did not suit with die upright candour of th« 
Stuarts, regarding as they ever did their far-de- 
(Cended right, to offer cheaper or easier forms of 
government, to haggle with their people for de*> 
grees of rule, to attempt to undersdl former sove* 
reignd ; thcU was left for another dynasty to do. 
J[ames. looks back upon his early ancestors, who 
conquered the land, and divided it among the com* 
pfuuons of their swords ; and he asserts, what is 
true in feudal law, that it is by his good will, as 
representing the first givers, that the present pos*- 
sessors enjoy their estates. * As the Kings,' says 
be, ' were in Scotland before any estates or ranks 
of men within the same, and before any parlia*. 
ments were holden. and laws made; and as by 
them was the land distributed^ (which at first was 
iprholly theirs),, stajbes erected and decerned, and. 

49^ tttk 6t 

fanoB of govennnent deWtedf and eaMRABA^^^m 
it f oUoWB of neccMity that the Kings wera &e m§* 
ikon and ^loAerf of ihe kw«, itid not the km of 
tlio Kings. To profe which tss^tion more ele«N 
ly, it is evident by the rolls of our chanceiiery ^ 
(which eonti^ onr oldest and fitndiuneatai ktr^ 
that the King is dcmunus amftktm hmorumj and 
domnm dmetus Mhm dommH^ she whole sab- 
jects being but his vassals^ sad firom him holding 
all their l^ds as their over>lord> who, according to 
good senriees done to him, clMmgeth tfaefar hold* 
ings from tack to fen, from ward to blanch; ered* 
oih new banmieis, mid imitedi tMf without advice 
cr aaihority of either parliameMt, or any other siA>- 
altem jodidal seat. So sB| if wrong might be ad- 
mitted in play, (albeit, I giant wrong should be 
wrong in all persons), the King anight hate a bel- 
ter colour for Us pleiMire^ without farther reason^ 
to take the land from Us lieges, as o?er4oni of the 
whole, tlien, as foolish writers say, the people 
inigfat munake a Kh^, and pnt another in faio 
room ; bat eiilier of them, as midawftil, nd agsinsi 
the ordinance of God, ought to be tdike odioas to 
be thooght, much leas to be put hi practice.' 
' In tide passage, nothing' appears to a inodem 
eye so remarkable, as ^ way in whidi he speaks 
«f perliamentB, semng that iliat dovtt is now re- 
garded as more powcfffnl, and f» more indisp^H 
sable, than the King; fiat, in James's time, paa- 
liaments in his own (5onntry Were scarcely worthy 
of the name, while in Bnglaad, from tho depres* 
sioQ they had saflS^red under the Tndors, and tfae^ 
edAt which had attended the arbitrary role of £- 
liaaheUi, Aey oecdpied, in roality, bat a sabakem- 
i^aee.ln liie soaio' Of govemmaat. Bi^ Jaansor 


s^iBakl 8t2a more pkonlf «f liik bfa&di of the le«- 

gislatore :— * According,' says he, * to these fun-' 

damenfal laws, we daily soe, that, iti the parlia^ 

raent, trAtcA U nothing else huH C^ head couri tif 

rte JKn^ cmd his vassals^ the laws are. but craned' 

]xf his Bol^ects, and only made by him at their ro-' 

gitioa, and with their advice ; for, albeit the King 

ifiake daily statutes and ordinances, enjoyning such 

^tk% thereto as he thinks meet, without any ad- 

tice of parliament or estates, yet it lies in the 

pdwer of no p«rliament to make any kind of law 

or statute without his sceptre be to it, for giving 

il the force of a law/ That James, under his pre-' 

atot citxsumstances, should have pubHshed such' 

Sentiments as these, is certainly very stilftnge. Yetf 

whea we recollect, that the publication of the work 

in which they appeared had the effect rather of 

smoothing than of obstructing his way to the £ng- 

Ikh throne, our wonder must in a great meftsum 

Ceaae. Such theories nrast have been then i^;ree- 

able to the feelings of the great mass of the people^ 

No <]bubt, many men were then begbning to wi^ 

lot the exaltation of parliaments ; this was the age 

itomediBtely before that of Selden. And therd 

had existed for neatly two generations a germ of 

^publicanism in th<$ nations of Britain. But all 

such theories were as yet clandestine and obscure: 

And it only belonged to the King, when the diffier*" 

ent orders of men were peeping into the cabinets 

ef antiquity in search of their primitive rights, M 

Inrush the dust, Hud untie the cord, from bis time^' 

dyed charters. And publish them to the world' 

The peopld were as yet unprivileged to commit 

tbeira to the press ; al&ough the very next age saW 

9f»: .T ::: :I.IFK OF - 

tbeta bold up the pivdons ptaidmeat on tbe |Kmite 
of their swords^ 

.: It did .not escape tl^ acate eye of Elisabetht 
t^t) after the death of Essex, her conrtien tnraed 
their faces more and more decidedly from the* 
^ bright occidental star/ under which she was fi« 
gored, to fix their gasse and their worslup vpon 
tjne ^ risbg snn/ which was the corresponding epi* 
thet bestowed upon her cousin of the North. .Th# 
loss of healthy which b^gan about this time to he 
perceptible upon her, and which was perhaps part* 
ly the cause, and partly the efieet of their ingrats* 
tnde ; the ai^^usb which Ae endured in regret lor 
her unhappy fiarourite ; the sense of mortification 
V^hich accrued to her, from > obeerTing how Httla 
she was lo?ed by any but the merest common 
people for her own sake : all conspired to throw a 
gloom o?er the hitter days of this illustrions prin* 
cess ; and she, who had sared the inestimable Im>- 
nefits of the Protestant £uth for her race, wha 
bad rendered her own country glorious, and in^ 
creased the bn^pipess of otheprs, who had set the 
iworld an examine. of moral dignity, such as it cei^ 
ai^oely ever forget, was destined, in her dedine^ 
to experience the want of one true friend, and ter 
exemplify .the uselessnesa of all external glory in 
securing happiness, if unaccompanied by the bless** 
lags of. the natural afiectioas. 
t.* Among the many causes assigned for the decays 
o( h^T h^th and strength, there can be no donbk 
that the death of Essex was the chief. Like Htm 
giiuu0, whic)i resists violent compulsion, bat 
trenibl^s to tbe touch of a finger, the stupendous 
mind of Ehaabeth, .after withstanding, for.haif 9k 
century, the moat dreadful political tempests, waa 


lB«fred ttom its solid foundatioiis' bf the gentl** 
preasarie of love. She had been enabled, by the 
pride of womanly and of regal resentment, to 8»> 
qrifice the man whom she loved on the block ; bnt 
when she did so, she was blind to the state of her 
oirn heart* After he had expiated all that she 
Qoald blame him for by bis death, she was again, 
free to love him, and passion returned in fall tidef* 
to occupy the space which resentment had for a 
noment filled. Besides all the pain arising from 
diis source^ she had the mortification of seeing^ 
that the people did not love her so much since sho 
had saerificed Essex, their own as well as her fa*' 
Toorite ; and also the vexation of finding that her 
court was much more incontrollable smce his 
death) as well as more bent on paying homage to. 
her successor. 

' Elizabeth was one of those persons who nevet 
take medicine, and who can scarcely ever, upon any 
fGOOunt, be brought to allow that they are unwelL 
^be had all her life been remarkable for her fre^ 
4|uent appearances in public, and for the near ap« 
proach which she permitted the mob to make to 
her person. Thii was solely to convince her suIh 
jects that she was in good health. For the same 
feason, she always dressed as well as possible, and 
'took every expedient for making herself be thought 
young. To people who, in the present day, sea 
the ages of all the sovereigns of Europe in common 
Ahnimadcs, it may appear strange that any unoer- 
tMbty could have ever prevailed regarding Eliza* 
bath's age. Yet it is true that she was able td 
keep up a kind of mystery on this subject. Paulua 
HetttameruB, a Oennan civUiaa» in 1^98, who has 
bit a very minute account of her appearance, meOK 

.39* • Lf»0» : 

tlons^ thiit 8liii is rumoi&ed io be «boilt 8ixtf*!lT^ 
yean of age. She had been pardctthiijr caprefiil' 
tfll along to impreM the King of Scots with an opi* 
nion of her high health and stout fnutfe of bodyw 
A messengef of bis told Osborn, li contempomy' 
Mter, that, whenever he was bronght into her pa*' 
Um» with letters firon his Masitev, he was taken' 
idto a place, from which he oonM see^ tbron^h &> 
half-wit hdrawn cmtain, her Majesty dancing among' 
her maids to a little* fiddle. It would even appear 
thM sbe was Willing to deceive herself on Uiis snb- 
ftetx for not only did she accept of the extravagant 
ibtterfes of her cduttiers, WlHch her good sense 
fltnst have enabled her to penetrate, Imt she hni 
Ae miserable weekness to banish every thing in the" 
Ahape of a nirtor. frcrm her chamben for several; 
years before she died, lest she should by any chanei^ 
becdme awtre of the <ihanges which time had 
wrought upon her person* * 

* One of the obscure memoir-writers, whose trorki* 
Vte so much drawn upon in tMs Composition, velatei 
li Mory of Elisabeth, Which, though mioote, and 
lipparently triflidg, is nevertheless df some aocofunf 
in the history of her decKne. She one day h^ 
{)ened, by some *chance, to CbSt her eyes upon omi. 
df the articles which she had ordered to be excluded 
twin her chambers, and^ being in some degnee fts^ 

dnated by the sight, she cetdd' not rssist the incfifM^ 


* • Her Mtjwty at this ikfltf ufl stfci c an ddl to wg pimtti 
«0d it IB rep^rltd in 8hr BolMrt ^5ibbald'« aeooiuu of Hm 

fonvcruidoiis of Jon«OQ iuid.0runiiQond, that her waHiog^ 
maids pccasionally amu^ themselves by applying to tfaa 
tt>yal nose; the carmine #)|icb ^auM hav)e iMsen lara vpdSi 
h«r chseto htJAg <ei«nn Itet' «te woaUt oot del»«l tks 


^on she felt to inspect the image of her ftide. Bitter, 
trowever, was the regret she afterwards felt for in* 
bulging this cariosity. Her visage was noW so 
lean and wrinkled, so wan and nnlovely, that, aftet 
gteemg at it for a Uttle in a Sort of stupefaction, 8I10 
burst away in an agony of hnmbled and mortified 
feeling, exclaiming against the deceitful and inter^ 
«Bted compliments with which she was daily regal* 
6d, and conscious that, since she cotild no Iob^ 
pat trnst in those, shd coald neter again b^ happy; 
. The state of her health was such in Jantuur^ 
1603, that she was obliged to retire to Richmond^ 
At this time, the ring which had been pat ttpori 
her finger at her coronation, and which had nerei^ 
aince been takea off, ^was grown into the flesh in 
flach a way, that she was compelled, much against 
ber will, to have it $led off; n citcumstance regard^ 
ed by her people, and perhaps also by herself, at 
a bad omen. The almonds of her jaws now begiBui 
lo awell, and she gradoally lost her appetite. Aa 
disease incfeafied upon her, she seemed to m^ 
berself more and more np to melancholy thoof^i^ 
Und her conrtiers of Coarse becamw lefli and lesi 
Ittsiduons in their attentions. Some ttiyie in the 
month of Febroary, there occurred an mcident wfaid 
did much to accelerate her doom. 

Some years before^ when Essex was inthe height 
of Ikvotir, he one day compliained, that the ^(nii 
of his enemies to injure him in her estimation wefd 
bcessant, and that he ibaredhe. should at/somi^ 
]|^eriod tsU a tacrifiee to fliein. To assure him 
against such an e^nt, she b^tewed upon hiiili'^ 
ifing, which, fihe said, he should ottly ha^e to^sen^ 
& iter, in order to procure^her pardon f6r miy t4i 
fence he might be accused of. When he was con* 

8M - lAVEOt 

denmed to deaths sbe natuxally expected that he 
WAidd bare transmitted this token, and reminded 
ber. of her promise. . Bat no token came ; and 
it appears that one of the principal causes of her 
giving .'consent to his . death, was jan idea she en* 
tertained, that be scorned, her too much to entreat 
for her forgiveness. , Essex, however, had in real- 
ity attempted to procure pardon by means of the 
ring. Observing a boy playing under the window 
of bis prison, be threw out the precious trinket, 
and desired him .to. carry it to Lady Scroope, with 
a request frpm the Earl of Essex, that she wonld 
^nvey it to the Queen* The boy unfortunately 
delivered the ring, along with the message, to the 
Countess of Nottingham, with whom Lady Scroope 
lived ; and that lady was prevailed upon, either by 
)ier husband^ or by Sir Bobert Cecil— it is uncer- 
tain which-p-to suppress ic As her ladyship at- 
tended upon the. Queen, and beard her daily men- 
jtion the name of Essex with regret, she bad abun-. 
dant opportunities of repemting an action which 
bad so evidently hwm fatal to her mistress. Soon 
after, being herself seized with a mortal disease, 
pb^ thought it necessary for the peace of her mind 
fo send for the Queen, and make disclosure of 
what she had done ; after which she asked if her 
Majesty would jfoigive her. " God, '* said the 
pgitated Queen, *f may forgive you, but I never 
can ; ** and in the extremity of her emotion^ she 
abook the dying lady in her bed, and left her with 
maledictions . which she could not restrain herself 
from nttering« The wrath of a mind like Elizas 
lietb*s baa always something in it more terrible 
fhautbat of common minds^ aa the motion of a 


Urge vessel ini ft stormy sea, is a more ioipresstrd 
%xid agitating sight than that of a boat or phinace.'' 
* After this, a kind of benumbness seized her, 
with a deep melancholy ; so she would sit silently^ 
refrain from meat, and admit of no conference^ ex^ 
cept with the Bishop of Canterbury,'* ' In con- 
s^uence, perhaps, of 'some vow, Or inward resolu-^. 
tion, she would not |go to bed, but sat or lay upoa 
cushions, which were arranged on the floor of one of 
her inner' chambers. Her most common posture 
was to sit, with her eyes dejected upon the ground^ 
and ber finger placed listlessly in her mouth. Her 
kinsman, Sir Robert Carey, has left in his Memoirs 
die following striking pictm^ of her utter desolatioii 
"of mind. ' * 

' * When I came to court, I found the Queen illi 
'disposed, and she kept her inner lodging ; yet she, 
hearing of my arrival, sent for me. I found her 
in one of her * withdrawing- chambers, sitting low 
upon her cushions. * She called 'me to her: l 
Idssed her hand, and told her it was my chiefest 
happiness to see her in safety and in health, which 
I wished might* long continue. She took me by 
tiie hand, and wrung it hard, and said, " No^ 
Hobin, I am not well, " and then discoursed with 
me of her indisposition, and that ' her heart had 
been sad and heavy for ten or twelve days ; and 
in discourse, she fetched not so few as forty of 
fifty great sighs. I was grieved at first to see her 
in this pilight ; for^ in all my lifetime before, I 
itever knew her fetch a siffh, hut when the Qzceeri 
of Scots was beheaded. ' . : 

Sir Robert Cecil and other councillors 'noW 

•■ Baker's Qirwiicle. 

90ft LITE or 

thought it; proper to ssk the Queen who she ebonlf 
wioh to be her sncoeasor* To this qneitioiiy which 
A& bad forborne to answer all her lifoi she is said 
io have at last replied, tbat she would not fasv^ 
her Ipngdom to fall into the hands of rascab^^ 
sach was the word she used in allusion to the re^ 
inote pretenders^-her throne had been a throne of 
IdngSy and she would ha^e one of that rank to 
•noceed her. They of coviM nndeiBtood that she 
ineant the King of Scots. James^ before this, bad 

EVon a sapphire ling to her attendant Lad; Scroops 
be sent to him by the quickest possible meam^ 
the moment she should e^ipire. 
] For a long time before tibia, dieiae was soared} 
a single officer about Elizabeth's court, of trfael 
fwk soerer, who had not made application for f^ 
▼our, either to King James in person, or to some 
of Us fairocirites and att^danls. Among others 
who took this precautioUf was her kinsman Sir 
Sobert Carey, whose, aeconnt of her Appearance al- 
her last illness has just b^n onoted. This gentlo^ 
mm was previowl^ scqwmt^ with King Jamee^ 
havioff been first at bis court in the tndn of Secr^ 
lary Walsipgharo^ and afterward on his own m^ 
isoant, as the apoI<^;ist of Mary*s execution. Ap- 
coniing to his self-written memoin, which form, an 
exceedingly curious volume, * hearing tbat neither 
the physicians, nor none about the Queen, conU 
persuade her to take ajxy course for her safety, and 
liaaring her death would soon ensue^ I could nol 
but think in what a wretched state I should be leCl^ 
imost of my liyelihood depending upon her li&u 
And, hereupon,. I bethoii^t myself with what 
grace and favour I was ever received by the King 
of Scots, when^eyer I was s^t- to bun. I did 


99mf^ lajTBif ft H.wai aeitheir mgrtit tior dtahdnett 
for me to do te mjmV, if God at that tune sboiild 
call b§r to bill mare^^ Xli«ve«po]i» I wroia to ihft 
King of. Saota* daainiig Urn not to stir inm EdisM 
t^mgh ; and if of that.iiekoaaa ahe should &% I 
wo^ he the £rat nan to bifanf him news of it* * 
(Sood 1^ J^ahaii wna one of tboee philaalhropistv 
who» entertaiiuqg m wvm and upftaling fiiendahip 
fof diemselresb are not to be deterred from exem^ 
plifyiDg it by the hacard of offeadiag a little, agaipal 
deUcacj or mond fceUeg* . 
. ' On Wedjieaday tde. 23d of Mapch, * contaMma 
this writer, * abegrewspeeoUaai. That aftf rmwig 
by aifWft abe oalled fw bar coimeiI» and paitiiag 
ilv band to her bead vbao the King of Seota waa 
naoaod tio eocoeed ber» tbejr all knew he waa the 
me^ abe deiired ahoidd reign alter Jier* * Afaoat 
m a( iiigbt» abe nwde signs for the Archbiahop 
epd bar cl^iptoiAa tp.oome to bwi at which time 
} w«nt in with iimth wd set upon aay bneea> hM 
9f teaiato aee that beaTjr figb^ Her Majeaty ky 
npon bar back» with am hand in the bed» and the 
o£her without; £fioir ^ bad now beenfoneed into 

* Some doubts^ have heeo basdifd about ^y diffeiBot 
writers, as to the interpretation oi this sign. The fact 
simply was— the Council desired her to put her hand tb 
iMT boad, if sbe wished the J^Mg to sueeeed her ; and she 
dUd «i9. Bwt whecbf r thif ivi» ber wiU or not* was uirei|t 
qf little importance. James's right was unqueationabie ; 
and surely, after ber death, the law of the 13th of her 
'reign, declaring it treason to detty that she could deter« 
Mine Ihe aueoessioa with adviee of Parliaraent, was null 
apd void. Xhe trulb is* James's. BiiceesiioR waa leas in 
violation of existing laws than her own bad been, yd ia 
the opinion of many, his right was preferable to her own 
fvoni the beginning, on account of the cii^umstauces (X 
iliar notber'a marriage* ..... v. .# 

804 LIFE OP- 

bed]. The Bbbop kneeled down by bery And ex* 
amtned her firat of her faith ; and fihe 00 pimcta*^ 
•Uy aotvered-all his several 'qnestions, by liStiag 
ap her ejres, and holdiiig np hit httidsy as it was a 
comfort to all the beholdiers* Then the good hhoi 
io)d her plainly what die was come to ; and thoag^ 
she had been a great queen here upon earth, yet 
shortly she was to yield an accondt of her steward- 
ship to the King of kings. After this he began 
to pray, and all, that were by to answer biof. AU 
ter he had continued long in psayer, till the old 
man's knees were weary, he blessed her, liad 
meant to rise andleare her. The Queen made a 
sign with her hand. - My sister Scroope, knowiiig 
her meaning, told the Bishop, the Queen desired 
he would pray still. • He* did so for a long half^ 
hour after, and then thought to leave her. The 
second time she made a sign to have him continue 
in prayer. He did so for half an hoiir more, with 
earnest cries to God for her soul's health, whieh he 
uttered with that fervency of spirit, as the Qneen 
to all our sight much rejoiced thereat, and gave 
testimony to us all of her Christian and comfort* 
able end. By this time it grew late, and every 
one departed, all but the women that attended 

* I went to my lodging, and left word with one 
in the cofferer's chamber to call me, if that night 
it was thought she would die, and gave the porter 
an angel to let me in at any time when 1 called* 
Between one and two of the clock on Thursday 
morning, he that I left in the cofferer's ehambc^ 
brought me word the Queen was dead. I rose^ 
and made all baste to the gate to get in. There I 
was answered I could not enter s the Lords of the 


Council liamg bean with bim, and commanded that, 
none ahoald go in or out, bat by warrant from them. , 
At, the very instant one o£ the Coancil> the Comp- 
trpUer^ asked whether I waa at the gate* I aaid* 
yes* He said to me, if I pleased he wonld let. 
me in. I desired to .know how the Queen did. 
He answered, pretty well. I hade him good night. . 
He neplied, and said, Sir,, if yon will comein, I 
will give you my word and credit you shall go 
outr again at your pleasure. Upon .his word, I 
entered the gate, and came up to the cc^erer's 
(chamber, where I found all the ladies weeping, 
bitterly. He led me from thence to the Priory- 
Chamber, where all the Council was assembled ^ 
there I was caught hold, and assured I should not. 
go for Scotland, till their pleasures were farther, 
known. I told them I came of purpose to that, 
end. From, thence they all went to 4;he Se'cre-i 
tary's chamber; and as they went, they gave » 
special command to the porters that none should 
go out of the gates, but such servants as they, 
should send to prepare their coaches and horses 
for London. There was I left in the midst of 
the court to think my own thoughts, till they had 
done council. I went to my brother's * chamber^ 
who was in bed, having been overwatched many 
nights before. I got him up with all speed ; and 
when the council's man was going out of the gate,' 
my brother thrust to the gate. The porter, know- 
ing him to be a great officer^ let him out. I 
pressed after him, and was stayed by the porter. 
My brother said angrily to the porter, Let him 

* Gf orge, Lord Hunsdon. 
vol.. Z. U . . 

306 LIFE OF 

0at ; I will answer for him. Wberenpon I was 
•affered to pass, which I was not a little glad of. ' 

Carey was now free to set ont for Scotland, on 
his own account, without watting for the perraia* 
sionof the CoanciL Bat, having been encon* 
raged by that body to hope that he shonld be 
made their official messenger, he determined -lo 
linger at London till their pleasoie should be 
known. As be was saddling his horee outside 
the gate, his sister, Lady Scroope, who had not 
before had an opportunity of delrreringf to him the 
sapphire ring which King James had placed in' 
her hands, threw it to him over a window, and 
thus furnished him with a credential which migfar 
authenticate his intelligence, without the seal of 
the CounciL He then rode to London, and, pul*^ 
ting up at the Knight Marsliars lodging, near 
Charing Cross, waited till the Lords came to 
Whitebill garden. 

* I stayed there till it was nine o'clock in the 
morning, and hearing that all the Lorda were in 
the Old Orchard, at Whitehall, I sent the Mar- 
shall to tell them that I had stayed all that while 
ao know their pleasures ; and would attend them, 
if. they would command me any serrice. They 
were very glad when they heard I waa not gene, 
and desired the Marshall to send for me, and I 
should with all speed be dbpatcbed for Scotland. 
The Marshall believed them, and sent Sir Arthar 
Savage for me. I made haste to them. ' One of 
the council, my Lord of Banbury that now it, 
whispered the Marshall in the ear, and told -bin, 
if I came they would stay me, and send some 
other in my stead. The Marshall got from them, 
and met me coming to them between the two 


fivM. Hb bade me begone, for be had leemt for 
cemdatbat if I came to tbem they woald betcsf 

* I retarned» and took borse between nine and 
4en o'clock, aad tbat nigbt rode to Doncaster. " 
Tbe Friday nigbt, I came to my own iioaee at 
•Withtiringion, and presently took order witb my 
depotieB to see the Borders kept in quiet, which 
they bad m«cb to do ; and gave order ibe ne:i^ 
,«M)ming the King of Scotiaad should be proclaim- 
ed King of Bi^land, and at Morpeth and Alawkk. 
Very early on Satorday, I took horse for Edin^ 
iNHrgh, and ca«e to Noibam abotft twelve at noon, 
so &at I BHght well •have been with the King at 
iMipper time ; but I got a great fall by the way, 
•and my horse with one of his lieels gave bie a 
-gteat blow on tbe head, that^nade ne sbedmacti 
vUood. It made ma so weak^ diat I was forced 
to ride a soft paoe after ; so that the King was 
tte^dy gbne to bed by the time I knocked at the gale. 
I wasfquickly let in, aad carried -ap to the Kioge 
iBhamb«r. I kneeled by him, and saluted him by 
-his <ttt)e of England, Sootlaad, Franoe and Ireland. 
He gaveme his hand to kiss, and bade me wel- 
^cQue* After he4iad Imig discoursed 'of tbe man- 
ner of the Queen's sickness and 4](f her death, be 
asked what tetters I .bad from tbe4»«icil ? I «oki' 
him, none ; and acquainted him how narrowly I 
had escaped from tbeni* Aafd yet I bad brought 
ium a blue, ring Irom a &ir hdy, that I hoped 
■woald give him assuianoe ci the truth, tbat I had 
teported^ He took it, • and looked upon it, and 

M, * It is enough % 1 knew by this you are a 

* 155 Bipes from hondon. 

308 -LIVE OV 

trae messenger. ' Tbeo he cominttted me to tiie 
ehftrge of mjr lord Hmne, and gave -streigfat eom^ 
mands that I should want nothing. He sent for 
liis cfairurgeons to attend me ; and) when I ktised 
his hand at my departure, he said to me these 
'gracious words ; * I know yon have lost a near 
kitswoman and a mistress ; but here take my 
'hand, I will he as good a master to yon, and will 
* requite this service with honour and reward. ' 
' * So I left him that night, and went- with isy 
•lord Hume to my lodging, where I had all things 
-fitting for so weary a man as I was. After my bead 
•was drest, I took my leave of my lord and many 
oihers that attended me, and went to my rest.^ 

* The ' next nioming* by toi o'clock, my lord 
•Hume was sent to me by the King, to know how 
I had rested ; and, witrol^ said^ that his Maforty 
4iad commanded him to know of me what it was 
'that I desired mdst that he should do for me ; 
bade me ask, and it should be granted. I desked 
'my lord to say to his Majesty from me, that I had 
no reason to importime him for any suit, for that I 
had not as yet done him any service; hut my 
'humble feqoest to • his Majesty was to admit roe 
-a gentleman <of his bed-chamber ; and hereafter I 
'knew if his Majesty saw me worthy, I should ^not 
* want totaste ^of his bounty. - My lord returned 
4M» answer, that he sent me word back, widi all 
his heart I sh<Add hare my request. ' And liie 
next time I came to court, which was some four 
days after, I traa cdied ai night Into his hej^ 
(Camber, aifd there by my Lofd of Ricbmoiid 
[the Duke ^f Lennox,]in his presence I was 
sworn one of the gentlemen of his bed-chaniber, 
and presently I h^ied to take off his dotlies, and 


staid till he was is bed. After this there came 
daUy noblemen and gentlemen frotti our courts 
-aad the King set down a fixed day for his depar* 
^tnre toiwards London. ' 

It will be observed from this minute namtivey 
^AaS James received the news which toiA him of 
his long expected increase of kingdoms^ witbotti 
betraying any symptoms of that extravagant joy 
which might have been expected from his charac- 
ter. Perhaps, something is concealed by Carey* 
It is said by Osbom, that the messenger being 
naable ' to satisfy such a concourse of doubts and 
gue^tiamy as far more resolute natures than his do 
usually muster up on lesse occasions^ the King 
stood in a maze, being more a£fected through the 
fsare ofcppasitiont titan pleased with the present 
report ; till, by a lamer poet, he was advertised of 
his being joyfully proclumed in London, and of 
tfae unquestioned reception his dtle in all places 
met with. The truth seems to be, that James 
dUd not place entire reliance upon Carey's newsy 
or at least was uncertain of the invitation of the En^* 
giish council, and therefore did not chose to com- 
mit himself by expressing any particular feeling 
on the occasion. It was not till next mornings 
(Sunday, March 27,) when two offidal messengers 
arrived from the Council, informing him of his pro^ 
damation in London, and conveying the hcmu^ 
of the leading men in the kingdom, that he felt 
liilly assured ; and be it remarked, it was only 
then that be made a distinct offer of reward to 
Carey for his service. The two persons selected 
by the council to convey their allegiance to James 
were Sir Charles Percy, brother of the Earl of 
Northumberland^ and Mr Thomas Somerset, son 


of the EaH of Worcester. The letter which ihef 
broagbt contained a resentfal alloaioa to the coo- 
Aud of Sir Robert Carey ; which it miiBt be al- 
lowed, wa8 not that of a gentleman, but rather die 
act <^ an unprincipled and uncaring adventurer ; 
and such, it appears, was the general opinion at 
the time. 







'fy "■' 

1. I 

V - >v ' 











\ • 

. • ' 






It would appear that the hesitation of King James, 
on receiving Carey's intelligence of the death of 
Elizabeth, was not without some corresponding feel*- 
ibgs of the same kind on the part of the EngKsh coon* 
cillors ; for they are said to hare spent fully six hours 
in feeling each other's pulsira, before they came to 
tile resolution of proclaiming the Scottish monarch 
as their sovereign. Elizabeth, indeed, had impresis^ 
ed men with such fears on the subject of the sue* 
cession, {oid there was so much real danger of offend- 
ing against some of her statutes, by acknowledging 
any particular successor whatever, that they migl^ 
well be justified in pausing to learn the genml 
sentiments, before they ventured upon this ded- 
sive step. There was a personal and nominal re- 
Bpectability in Elizabeth, which did not leave her 


8 tin ow 

eTen after she was dead ; and, as Faktaff tfemMedi 
to approach ereii the lifeless corpse of the Scottish 
warrior whom he had lately seen fighting with sn^ 
rigonr, so also di<} the ministers of this lion- 
hearted princess scrapie to take any liberties wifb 
what she had guarded in life so jealously and so 
well. It was not till they found themselves una- 
nimous in feyow of James, as the most rightful, 
and also the most eligiUo, elainant <ef the crown^ 
that they camiB to the Resolution of announcing 
him in that character to the people. No sooner, 
howerer, was this unanimity ascertained, than they 
proceeded in a style of heartiness, such as amply 
proved how clear they held his title, m comparison 
with that of any other competitor. 

When their deliberations were finished, a pro- 
clamation was drawn upi and immediately uttered 
at the gates of WhitehalU It was signed by about 
thirty Peers, spiii^ual and temporal; and the 
■anan who read it was the most influential in the 
kingdom, Sir Robert Cecil, Secretary of Stale. 
It was immediately alter vttered s second time i^ 
the west side of the High Cross in Cbeapside, in 
jkresenee of the Lord Mayor and Aldermen of Lon- 
don, and of an immense concouise of ^e common 
|ieople, who testified their approbation by sIiouiIb 
.of *< God save King James I ** The proclamation 
,eontaiued -an account of James's descent from 
HeDry VII., and an assertion of. his bong the 
nearest in Mood. to the deceased sovereign; after 
which was a warm . panegyric vpon his character. 
There can be no doubt that, in the coneoction of 
this document, and also the resolution of the Coun- 
cil in favour of JBBie9> Secretaiy Cecil was th^ 
I^iacipal mstrument« ' 


-HFbB news «f Sliaabefth's dtelh Mnlr ^mmi^x 
ciiciikted -orer the flountr^f bdiom .any •co«iwi( ^^F 
iIm fMMkmadfiii, or of the rcMinlion of the Com^ 
cfti, tbe,«heriffii of the«Qimtie9iand the piigkwmoi 
of towno wore thioim.uito a. stete mi tC9mAie^]0 
ogitnfcioot end even okmiy .logwdiag tbe<Jtoo ;<if 
duty MhcIi they lOOgfat to follov wider .took fH*' 
tMoniiiary ciEomottBaces. TbQ8» as ihe iiMwDi* 
geabe nf the Loodoa prodaoiatioa semtmd ib«aa 
after different intervals, of time, their ^prooIateatioQl 
jasenbied the.stnggliag fire of aa ilMincifiliiMd 
ngiaaeat of aiiiitia, where oae eotapany takes Ua 
«B6Jfrbinr the ooadnct .of andhery iastead of ibe 
wh^e <beiiig diceoted by one general commainL 
Oidy one sheriff^ out of the vliele unmber tf 
afaoBe offioeta, bad the hardihood to fwodaha King 
James befero laceiving instmctioiM Iknqii the Goui^ 
ciL This area Sir Benjaoiia Tichbonie> isbofiff laf 
itastpshirey. a Catholic He no ^Boooar heard of 
-Elioabeth's decease, diaa he banied over .to Wiia- 
«faeaterv froon bis conntry seat ia the neigbbonih 
•hood, vad declared Jaaies to be King of Sagland* 
^Jaoaes was .hinualf ao much pleased .with Uiig spi* 
rited act of seryice, that, after bis. settlement ia 
'Eliglaad, he niada;a:grant to Sir fieajainin* and 
Ais heirs for ever, ia fee (AfOfWf of. the royal .eaa- 
aleiift Winobester, with a yearly pension oi lOQA 
-daring his own lifo^ .and that of Us eldest i^oat 
'iRichard 'Tichbome, whom be. also knighted* * . / 
' this was the coodaot of the good town 
■4jlL BarwiekTopon-Twaed, die jnagistrates of whicb> 
.beaaing on fiatnrdayof tha. death cif Elisabeth) by 

; • MHii«r'8 WiMhs9tei^ i. 089 \ Bund ^cbola:* Fo^ 
. jnresKft of. King Janxe& 

V9 » %tn6V' 

a wumgB from Sir Robert' Caref , whuh tlmi^^i* 
peditlons cornier had deeftetched to them ia bia 
prognw, immedlitely wrote a letter to Jamee^ 
tendeiiag him their allegiance: and loTiiig» dnfef* 
Thia letter reached htm on Sonday monitag> <b«w 
forathe official announcement of hie eacceenoiit 
Much gratified by the promptttttde and aeri die* 
played by thia portion of his new enhjecte, he wem 
tamed them a letter that very day» tluuikiag thev 
for their offers of diity> and aaamring them that he 
dionld proTo to them a most ' gcacions and loriag 
"prinoe) ' who should be careful to maintain tbek 
wonted liberties and pririleges, and see ^ thaa4ha 
same be na wayea brangilltt nor utherwayes pior 
jttdgit. ' He next day sent Lord .Holyroodhooia 
to receive their allegiance in official form; aad 
from the report which this nobleman brought haek» 
of ' the triumph, love, and kindness he had baaa 
entreated with, and with what hearty applause the 
name of King James was received' by the eoai* 
munity of this ancimit town, it is affirmed that the 
King first conceived assurance of .the flattering ie» 
ception which he was destined to meet with inhb 
new kingdom. 

Early in the week, James received visits faam 
a great number of the more influential men of bulk 
lus kingdoms, who came with the profession *of 
oongratulaiing him, but in reality to bespeak ^ 
vour to thems^ves, or to remind him of fonnsr 
promises. Among the earliest and most accept- 
'Me of his visitors was John Peyton, sen. of Sir 
John Fkyton, lieutenant of the Tower eiLondmi, 
a personage whom, it will be recollected, he garo 
mders to have concMiated to his interest some yetts 
before* He was so much pleased toieam thai Ma 


IfliflMttttni 'officer was true 'to- hmi ibftt he- eonCer*- 
iM the hoDonr of kDighifaaod on yovmg PayUm,. 
Mng the>finst time .be bad eiierciaed tbat part of. 
fats prerogative on an JBoglielunaii; wbeniSe be- ever 
siterwteda called. Fayton his firH lS»ighL Tbe 
third* person wbo came to . bim, was Sir Lewie: 
F&ekeriag, a gentleman of ^orthamptcinBbire« an4 
a-paritan, who, conceiving tbat his party might be 
advantaged by a priority of applioadonf-made baata 
to, bespeak his Majesty's, favour to that sectt befpie 
imy depatation shoiDld r arrive frpm the. established 
abBficb. He came last, howeveriL m the best sense 
of the word ; for his application was attended with 
BO good effects to his party. James, two or three 
sbys 'alter, received, by the haiids of Dr Thomas 
Keville, dean of Canterbory,' an address from. tbe 
Ghnrch of £ngland, tcinderiiig him .die bonnden 
diHy of its members, and praying: to know ' Ins 
ytsttsure for the ordering and guiding of ecclesias- 
lisal caoses ; ' to which address he reto^ed an an* 
a#rer, assuring those who sent it, that he was re* 
aolved to maintain the church as it bad been set-. 
tied by the kte Qaeen* 

Dmiog tbe course of this important week, Japi^ 
and the English council had several interchanges 
<ttf lettere and messages ; and be testified his gra- 
titude to the late Earl of Essex, by ordering all, 
who .were confined in tbe Tower on account of hip 
iosQicection to be liberated* .A^mong tbe numibipr. 
wse the Earl t^ Southampton. An amusing cir- 
fumstaace took plaoe» when the royal m,e8|8engerr. 
B.ilger. Aston^ was for tbe .first time brought ber- 
fo«s the Eog^lish Privy Council. . Being asked bow 
iherKiog did, Aston, a&swered, ja the. i^ill bteadtb 
«C tttanonbeni dUtf^t. .«< £'«% wi ^^> like (»: 

W» • %twB iff 

puir ttin; tbbi; 'kalh lieen 'wnhimittg in th» ii f fl d wi i i ' 
ncM' Cor fofHf y^aM^ Mkd Lm at last eowi iritU»r 
sigfaft! i>f ih0 I^nid»f Pkoiiiise I '' AMoh Imdldi^ 
Bl^f I]r bie^n the Kbg's Imrbef. 
' On tbe disi 6f Marchy J^mea vm firodaniie^. 
gl the croBs df fefis'lMitlv* cityyaaiifdst mingled criea: 
<^' jbf and latiiienfacion— jor ibr bit good AmvniV 
ilr vhicb the p^<q^ maat miftrtilf sympailiiMd-^: 
ttd grief Ibr thiB prbopect of bh leaving the eoonw: 
Uff . Oh the etwning ef that day, the peeple kin* 
died bon-Bree m and abont the diy, and teaiSfiedr 
bf every means ia their pouter, the pleaaore whieb 
they ihlft on thia ondpidena oecaaion. 

On the raceeeding Sunday, April 3, he aittend*f 
^ pnblic wondiip in the prineipal cbareh of lk0 
tiiff for ^ pnrpoae of taking a formal faieweK 
df bis people. The minieffer, Mr John Hall, toofe 
decasion to- point out the gt^at memes of God W^ 
wseda hia Majeaty, aaieng wblefa bis peaced^ 
aneceaaiott 1o the throne of England' was none 06 
tbe leeat conspicoooa. * Thia/ heaaid, * wia- QeSFm 
aim proper v^ri£ ; for tribe eonld else have'diree^ 
ed the hearts of so nnmerona a people, with 8«cb 
^ vnanimons oonaenty to follow 1^ way of 

At the end of tb^ aeiinon, Jwnea naae np in bh* 
aettt| and delivered l&e following apeeeb to lb¥ 
congregaition :— ^ Beoanse Ihitt yevt preadierliair 
spoken aonething^ in the hiiingae and diacoafaetot 
the people, that aa ye have maatet Bv my preaenMf 
to nj<»oe, aae ye ha^ also MMter by my ahMM9 
to Uf aoRowM ; bnt I airf ir la a matter of f9jfail»* 
ing^noc otfy to me, bnf to aH- thim tfaa^ love whif 
midhig ; Iih^ tikia canae'I thooht g^ide to ipadc taf 
dll giidetpcl^j^Matf dl mftai' lite 79 mtf^lumf 1» 

bil^ir nyhteatipB io mvrp your chnhii' biit 
Wiag sHt libwdly detecaded *heir to liie cronm of 
Sngkind as to iho cvown of Scotliad^ as I wai 
byim Fiehceocm heir of tbe aap^ aae am I richteoui 
ttMl.ittatr tiehUBOU o^ tbo other;, and as my lo99 
^ald' never be Ini tbait ceantry, sae now my eoD* 
peeCMipM ha^ nenrer been frustrat ; and as yeat 
ftmuikM^ have end batth learnedly and wisely, pi 
laew wy lote fte lets for you, my people^ what 
nftcht ye M»k <^.me^ but thai I be ane troker of 
icix^ome* Te mewn p«t ane difference bec^dst 
4xie King kwiially oallit to a kingdom and afie xf* 
fWrper of ane kingdem^ aa the King of FtaMW 
<MBie BOmeitme (laibeiy) 6ae ane kingdom to' aimN 
o^heTy eoraectme fra Fvaace to Pow, aad> fra Tvmf 
to France) and oonld not bvnik batth ; aa aay licht 
ia. united in my persoi^ lor my qiarehes ar^ vniiad; 
Iff land and not by aea, aae that there la no difSer-^ 
{Mce b^Ctrnt theoi^ Thera is upa mair dnffevenei^ 
betwixt London and Edinburgh, yea not eae m^ 
kte^ than them is ketieixs Inverness or Ab^eisn 
and Edinhargh, #sr aU our marches are dry^ aA& 
there is nae ferries* belwixt tliem. Bus my eonme- 
maun be betwixt batik— **to establish peaee, and re*' 
{j^on, and wealth betwat baith the eoantnesy and- 
aa God has joined ike tmal of baiih the kingd^ma 
in my person, sne ye may be joined » wealth, m 
rt^gton, in hs^ta and a&ctiona ^ and as the ane- 
oonotry has wealth, ani) the other has multitifd* 
of tt^D, sae ye may paiit the gifts, and every aw 
die as they may te kelp other. And aa Ood haa: 
rsmovk me to- ane greater power than I hod, aani. 
I mann ^mjleavoar myself to nourish and establiah 
retigien,^.and tip tak f^aray the cqmikptiona of b^iith . 
p43i«gAtrie8« , Add, on the other party ye mialer vol. 

14 iinrop- 

Aatihtf but as I have ane bodv as able as oofXijtlgi 
m Europe, wbereby I am able to travel, aae I sal), 
yfvsaae yoa ereiy three year at the least, or efter as 
I aall hare occasion, (for sae I have written in my. 
bake direct to my son, and it war a shame to met 
not to^ perform that thing that I have written), that 
I may with my awin month tak a compt of jnstieey 
imd. of Uiem that are mider me, and that yon yonr* 
selves may see and hear me, and fra the meanest 
to the greatest have access to my person, and pomr 
ovt yonr complaints in my bosom. This sail ever' 
be my comse. Therefore, think not of me as o{ 
ane King going fra ane part to ane other, bat of 
ane King, lawfully callit, gmng frae ane part of 
the isle to ane other, that sae yonr comfort may. 
be the greater ; and where I thocht to have em- 
ployed yoa with yonr arms, I now employ only 
yoor hearts, to the gude prospering of me in my 
saocess and joomey. * I have nae mair to say, but- 
pcay for me.' * 

The effect of this harangue was snch as to dis* 
solve the assemblage in tears ; for, however nnpo* 
polar some of James's measores had been, eape- 
daUy those connected widi the charch, his easy 
and kindly manaeis, and his sincere attention to 
the poblic interests, had rendered him very much, 
and very generally beloved, in Scotland. He him-* 
self was sensibly moved, in retam, by these marks 
of the affection of his subjects; and, when the. 
magistntes afterwards came to receive hb com- 
mands, he spoke to them in the most tender and 
manner, assoriog them, that as bia 

* Gmied, with reduction of ordiograpbv, ihvn. Wod* 
rbVi MS. Collections, folio, vol. zliii. article 93, AdTO- 
fStsft' libBBsy. . . . . . 


Iftiwer to b^fiienii them was ttoir>iBeMtlM» io>ttl* 
ito^Wtt bis iocHnatioii* 

On Tueflday, the 5th of April, after harkig taken 
taeasares for the government ef Scotland in fate 
absence, and made arrangementsr for die fntiAv 
jonmey of his family, he set out from Edinbaigh 
for London ; accompanied by a eonndembie tnm 
of both English and Scotch, and follow«d*by th0 
blessings of many thoosands of his nafeiTe snbjeels* 
It was a strange, bnt perhaps a chamcteristic piecsi 
of conduct, that he took leavv of his wife on the 
pilblic street, thereby exiting the -feelings of hte 
people to a greater degree* than oTon betbfe.* Sack 
of his conntrymen as he had appointed to attend 
him into England, were chiefly these who had ap*- 
proved themselves his most steadfast fiiands befow 
he' came to his kitigdam ; tbeDoke of Lennme, tfaa 
Earls of Mar, Murray, mid Argyle, the Lord Hmss^' 
Sir George Hume of Dnnbar, ^Treasurer,) Sir 
James Elphinstone, (Secretary,) Sir David Murrayt 
^Comptroller,) Sir Robert Kerr of Cessfotd ; widi 
me brdinary gentleman of the B^d-chamberi ant^ 
SIX or seven individuals of the dorgy* He waii> 
riso accompanied by the FroMsh ambassadar, whose' 
wife happened to be so weak at this time,tlnitsha> 
was carried in a sking chair, all the way to {ioa«* 
don, by eight porters^ four of thea to relisive Iha. 

Gallantly attended, and gay iniieart, King fcwot> 
lade forward along that road vriiich, aoeordhig t» 
the siEu-castic remark of Dr Johnson, linias«tli0iiMiit: 
delightlnl prospeet that Scotland can boast of rtsaf 
suredly, no man ever paced it before or sipca who 

• im^OioUVPrograiflieB of King Jsmm I,.m{. Ji IK^ilU:'' 

If . •.• ftSFrof^ 

ttflM of the view. It waa looked npoOt ho i wo fo i ^ 
«i» 1^ bod oiilep^i Aitt» tost aA he approo^Md Selon 
iC^iiie» t hm t «Kreke £a|^b«iUe9 from Edmhwighi 
1^ JoDg kgabisioiio tiwa wae- observed to dovoltv 
from tht tttoMT gp(e of that nwoBioiit beM^^ 
fiHierid jmeMaioAQf the noblo) owoer oC the hatam^ 
JLUmif fimt S«rl of Wiotoft, diatiogviBbed te 
9(dker8iice W Qoecn. Miry^y. imd obo ef liihose mmM 
ii«o'»««r Pfoiidoit^ of the Cevnfc ef SomIoiw and 
iMliiMtediOA iMi oeeoaifiB,mlh the keepini; of dm 
fiitlttd «f AMlaay^; Joi»M''o odeond soo. * The 
Kilig» i jith i d : so ho iKfto» woo oolomiljr iatpfMoedt 
^th^ioiiiciddat^ end. gav^e orden tio otop hioatn 
tandiBtOMtoioiMio at tkm cornea of the wall of thd 
qawr t*f aadt tiU the raaiaaaa ol his mothor's iawA 
ahmld bo depoMlMt ka the adjaoeat chinch^ ufaUt 
ifcaa the tai^nl raiaipaify vaa proceedmi^f 
-; Atibia kifaL bnc^baol Haddia^Con and Doiia 
lia%.if aof finth k to ha plaeed ift tmiitioii^ JaaMa. 
10M^/D|08fc joyontly' feeeivad^ aMmagb bo «o«lA 
lyaBd bai IMo time m oithoK. He lodged thali 
night ia.DaBi^ GmtH ihaaeat of hia fa(voiinla< 
QMahaUaay I^ Hmbo^ Mlazt daf, April €^ .h^ 
adtWMtal.laaraHia Bwniebi hb tiain mneh iacraaipr 
ad h]f tho f^tkaaen of ibe oamitrf ^ who oanMr 
paivinip in ia coagraaiilate hiak AaMMig a(tbatt> 
who joined him on this day's march, were the iaM« 
dnai 4f iha'Baadih% Snglkh aa wall aa ScotlUi ; 
theaaoffiaaBi being now oaan in aonpasy for iter 
tm titm.. JkA the ettreaiitjr ci what aaa aaUad< 
lh»libariaa of BmmiAu w Atrici- aatoadiny m» 

^ ^'AlUnrsidi CioHei 1. 

f Xliis incident has been men, from timditkm. by 4k 
Wkan Wt^^toawnhsa oae sT tt»(iaii|fafal watifc! 


gpte^w mil hk whok) ooanbHi -of wai^ lh«. «»m 
4taUair«Kl eaptutii^ the tanil of gemloneiifiMi^ 
«oiiei«y anil manf private eHuMOBof tfan aadaati 
tovni* : Tliia was' the fint e^aaieii en wfaioli te» 
rboMfed tbe hooiage of any part el ibe aAiliMy 
liar^e ef hia new Uagdoaap On; hm appneaahiay 
lile 1^ by wUdk he ivea Do eaeer the*'tonni| hm 
area aalvtad byv» traaaeildoiit fmafl e£ eniaairaa^ 
vfcicfata aaiBataBft shrantied the'nibole watta hum 
baaview^ bwag.lfae aaoai aMdttltawceea»y<iWay, .ae« 
oaeiing to a^iBOBtemponaay writer^ which wea^ eief^ 
dkchafgad iii tbaa pkce within thei a e ifci e ry ef anyi 
nieBBbekr e€ the gannao&i akheogh- aiHnto eC llMna 
had been these Biaoe the daya •of Eimg Hewf ahU 
Eighthv aeariy aiaty years he€aaaK * This .elaiMii^ 
aeeerdhig'te die tanle wfites^ vaniahed faefoto'ihla 
ndiafit fooe of appreachiag Mytty» aa thaiTai* 
pewaof iheakjrdyibefoe the BMnuai^siui. Jaaaaa 
wa»aaet at Iho gata-hy Mr WiUiani^Selhyy.gaiiM 
tfemanqMrtar of Berwieky wbe*eaiBe iM, ia nghi 
of his offio%. ta d^er nprthe kej^a ef tfie. 
to Ikeir tapreaoe proprietor. Aftcv antesing). 
Uijeatp g»fo back the keys to Se}kfi npe» whoail 
baMl^eaaaietMieieoBiiared'tliaheMHirof k a ig h M 
baaidy.aa the £iai;]Baai wh»liad pna hiai in> p o n tn 
atoniif any* para af. thepidepetty^e£ hianav hingti 

. IlMiH|dBiideareftaiaieeepi&o%ivaaftliialo:d«H»' 
oA by » eiightt ahosrji^ vhicb ah thia a aa roen t b#^ 
gMa ao«£dL Aa it wtky, ho piegaassed tfaraa|gl9> 
afcaaiiMned itkboheiiaiil aoWer% juid£UMrw9A> 

* ^ ' And tbere are some olde King H&nrie*s lads fa Ber« 

18 . HFKor 

«edbdmiitg nmltitndet^ td the market-plaoei wbem« 
Im W8» reeeifed *wich a oongratolatoiy speech bf ^ 
tlie> nwg^tratee. On hk nme being proBoanoed« 
in- this speeeh as the first King of the wbvie kki 
^Briteiny the people knelt on the earth, to* «ipt 
preis their homage, and tden, rimg again, nttered 
the most extravagant cries of joy-i-^insomnch, thai 
m person present thought they had been all stmck 
shpakaneoBsty by a fit of madness. Here James 
was prssented, according to the custom of that' 
age,. with « pnrse of gold, whidi he sMd heac** 
oepted as a token of. the affisetion which the inha^^ 
bksnts carried towards his person. Those cere* 
SMNues ended,<— they woold have been mnch more 
elaborate bnt for the rain,— >he proceeded to the 
4inrch, where, after he- had rendered thanks t^ 
God for the prosperity which had hitherto attend* 
ed'hbn, (a eastom he is said to hare always «b». 
wve4 after a journey ), he was regaled with a setw 
Bum by the famous Toby Matfae w, Bishop of Dor- 
ham, to whom this honour fell as « matter of 
eonrsB, Berwick being within Ins diocess. 
* It was not till after, he had thus attended pub- 
lic worship, that he went to the house prepared 
for bis reception, or partook of any relreshment» 
After he was housed, the rain p as s ed away, and 
permitted thesu»tp break forth. One of his prioci* 
pal officers remarked, with ai>expression of surpiiae^ • 
how suddenly the day had be^ overcast as his 
Mijesty was entering the town, and be w suddenly^ 
it had again been cleared up« ^ Ob, no greait 
aiaitec, " said the King with a smile 3 «• suppose 
tt|e.first fair weather we had in the momiiig to. XP" 
present the auspicious commencement of my jous, 
n^ttheshomfa ta^atandtar. thaL«Divenal teaBSe 


eft my cchititry itt fMif^lrf 'ti4tfa A^ King', ^tlM 
diiB sudden re-appeafance of aunftbiiie nKMt embltt^ 
liiatilM the joy of Eogtand for my approach*^* 
This nay be accepted 'as a-speohiteii of the wkif 
per i v/mi t speeches which Mt so often talked of wila 
admiration by the more « loyal of James's hiitkM 

He spent the whole of the next day in Berwidr} 
diiefly whiling away the time by inspectirig tkil 
fortifications of the place, which, being very com* 
plete in iiYery respect, and a sight perfectly ne^ 
to him, must have' amused and impressed his mind 
in- no small degree^ To testify the respect vi 
which he held the military art, he shot off a can^ 
ttob with his own royal hand, * so faire, ' says thi§ 
flattering narrator of his pOgress, ' and with sut^ 
signe cf experienee, that the most expert gannem 
there beheld it not withoat admiration, and theri§ 
was none of jnst jndgmeni present, bat witbonk 
flattery gave it' jnst commendation.' * Of no lit* 
lie estimation, ' adds the same writer, * did - the 
gnnners account themselves in, after this kingly 
^hot« Bat his Majestic, above all virtnes, id tem^ 
perance most excellent, left that psirt of the wM 
and their extraordinary applause, and returned to 
ia» palace, and there reposed till the next day. * > 

On Friday, the 8th of April, James crossed the 
Tweed and entered the county of Northumberianc^, 
the sherifis of which, accompanied by a greatnum^ 
lier of gentlemen,- were ready to give- him-wer- 
^me. In the course of this day's journey^ he vi- 
sited an aged soldier called Sir William Reiiif, 
who, though blmd irith age^ dedaied himself so 

■ ..i .. fv^(^idiolsM*nigK8iss»i.-41S» ^ 

T P- 

M'tpO' leel«U'fte wiwnitihxQf yimth J9eir^F«4 hk^^ 
MiiQd. . Frmi(i%4ie!fMideiiee of (lii» VieltraH^ k^ 
WUl44iif tta Ca8ll«r wb«ie he. ««» tq Iq^ga fiir 
t^ qigki^ the. dipteoc^ fv»8 tfairtyHi^aft Aoc^di* 
cimAtry'milep'; yet he rode, over 4h^| gromid isti 
the incredibly short apace of four hours. At yTid* 
dlMiflrtW hB-^vBs eniemiiiod ^F'Sir^ Robect CiniBy^ 
•jwiei; of the ineiifiioiiy whoi ai might be expecte(l» 
piFP^a Vdost oompkhiHiBiit boet. While -viewiiig 
^ jierk that afleniop9» JaBi«» hff>p«aeJ >tx> j&^ 
Ipme deer atrayiiig at a little diBtanee ; .and not* 
fidth^taiiding the fiitigiiav of ]ub journey, he /cotdd 
Bf»t r^iet the paesiQa exiuted by. the ni^t, but iie« 
§fmjBk bmi^tmgf ftpn which he did xiot 4eii«t tiil 
|W4K of the animals were -slain* . 
, - Amri^g at NeweaBtiLe«eait day* he sp^t thai 
■ibioh: foUqwed {Swi4ay) in dei^etioni and on Monv 
^^y mleaeed all the priaaners from tjbe jait^y «x^ 
09pt those who. were confined for ^treasonf mup* 
/iir^ pr papis^ri^ giving great earns oot of his o we^ 
{»iT«B for the release of the debtors. He x'emiun<» 
ed in Newcastle tiU Wednesday, morning, hia 
whole eitpenses borne by tjbe citizens. 
, His journey on Wednesday, April 13th, waa 
ftaok Newcastle to Darham, including 'a digressioi^ 
which he made to I^unley Castle, the seat of Lord 
XfUmley, which splendid place he viewed witji 
much admiraUon. At Durham, hi^ was entertaior 
^iU'tbe Episcofwl palaee^by the Bishpp^ thesaoif 
.Toby Mathew who preached to him at Berwick^ 
and pMithis pnelate waa almost aa espainent a nAyei 
i9f K^d. thipga as James htoHielf, the loyal couybsip* 
sation during the evening is said to have been ua* 
commonly hriMtant. On Ttauadayi April lMi» 


Mt% Qehi^Wf widotir of » fMHtoaaB wko JmhI 
h^en in nbe seiriceof QiiMft ^sMfaMk ; bj wicaU 
te fi^aa ' bot|tittfitl)y''eiMrt«ined = to fan veiy higfc 
«Mit«Rt»iettt. ' In ilie «oline-of tbu ^fn jtm^ 
ney, lie* set hinself down on iIm 4ii§h gnnuidv«* 
to^ Hangbton-le-ftide, lo enioy the 'bcatMic vitiMi 
«^b WM there opimed <to !liki»>*««ili6 lEonist fio^ 
tion cf Yorkshire^ ni hi twai 1i|ie fturMt porti«i •( 
fittgliiiid-^tbe gallant T^es, ^mxh aM its woodlands^ 
paatwea, feedings, end fanslbolds, atfelchad out 4m 
^et :bea«tf , and, as it wete, iii?ttiiig bka to eonfc 
imand 'take possession s a some presenting snch a 
oeittMst to die ptsmpera ^^^nm, which ho had kift 
bebiad in «be north, as mast hof^e alaioet hvtrU^* 
<iered his senses, or (Hsposed him, ^at least, "saya a 
apirHed writer, * 'had be been a -man of oomaum 
eharacter— ^to excIeiBi, ia the words which 4i poet 
lias since fancied for a Bka^ar occasion, ^ 

* Where's the coward that would not dare 
To fight ibr such a land ! ^f 

In all probability, as James sat with his legs cross^ 
ed, on this delightful spot — for such was his 
attitude, the place from that circumstance be- 
ing still called Cross-Legs — ^he only congratulated 
tiimself on having been bom with the sacred and 
Indefeasible right to inherit and possess so mucli 
jgood land, or, like a true Scotsman^ might endea- 
vour to erect the Carse of Gowry, or theplsdns'df 
^ast Lothian, into a parallel, place in his Estima- 
tion with the fair scene t>efore him. James, i^ 

♦ Mr Suttees, in Lis History of the County Palatine of 
^hirham. t i , 

nnnt he d tw efTBd, wti toonMcb impreMed witkA 
■ease of his faeciedilary right to his new kingdon^ 
to be Tery nrach elevated with his successioa ttir 
iU In a letter to his son befoie qvittkig 
landi he says he was a kiag befofe» and he is 
^oo more than a king ; . a seniiment fall of prides 
and, if he allows that this accessbn of kingdomr 
brings an increase of honour and greatness^ he saya 
it also brings a proportionate increase of cares. 

He adraneedy next day^ from the hospitable 
seat of Mrs Genison, to the house of a Mr Ingle* 
by, near Tofkcliffe, b^ing attended by the High Simt 
riff of Yorkshire^ who, with a gallant train, hadimel 
him by the way. ' From Topclifi^ he proceeded on 
Satttrday to York, the SherifEi of which met him 
at the extremity of the liberties, three miles from the 
city, where they presented him with thek while 
staves. Within a mile of York, he was saluted bj 
Lord Burleigh, (elder brother to his faitbfal friend 
Cecil,) who was President of the Cooncil in the 
North of England, and by far the most important 
officer who had yet given him welcome. Attend* 
ed by this nobleitaan and his retinae, by the she* 
riffs of the city and county, and by hb own pro- 
per train, which was by this time swelled to an ea»» 
ormous amoant, be advanced towards the gate^ 
where he was received by the mayor, aldermesy 
'and principal citizens, the first of whom delivered 
to him the double compliment of a congratulatory 1 
speech and a cup full of gold. There was here a 
slight dispute betwixt the Mayor and Lord Bur- 
leigh, as io which should b^ar the sword before his 
Majesty in his progress through the city. To de- 
cide the question in a way which should give .am 
offence to either party, James frioatioutiy aahsd if 


tmf wonld pmttiii hiai^ iirtliiff «M6f U> hi?e the 
dispoBBl of hi8 ewa propenjr ; and, both answering 
Ifait they shenld be happy to abide by hit deeiBion, 
he committed the object in diapnte to the Earl of 
0«ttberland» the meet dbtinguiahed adldier pre- 
aent, (called by Qaeen Elutabeth ker ^fkati^pion)^ 
who fo^with carried it before him into the city. 

& WM here that Jamea adight be aaid to hare, 
f&r the first time,'tak«i upon him tlie state and office 
ef tkie King of England ; for on hia arrival^at York^ 
he fonnd the Semtoiry Cedl» and others of faia 
Ptivy Conmsil, witb whom he praeeeded to hold 
emiference en maitten relating to government, and 
who began «o foMi domethhig l&e a court aromid 
him. Thii gradetts reception • vHiich Cecil met 
With gave very genend emprise^ for the greater 
patt of ^e nation only remembered the park 
which this etatesman'e father had taken in t^e 
deaih of Qneen Mary ; the corre^ondence whicfc 
Ii6 had held with the Sang being of coarse a pre- 
fowid eecret. ' ' > 

" The day tfitei* his mrival at Yoik being a San^ 
dajS he' went to attend pvbKc worship in that glo* 
«ie«8 Minster, which, it ie easy to cenceite, muaft 
•haive'-been, i^th- all its gmrieon ef cbnrcbmen and 
nuendaltls,' fa^ aa ^greiA a wonder to his royal 
miM ais eitlier the foktificAions of Berwick or the 
eeenety ef Teesdide. As he left his Icnlging to 
gtaao drarch, he was offered a coacJh; but be de^ 
'dined it, saying, in a kind manner, thttt, as the 
pe6{^e were deedrons to see a king, he waa'anxione 
to gratify them, mid he iftionld therefore walk, so 
an to exhibit his person as well as his iace. Tbia 
<eeniieeeension gave very general satisfiM^ion. He 
retnnwd in the Hmme mmmen This day, after 

vol*. II. B 

g4 LIFE OF ' 

4liiuier» he conferred « gnetft number of kaighff 
Ueodf, in the garden- connected with the honee ia 
which he Hvedt which wee the palace of l4ord 
Bitrleigh. The only .unhappy incident of .the day 
wi» the apprehensipn of a Catholic seminary prieety 
;who» under the disguise of a lay gentleman* had 
delivered to his Majesty e petition in favour of the 
.Catholics* This crimiinal) for such he was held 
by the prejudices and the laws of that time, was 
jcommiued to Jul. James here, as at Newcastle^ 
^opened all the jails,, except to traitors, murdeteis* 
and Papists ; an association, of . iiames which the 
Jiistoriaos of the day present without the leas^ 
commeati howerer much it may (Surprise and 
shock the ears of the present generation* 

James was entertained at York in a style of U* 
berality and magnificence worthy of that ancieot 
•city, once the dental of England* Lord Burleigh 
l^ept open house for all comers, during ^e time 
Jhe continued in the palace, .which was for two 
complete days ; and, on Monday, the Mayor en* 
pertained him at a sumptuous feast, which exched 
ihe wonder of all. his Scottish attendants. Pef- 
haps it was here that James made a droll remaii^ 
wUdi has been recorded by tradition in ScotlandL 
.Some English courtier was so ill-bred as to ob- 
.•aerve» that very few mayors in Scotland eoidd 
Jiave given entertainment to so many persons ai 
»were here assembled; to which the King instantly 
•replied, ^' Fy, man, there's a provost in Scot]«|4 
>tiM ke^ an open house a' the year round, and 
.ay the mae [de Tnore] that come the weloomer^!' 
M^ alluded to the chief magistrate of a certain 
Seotdii buigh, (supposed to be Forfar> the capital 
»i An^nsi) ^riio kept an eleben^e. 


^ .After tbW gpwud curip 'entertaiament, his Ma* 
Jes^ left York, aivirode ta prinasu^ey the 9eat of 
Sir Edward Stanhope, wl^ere he lodged for the. 
pighu . Next day, Tuesday,. April 19, after din-' 
ing with Sir Edward, who was High Sheriff o( 
1^ county, he rode towards Doncaster,,, stepping 
aaide hy the way to tee Pontefract Castle. , At 
poncaster, he lodged in an inn. which l)ore' ^he 
ji^ of jthe Son and Bear, the host of which he 
r^aidi next day for his entertainment, hy ^tH^ 
iease of a manor-house in reversion, of good^ya- 
Joe.: . , 

. On the 20th, heing Wednesday,, be progresse4 
^towards Worksop, the seat of the Earl of Shrews- 
bnry^ where he intended to lodge for ^th'e nigh^ 
^t Biwtry, where. he crossed jhe limit of York* 
shire, and entered the county pf Nottingham^ . be 
.was left by the Sheriff of the former district, and 
wet by the Sheriff, of the latter, who was Vmost 
^pUantly appointed both with horse and man,* 
A little farther on, within, a mile of Blyth Hal^ 
iie a%hted from his horse, and, sittiqg down upon 
.« bank by the. way-side, partook of. a slight re- 
Aesbwent. As he approached Worksop, he w:as 
^ealuted from the park by a vision of huntsmen, the 
.tkief of whom pronpunced a congratulatory speech, 
;aud offered to show him some game ; a pleasant 
jand well-devised conceit on the part of the Earl 
.of Shrewsbury, than which scarcely f^ny thing 
^oiNikl jttkve Jbeen mpre agreeable to his royal puest. 
The £ing at once consenting to .the terma of the 
.speQcb, a hunt was con^menced in the park, where- 
.witb his Majesty,! says the narrator of tI)e,progres9, 
.wa^ Vvery much delighted/ His, entertainment 
lat Workaop waa of a^kind and. extent fitHlmore 

afetonishiDg iSbm ip^lat he hid e^driNnied ^ toy 
<Mh^r placb : * bddidM the abtkndalice t>f all proir!*^' 
aidn and delicatie, there i^aa fa^rd a Mi<Mt ekk^Henf 
soale-rarishuig mudique, wherewhli hb Hightteitre 
W9M not a little delighted. ' He <iahted the Earl^ 
boftpitable mansioti next ttiorhin^ after breakiW, 
the relics of the viatad^, which were ih th^Mstf t^ 
imtnense, bein^ < left open for an^ man ^it wtotttt^ 
t6 eome and tdce.^ At Wotksop, befiyre h& de^- 
pkinnre, he conferred the holkouf- of kni^fatbtMd 
upon nineteen individuals. 

This day, Thursday the 2l8t of April,, he *ad^ 
fimced t6 th^ XMm of NeVirarlr-up^-Treht, ^h^ie, 
tiiking inp his i^artei^ hi the cla$tie, whl^h i^ibl 
property of the croWU, he tnlght bb iiai'd/ for ih4 
fit6t tinie dittiee his entty into Elarglaiid,^ to iiave 
lord^ed in a hdtlse of his owki; t>r at hk owitexV 
pexise. The Corperaiabn of Net(lu% met the K!n|^ 
$M h^ enteted the'tewn, and, by the mdnthef th^ 
Alderman; dieir chief magifttrtite; expressed Itieil 
lkffec!tiv>n towitfds bito-,' piie8etftiii|!ilm, at iffetgariite 
Yfaiie, with < a f«($re gih '«np. ' The speedi ^as iii 
Latin, and it wab express«d In a Way so agreeiibte 
t6 the royal taste, that, when' he waa about te qtft 
the town next day, he desu-ed to heafit t^petfted. 
On this request bein^ i^mpKed with, he aslc^ tfite 
]good alderman what was hi« naAae; Being; tcM 
that it tiras Twentyman, h&iiM; * MmieWlfatiihttyl^ 
ly, Then, by my saule, man, thou arts traitiAr: 
the Tt^entymans pulled dotm Redkbrk in StKHt- 
llUid ! ' He was, upon the whole, M ^refl pleaMd 
'With this omtor, that he ccmferred upbfl mm 'Ab 
offilse of puiYeyor of wax for the King^ fairase- 
hold, in the counties of Nottiiighami Yoiic, liin- 
"tola, and i>iarby ; aard' eter-'afler ind Vm^ih «l- 


tfO^^CB wfa^ lie .^9BI6 to hmit in Sbervpo^ 

Ji^.TiBg,hk iurief jetiiience i^t this town, there 
QG<^arredan,iQcidc|Bt wM^ I'M givan. occasion to 
wicb ]an{ftvwnible.i!ecaark funong his histociiu^ 
^ cut^pursey wrho qpnfeased that bebad foUpw^ 
|he court, in the e^ejEcise of his profession, all the. 
YTAQr-i^qiyi Qerwid^i a^4 wiiose activity was i^n*. 
^^t f^qm Ahe.grfont iq^vwtity qf igold fpuad npon 
his pj^rfHiO) being ii^ere taken in .^ xopy fat^ 
^afpes, .v^i^hout WfaiiiDg f(^r.t^al» direqte4 a pre* 
9<^pt |o (iho Kecc|r4er .qif Newark, for the imme*^ 
djate e^p^i^t^on pf tjhe .qimioal. Whether thin 
]i«|is dpue in qpnsidenatiofi pf ft i^ght .which, he 
ipight, iaftt^ft vommary pa^hment foraa 
9£feBce conmitted within the precincts of .the 
<poprt, or with a reference .to the cnstom of Scot* 
ifmd> whic|i 9)^Qm^ of punishment without trifili 
in c^aes where the crime wf» palpable fwd evidei^i 
iPitbe public eye».-r-r^eeMa*i4 f^ it was called,-^ 
fjfumot BOW he j^pertaiiied* But it is plain ^hat 
jfimes gare the oi^er q^i^ as a ipatter of coxuse* 
f^id qntirely withoHt any jdea of talcing undue gdr 
jrantagepf his kiagiy prerpgatiye. This act, bowt 
^F6r« fVBS GQinniented upon, at die time, as top 
;rioWat to he acceptable to the .people of England. 
jSir John ^arripgtpi|> whq was at this very timi^ 
fViyiog cpiHt to the-Kiqgy .^ays of it, 'I hear qur 
Jiew %xi^ hfth hanged one p^ui before he yr^ 
Jtried; 'tis ^tmngqly dqQ^: WW.%^ the wind hloWr 
f^ 4hli8> vhy Q>ay not a 9A|i he «tried before hp 
jhipw offepded. ' Loiter wiriters h^^^ ^niniadeertp^ 
ja^k.lihe %i^ with ipqeh gi^tpr sevfri^y W^^ almpifb 
jMde it appepir thfit,thAs,wp»teMd pickpo(4(e$ W9P 
i*e^ WPt^rflEwyrtyrjpf ihe tp»qny <rf 4ii^ §|ww*§? W^e 

38 tIFE OF ' -^ 

cannot belp ihinking^ howerer/ tliat, at ihe rery^ 
wont, it was a mere piece of inadyertency, or a 
inifltake arisiog Froiii tbe King's edtication in Scot- 
land, where it is ei^ident, frond the criminal re- 
cords, that he* was in the babif of infltctmg or wtth<' 
liolding -punishment at his own discretion ; the 
diffica1t3r of executing the precepts of justice in 
diat country peirhaps leavmg more pov^er in his 
Bands than could be allowcMi under the stronger 
aind better regulated government of England. 
' He left Newark on Fnday the 23d of Apr!!,' 
and advanced to Belroir Castle, the splendid seat 
of the Earl of -Rutland, * hunting all the way. * 
His entertdnment at this house was of the most 
annfptuous kind, and yielded him ' exceeding plea- 
tore. ' Next morning, after breakfast, and after 
be had dubbed a score or two of knights, he set 
forward to Bnrleigh, dining by the way at the seat 
of Sir John Harrington. * His Majestic, ' on the 
vmyy was attended by many lords and knights, 
and before his coming there was provided tnaxi 
•cents,' and live haires in baskets, being carried to 
the heath, that made excellent sport for his Ma« 
jestie ; all the way betwixt Sir John Harrington's 
and Stamford, Su* John's hounds, with good mouths 
following the game, the King taking great Idsure 
and pleasure in the same. Upon this heath, not 
fiur from Stamford, there appeared to the number 
of a hundred high men, that seemed like the Tfei«' 
tagones, huge fellowes,* twelve or fourteen footo 
litgh, that are reported to live on the Mayne of 
Brazil, neere to the streights of Megallant. Ite 
Kbg at the first sight wondered what they wei^, 
ibr that they overlooked horse and man. Boi^ 
"when all came ta all» th^y proved, a company of 


IHMire inmoit sniloni, all going on high a^tilta, .pre- 
ferring a petition against the haAy Hatton. What> 
their request was I know not ; bnt his Migesdoj 
rrfenred Uiem till, his coming to London, and. so 
paat on from theae giants of the Fen towards Stam<^ 
ford ; within halfe a myle whereof, the baififfes^t 
and the reste of ^ the chief townsmen of Stamford^ 
presented a gift onto his Majestie, which was gra-: 
eionaly accepted ; so rid he forward through thei 
towno in gpreat state, having the sword borne be*- 
fare him, the people joyfol on all parte to see 

■i At Burleigh Hall, the seat of Thomas second* 
Lord Bnrieigh, (brother to Sir Robert Cecil, the 
King's most confidential minister), * he and all his 
traine were received with great magnificence, the 
house seeming «o riche* as if it had beene. furnish*^ 
ed at the charges of an Emperour. * * "* The 
oext day, being £aBter*day, there preached before 
his Highaesathe Bishop of Lincolne; and the ser-i 
mone was no sooner done, bnt all offices in the 
hoose were set open, . that every man might have 
ficee accesse to butteries, pantries and kitchens, tot 
eat and drink in, at their pleastves. ' 
^ .On Monday, the 26th of April, James rode 
iiadc to Sir John Harrington's house, probably to 
enjoy another day's hunting with the knight's good 
. hounds. But his sport, if such he designed, was 
prevented by his horse filling with him ; aa acci*^ 
,|lept by which ho ^ dangerously bruised. Uavrm^ 
to the great amazement and griefe of all them Aat 
mere about his Majestie at that time* But he, 
being of aalnviacible courage^ and hia bk>od yet 

• Narrative^ &G» '^ 

hotte, flnde fight •! it at tbefinft» and btiagi 

ed again^ rode to. SkiJoim HtfiiBgloBL*a^ whvm'hm: 

cmtkqnsd ^bat mjj^U^. ■ . ^ >• ■ i 

The ti^iie extent of the injiiry which Janet ibnc 
eeived by this accident} waa a n^nra in cmm af 
his daTicles. *, Yet, partly foom a dread of beingL 
taken in hands by his pbysiGiansy. of whose openiii 
tiona he entertained a sincere hcorcor >at.aU periods 
of his liie» and partly from a wish to qiaao no- ia# 
terruption to the mirthfnil hamonr of, his ssbjsels^ 
he concealed that /fact, and only aelEnovrle^^red thai 
he was a little brubed. Being unable, howeter^ 1bi& 
continue bis journey en horseback, heleft Sir Joins' 
Harrington's, house nextoinosniag ; thoa 
letuming to Bnrleigfa, V where 1^ was- royaUy et»»> 
tertained as befooe, but not with half .that joy,.. the 
report of his hurt liad disturbed aE the court- a* 
Viuch. 1 • . 

• ' His next stage, on Wednesday, April 27, waa 
to Hittclunfarooke .Priory,, the seat oi a very le^ 
markafale ipei8an->«Aliver Cromwell, uncle and ^oA* 
fiither tb.the Protector, but. who waa^.^ in. every im* charactec^ the rcrrerse of Jiia fimMnsnamfrf 
sake. * In th^ .waiy, .he. dined 9X that worlliy ani 
worshipful kqig^u's, Sir Anthony MiidoMyV ( AL* 
thorp), wl^ei^e nothing, wanted in< a aobfset'a duly 
to a Boreraigne,. .nor any thing in so potent w s^ 
veraigne to grace io loyal a- subject* i Dinnecibei 
ittg most : snmptuonsly fwnished, the .tables weio 
conrerad with oostly Inaqqeta,. wherein erery thing 
tfiat was.n4oBtvdelidii|iafor taste: psored jnom de^ the artjjthat made 4t seem.baanteoua te 
th^ *eyB, the ladypf the. house >heing iono xif .^ 

* & w« artt infiai3ned.bjr a kftter^of Sir B. Cecil. 


l^09t ezc^Uent.ccHifeetfonerB in England, dibngh I 
OMfesB m^vy hoiKHirdble women very expert. * f - 
Before be reached Hincbinbrooke, be passed 
oweraeoBiiiieii wbieh Sir John Speficer, in cod« 
9eqaeoce of a grant from Qnemi Eliaabetb, had 
partly approprialed, to the great distress of ther 
pei^eof the neigbboiirhood, who had bewi Se« 
customed to disrivo part of their subsistenoe from 
this source* Tho knpropriatian of commons by 
the country genilemea, was one of the chief causetf 
of popdar discontent in this reign ; and therS eaa 
be no doubt, that, alihough beneficial to the conn** 
try at large, it was a source of mtich misery among 
veidiividnals. A story is toM of Jamas— 4hat» be^ 
ing ou'a buntiagJsxcfimien in Berkshire^ he espied 
a man in the stocks at the comer of one of these 
pieces of .grioaad^ who salutfdd idm with die extra* 
^liinary exclamation^ ^' Ho^mna to your Majes* 
tyt! *' This caused the King to ask the proprietor 
of the common, who rode by his side, what the 
peorieUow- was confined for. He was informed 
that it was for stealing geese from the common t 
when the culprit cried out,' " I besee<}h your Ma* 
jesty, be judge which is the greater tUef, I foe 
stealing g^ese from the- common, or his Wprship 
for stealing the common from the geese. " James 
WttB touob^d by an appeal tbn^ applicable at once to 
Ibis bmnanity and Jiis sense of <the ludicrous ;' and 

f .* Dinner luid banquet being p^t, and his Majestie at 
point to depart, Sir Anthony, considering how^iis Mcges* 
tie vouchsafed to honour him with his royal pre^nce^ 
presented his Highrtesse* with a gallant Barbary horsey 
an4 ^.Tefy ,ri(^ i#441e,' wkh- furniture sikitable thmutito i 
which his Majestie most lovingly accepted, and, so taking 
hit pripcel jT lea?^ spt forwiurd on ths wi^« ' * 


Ee said to tlie g<mtleDi8n who was complaiiteci o!^' 
** Bymy sad, I se not dine to-day on your dishes^ 
till you restore the common for the poor to feed 
their flocks. " His host complied with this re*' 
quest, and also gare immediate freedom to the 
witty remonstrator. * It is not recorded that ha 
paid a similar attention to the petitions which were 
here, presented to him against Sir John Spencer. 
' Oliver Cromwell, who was to be the King'a 
landlord this evening, was one of the most popular 
and beloved characters in all Hontingdonshirey one^ 
of the genaine old conntry gentlemen of the past 
Ige, who were destined to become so comf^tely 
extinct in the next. This excellent person had no 
sooner learned that he was likely to become the 
host of his sovereign, than he hastened to makd 
preparation for his proper reception, laying in 
stores of all kinds of meat and drink, and evert 
asaking considerable additions to the extent of his 
faonse. He met the King at the gate of the great 
court, and condocted him along a walk that led %9 
the principal entrance of the house. After his 
Majesty had entered, the doors were thrown wide 
open, so as to admit all who chose to enter, whe-. 
ther their purpose was to have audience of the 
Kingr or only to see his person ; and each indivi* 
dual was welcomed with the most costly viands aod 
precious wines, even the humblest populace having 
free access to the cellars. Hospitality exerted ia 
Ma degree, was here become k much more won* 
derfnl thing than it bad been on any former part 
pf James's progress ; for the multitudes which bad 
hitherto flocked to see him, were nothing to the 

• Arcby Aiixiitiroiig*t Jestef, London, 1640. 


ihyriacts wbicfa he attracted in tbis more popqioaa 
a&intL > There was such plenty and variety of 
Seated, such diverritie of ^nes, and tboee not 
ifflB-rafTe; but eretl the best of the kind, and the^ 
c^Hars open at any man's pleasure. And if it 
w^re so common with wine, there is little question 
bnt the bnttries for beere and ale were more com-^ 
Itton ; yet in neither was there difference ; foi^ 
whoever entered the house, which to no man was' 
denied, tasted what they bad a mind to, and after 
a caste found fulnesse ; no man like a man being 
dented what he would call for. As this bounty 
Iras held back to none within the bouse, so for 
siich poor people as wouM presse in, there were 
open beere-honses erected, wherein there was ntf 
want of bread and befe for the comfort of the 
jhiorest creatures. Neither was this provision fbi' 
the little time of bis Majesties stay, but it waa 
ihade* ready fourteen days, and after his Highneea* 
HeiMKrture disttibnted to as many as had a mind 
to it;' 

^- The King remidned with Cromwell until he had 
breakfasted on the 29th — ^that is, one full day and 
liro- nights. At his leaving the house, be express 
fled himself gratified in the highest degree with 'the 
entertainment whidh his host and hostess had pur^ 
'^yed to him ; saying in his broad accent, as he 
]|Mi8s«fd through the court, " Marry, man, thou 
tiast treated me better than any man since I teflt 
'Edinburgh. " The probability is, he was treated 
bbttef here, than he ever was before or after ; for it 
^aa genen^ly allpwed at the time,, that Cromweu 
jgavBf on this occasion, Mtf greatest feast thai cmt 
kad been given to a mwereign hy a m^^; which 
must be allowed to have been no small praise. 

H Jfivwc^ . ' 

given to Elizabeth. It ia plq^ng to r^cotd 
tjbal Jai^es retained ^ gratefiU ^^e, qf the good 
tqfiire's boepitality. He not only hoQonred him^ 
^ith bia personal frien4«hipi bat be inade bim ik 
kn^bt of .the Bath befo^ ^ia c^onation, and hs 
afterwarda gave hin) several ,go^d grants, whiebji 
ve have no doobty had a iienfibie effect on the in» 
t^r;ia1 comforts of Hinchinbroolfe Pj^ry. * 

At Good^M^nch^ter, aiipifdl toim not Car frpai 
Huntingdon, J^ea was surprised by ja yery fXn 
traordinary scene; .s^renty teama of horses, ail 
ti^fkced to ' ff^^e new plougha, ' l)«Hng jbere farought 
^ him, aa. a present by seTcnty husbandmen, 19 
^bediepce to some peculiar antiqi;e tenure* Good* 
Manebest^r, it seems, w^ ft :town, ^ for aeyeial 
qentwriea biK^^y celebrated fpr the. jgoodfieaa of its 
bnabiamdry ; * and. fome early kiog bad bestowed 
l^da upon its denizens, und^r t^ ^nditioa that 
they sbpnld meet hiin apd,his.8iici;ft^9<^ whmsus^ 
they approached the town, with seventy of thopf 
^plementa jiiy yi\iv^ ithey hsA wrought them« 
felra sp gpod a ofL^ie aa ,f|gpricnk,iiri8ta« JamcHU 
a^BUiaed ^ the odd pati^ of t)ie present, inqnivad 
iiOo tbia p^ of the hi9tary of .(roodHMancbeslMsr^ 
after which, learning th^ he W99 still pominaUfr 
ijo^ proprietor of their lapds, he fiaid be was ghi4 
(o. be iim4^9>'d of so many good jm y b andmea m 
w^ \own^ and enjoin^ tfiefo to contiime to nat 

* Oood Sir Oliver, who bad been the friend of the Su»f 
arts, lived to be despoiled and distressed by tbeir arch-ene« 
my, hfs Celebrated nephew, who paid bim a ^it during 
the ciril wir* The wonby knigirt tnrvived all the tonr 
lti(rt»9ffbatj^riofl7l^.usi$b9^9Jp]fl|ltgr. .' 

KIK6 /iirSB "mz FIRST. BS 

Atoir {ilotigU IS WUI «s their anowtaii kad doM 
before them. 

• Soon after kmvteg'Good-Miiii^hevter, be passed 
eat of Hontikigdoiiahir^ into Hertfonlabire ; and 
tlierey of oottne, he was lef^ by the aberifF of the 
one oonatT, and met by him of the other* There 
was BomeiMiig mutsaaliy fine in the style «iid re« 
tiaMie of the latter officer, Sir Edward Demy by 
mme. He was * attended by' a goodly company 
ef proper men, being in nimb^ aeven score, eidt^ 
aUy apparelled, their liveries blew coates, with 
rieeves panted in the middeet, battened bdiind in 
jetktkr tehion; aiul white' deiiblete, and hats aad 
ftaiiieiito, vnd all of tfaete taonnted on horsee with 
fed saddles. Sir Bdward, after his homble dali^ 
tAobe^ presented his IMbjesty'wiiii a gallant horsey 
aticbe saddle, and fuikutare correspondent to the 
atthe, being ef great value, wMch hia Majesty ae^ 
eepted ^ery gradouslyy and caused him to ride on 
the same before him. TImb worthy knighi, heiidg' 
of « deltrer spirit, and agfl body,qmek]y monrite^ 
f&and^gbig the'gallant beast with neate aad eidvia^ 
W^Mftnianship^^behig in: a ikih sate of a yelloiir 'don 
txtmty somewhat noere the colonre of the hbrse 
tfMl teniCttre. Andthiiigy in brave manner, h^ 
nendilctedhis MijeStSe ^on to MaisUr Chester^ 
iMAne, wiiere'hls MajMie lay thai night on his 
enm to^ ehflGPl^e. ' 

Jaines )mng now within twenty miles of Lon- 
don, the cr6Wd8 which flocked to see hfm 'W^re 
materially increased. It is generally nndersfood, 
lliat he felt serionsly aggrieved by the .pressore of 
the midtitude around hlib ; and diat, on being ix^ 
terrupted by ihem when he was one day engaged 

80 ' ' LIFB 

ia m himi be eMptemid a peinih wUi tiifti ibep 
would forbear from hnntiiig him* Xbis reporti 
howerer, seems to be in a groal meaNiGe a mi9^ 
take, aiuiiig^ from his piodamations to realrtdii tlio 
accntaulataoii of people aroond him» and hia haifci 
ing, at nuioos stages of fais . progress* dinmisaad 
nimibers of gentlemen wko had eome lo see .him» 
to their own homes* : Both Hnme and Rohevlaofi* 
tsontrssting his oondnct in this matter with the pee 
pnlar manners of Elizitethi represent him as.btT'* 
ing sunk at the Tery. £nt in puUic estupatioP/. bjr 
the coldness with whteh he reeeifed the bonapp 
of hw snl^ects. It is stnsnge that* ia none ol tm 
ong^nal documents on which the hiMoiy pf this af« 
hk can be grounded, is there the leasthint giyea 
of such a sentiment having been obeer?aUe in tha 
King. * The only reason he seems to have hid 
for bis attempts to lessen the crowdsy waa .the 
jonormous price to which tbey.'caasedaUrartidfa 
'of pronsions to rise ; an evil bearing hlurd on tif^ 
po€xets of those who necessarily attended, hi4i* 
In a document whidi- we are. about to quotes jt 
will be seen, that, on bising. stayed by the Loodeii 
tnob, he expressed neither impatience nor diigBst» 
•but seemed inspired with the very, opposite liset- 
ings. And perhaps it ought to be aUemtedf ai «Br 
culpatory eridence against the cshlurges of iho^jfip 
spectable historians just alludM to^ thuty in -Us 

• * Psrhsps the mistake is foua^ed on. a f^Mspps in WUU 
tatCs History of Great Britaixiy referring to bu buntiBg 
'excursions, some time after he had arrived iii England 
'Being then much exposed to needy and imperffiient petf^ 
•tientn, who thronged about bialin aodiniinibcrsaa e«aii 
,to intenvpt h^ sport, he is said to have aaa^iaea h\d t))S 
people begone from him with execratloof. -'*''' 


ifgt speech ta pariiamQnt, be acknowledged him* 
•elf gratified in the very highest degree by the eiir 
llrasiaBtic welcome he had every where met with^ 
jMrttealarizing the excessive mnltitnde, and the 
affectionate behaviour of the crowds^ in language 
.which was any thing but cold. 
. It may be worth while here to quote the ac* 
pomit which Sir Francis Bacon, in a letter to tbi^ 
JBarl of Nuthnmberland, has given of the King'3 
deportment on his journey ; an account not apt %if 
be flattering, since the writer was somewhat disr 
ap^inted in the object for which, be visited his 
Majesty, that of procuring audience and favouc 
^ I have had no private conference to purpose with 
the King. No more bath almost any other £i)^» 
lisfa. For the speech his Majesty admitteth wit^ 
some noblemen, is raUier matter of -grace than 
jnatter of business; with the attorney he spake^ 
.urged by the Treasurer of Scotland, [the Earl of 
JMiBT,] but no more than needs must. . Your iordr 
ship shall find a prince the farthest from.vain glory 
that may be ; and rather like, a prince of the akr 
joierUfarm i^n the latter time* His speech is 
.swift and cursory, and in the full^dialect of bis 
' eovmtry ; in speech of bnsiness, short ; in speech 
fii discourse, large. He affecteth popularity, by 
gracing such as he hath heard to be popular, and 
not by any fashions of his own : be is thought X^ 
be somewhat general in his favours, and his virtu^ 
of access [accessibility] is rather because he jip 
much abroad, and in press, than that be give'th 
m^ audience. He hasteneth to a mixturoic of 
both kingdoms and occasions, faster perhaps than 
^blicy will well bear. I told your lordship once 

1^ iiF% b^ 

beforei tlat iBelli<iiigfat bis Majesty hitber ijAei 
counsel of tbe time past than the time to come/* 
It was on Tuesday, the Sd of May, that be ap» 
proaehed Xbeobald*s, tbe seat Of Secretary Cecil, 
twelre miles from the capital. To give tbe reader 
an idea of the crowds which locked thither to seft 
liim, John Savilcj the writer of an account of his 
entry into London, says that be himself, sitting ill 
a window of the Bell at Edmontone, (nnque»- 
tionably the same inn alkided to in ' John GrOpin,') 
reckoned three hundred and nine' horsemen, and a 
liundred and thirty*seyen pedestrians, pass a!on^ 
from London, in half an hour ; and the- landlord 
declared, that tbe flow of passengers had contx« 
nued,' at nearly the same degree of- copiousness, 
during all that and the preceding day. ' As' his 
Highness, ' continues this writer, * was' espied 
t;oming towards Theobald's, for rery joy many ran 
from their carts, leaving their team of horses to 
their own unreasonable directions. On his- ap* 
jproaching nigh tmto Theobald's, ibe concourse df 
people was so frequent, erery one moire desiring a 
'flight of him than another, that it was incredit^le t6 
tell of. * * Then for his Mqesties coming trp 
the walk, there came before his Majestie some of 
tbe nobilitie, some barons, knights, esquires, geflft- 
tlemen, and others, among whom were the Sheriflh 
of Essex, and the most of bis men, the tmmpetB 
Bounding next before bis Highness, sometimes one, 
sometimes another ; bis Majestie not ri^ng oonti'- 

* Letters and MemoirB of BaooD, apiid Memoiiv of ifae 

Court of King James tbe Fixsty by Lucy Aiken* who 

^Mif ' Tba exteofliye applicatioa of this coacludixup're- 

maik n^eds scarcely be ptHoted out; it well exempftfiti 

the propbetic ngacity of its aatbor. * 

KING JAifEj^tfi^ FIRST. M 

wnUy 4>etwiact t6»4a«ie lw#, Inn mnaetfmeif om/ 
flometimes another, as fteemed best to his I^igli^ 
aess, the wh^le 'nobUUie of cut land and Scotland 
iiound about himf obsenring no pkce of sujiMrio*' 
Rtyi sll bareheaded s all whoBft, alighting froitf 
their horses^ at their entrance into the first coor^ 
aaTtt only his Majestie ahme, whd rid along sfeiB^* 
four noblemen laying their hands npo<i his steed/ 
two before and two brtind; in din manner hd 
cane tiU he was come to the coort door, wheM^ 
fnyself stood, where he alighted from his hofs^ 
tram whi<A he had not gone ten princely paces, 
but there was delivered him a petition by a young 
gtdntlemaii ; his Mugestie retnming him this gra«» 
cio«8 answer^ diat he should be heard, aiki hm 
justice. At the entrance into that court stood 
naAy noblemen, among whom was Sir Robert 
Cedil, who, there meeting his Majestie, con« 
dveted bim into his house, all which was prac* 
tiaed with as great applause of people as could. 
be, hertie prayer, and throwing up of hats. H!s 
Majestie had not stayed abov« an hour in his 
Atuaher, but) hearing the multitude throng 85 ftst 
into the uppermost court to see his Highness, ai^ 
his Crrace was informed, de showed himself open- 
ly, out of his chamber window, by the space ot 
hi^ an hour together ; ^ after which time, he went 
into the labTrinth-like garden to walk, where h^ 
recreated himself in the Meander's compact of 
bays^ rosemaiy, and the like, oyershadowing hi 
tfralk, to defend himself from the beat of the sun, 
iSt vappei tbne, . at which was such plentie of pro^ 

^ Tlii% in itself, tsQs itmni^ sgitfust the aoeatstions 
^ofBumeftndBolMtftmm ; 

' ' VOL. II« C * 

49 I.1FBO? - ^ ' 

Tkionforidl sorts of mem ia their doe plftcei:.Mir 
il^ucke roe with admiration. ' \ 

' At Theobald's, Jam^a wa)3 net by the- pvincipak 
officers of Btate> and by all the eki servaiits ande 
officers o€ Qi^een Elizabeths Here also he wna^ 
for the first tune, joioed by the roycj body-goardif 
that eorps having beea hitherto detained iu BUesa^ 
dance on the body of their late mistressi as it wasi 
the eostom of England, that the guard of the noo^ 
sarcb never transferred its services to the new eove^ 
reign, till the former had been buried. 

At TheobaldV James made six of his Scotch 
friends members of the English Privy Comicil) 
extending the same hononr, at the same timoi tQ 
three Englishmen v/bo had recommended tb^m-^ 
selves to his favour^ namely, the Lords Thomas 
and Henry Howard, the son and brother of thai 
unfortunate Duke of Norfolk who had perished 
in the cause of Queen Mary ; and the Lord Mount* 
joy,, (afterwards Earl of Devonshire), who was not- 
only entitled to the honour from his recent pro« 
ceedings in Ireland, but also from the secret friends 
liness of his conduct towards the Kingt belove his 

To speak of Sir Robert Cecirs cost to enters 
tain the King, daring his four days Tesidence at 
TheobaldV ^ were but to imitate geographers^ * 
says the narrator of the royal progress, ^ who set 
ft. little round O for a mighty province ; wofds 
being hardly able to expresse what was done thest 
indeed^ considering the multitude th;at thither ro* 
sorted besides the traine^ none agoing theBCftwr 
satisfied. ' 

After having put the hospitality of his secftetsry 
to this severe proof; James departed; Satturdaj/V 


Mty 7v a»cl advaaced towards LAndoii.< ^^For 
the number of people that went forth of the^tkf 
of London to see his Majesty that day, donbtlesf 
ihey were contained in a namber, bat, without ali 
idoiriitr not to be numbered. I heard many giay 
teads speak it, that in all the meetings they hare 
aeen or heard of, they never heard or saw thft 
tenth man was there to be seen that day, . betwiat 
JBnfield and London, every place in this space ab 
<elo{^d with company, that his Highness could hoS 
|>a8s without pausing, ofttimes wUlii^ly enfortse^ 
though more- willing to have proceeded, if convex 
Gently he could without great peril to his beloved 
^>eople. After our return, to our houses, a gentler 
man whom I know to be possessed of snfficieiiS 
'WKahh, said he would have be^n willingly content 
-to change bis state, so he might have had actually 
"every reasonaUe creature was there that day a 
iiee, and a hive to put them in. Another, raort 
teasonabie than he, would ask no more livings 
than for every one a pin, which, according to an 
arithmetical proportion, by the judgment of two 
Hxn three martiall people who hftd seen great com* 
'panies together, as near as they could guess by 
'their seeming show, would hare amoilUated to a 
4mndred and fifty pounds, receiving but of* every 
H>ne a pin. * * At Stamford Hill, the people 
-were so throng, that a carman let his cart for eighS 
-groats to eight persons, tvhose lUmde in it Was not 
^ove a quarter of an hour* ' * > 

' .It was at the place last mentioned that JameS 
«eceiv!ed the addresses of his worthy citizens of 
^JLiondon* ^ \ The Lord Mayor presented him With 

• Sa?Ub*S;Accouxi^apttd Nichols* Progresses; "^ 


ibe sword iad keyt of the'city, with whom 
ikftlodghlB and Meemmif in Bearlet goimsy ani 
ytt efauii»of gaM about their necks, with dl'tha 
csUileffiean aod oouaeil of the city ; beMdea fire 
imndied eitiaens, all very well BKMuited/ clad li 
nrAret ooats and chaina of gold, with th^ chief' gB» 
tknian of the bundled, who made -a gallant ehow 
ts •entertain their eorereign. * ** A little way 
tedier on, the maltitiides of people in highwaye, 
fieldB, neadows, closes, and on trees, were each 
|faat they covered the beauty of the fields ; and e^ 
greedy were they to behold the eoantenanoe ti 
Ihe King, that with nftnch anmliness they injarad 
and hnit one analher; soma ofen hiizarded the 
danger of death. ' 

' Hethas crossed the fields to the back of the 
Charter-hoase^ whnre he was to lodge ; the malta- 
ilnde all the way salutmg him with yehement shontt 
and cries, * so that one eoold scarce hear another 
^ipeak, and^ than^ there was no hope to find what 
aaas lost^ especially by the loser, yet many, in td- 
tea of joy inwardly coneeiYod in the heart, threw 
«p their hats. ' At this moment of pecnliai' eo^ 
tstement, n^an the King might be said to entttr 
the capitely althoagh not the city, old men, if we 
are to believe the loyal Saidlle, were heard to de- 
dare^ that * it was enongh for them to have lived ta 
see dus sight. - Feihi^ it wasat this same mo» 
ment, that a sagacioas Scotsaoan, in attendaalBe 
upon his Majesty, remarked, * Hoat awa ! ifate 
MkWapofia'gadekmg.'* He remamed in die 
'€harter«honse three or fonr days, at the entartai»* 
itneat of Lord Henry Howard^ whom, as afaBsady 

* maeq*sHlitoiy at Great 3fkaia,pb& 



JmAumdy be Had admitted inuTtlw VAwf CiMHH 
cU ttt TbeeMd't. He fattv dubbed *^ gMit mw 
ber ef kaigbtt, mekbig in eU tbe eaormai iiwp* 
taer of two hundred and tUfty^ievm ibioe> he hni 
Uh Scotland. « 

'- After havbg r^poeed fome deye in the Cfaarler^^ 
booae, to racoirer from hie foignee«-*firtifpiee ^ 
^ table, we may eespeet, as laneb •• of ^e foid 
•A*4ie proceeded to hb palaee of Whitehall, fnm 
whence he took barge lor the citf • Hmnng ehcft 
l«ondon biidge, and been eakited by a piod^ie 
peal of ordmnoe from tho Towee» he tamdeid ai 
that celebrated fonreae» the fiewleMni of which he 
received i^ery graciottBly, even to the pntiiagef 
hie royal arm round the officer's neck ; an adoowu 
ledgnent, na donbt, of the aeenranoee of Jdelkf 
10^ hie inlercets, which Payten had traoettitted to 
him before the demise oif his predeeeseor. H» 
made tbe round of all the cnriositiee of the Towefv 
not omitting the lione, wlMch enjoyed hie notice 
on many snbaeqnent occaeiein. Indeed, theHmMr 
were very good oenrtiere, if we may beliere Mi^ 
Unbbookei the tower chaplain, who told tlm S&ngf 
•o their bebalf, ^* Magnifieae et ragalee beetme/ 
leones Angllcani, adorant leonem Sk^ieey O vm^ 
de leone Jadsd ortnnde ! " f ^ 

-> Snob is the history of James's jonmey to TSmg* 
land; an incident which, as4t ie^by far. the meei 
remarkable in his peaoefal life^ and oae mUA eik. 
^tes conudcrable^intereftt in the imagiaeluM^ war 
ham £^en. at the mmdet leagdi sHikh eurMmim; 

* The expense of this renuurkable poumey to himself, 
and his train, appears, from an autheitticated statement, io^ 
heve been 10,7A2f. ; • • ... 

. t Quarterly Rrriew, XU. M 

44 •-... :-ttraoF . • 

wonld permiu ' It mAy remains to be temaricecl^ 
ia.generalf tbat the whole affair seems to have been 
eqndlf agreeaUe to the King and to his people; 
He. was ^everTwbere delighted, with the flatteriesy 
the homage, and the expensive entertainment^ 
yielded U> him hy his -subjects : they were, on the 
^er hand, gladdened by the adrent of a (monarchy 
Irhoae character was good» whose progeny pro^ 
nised a continued and undisputed succession, and 
wfao^ being of tbe male sex, was agreeable to theln 
aa a noTelty^ after the country had been governed 
for half a century by women. Nothmg about the 
whole affiur is sa apt to astonish the modem read^ 
^^ as die state in which he was received and Gon«* 
ducted by all descriptions of public officen, -espe* 
cially by tbe sherifis, who accompanied him through 
wdi successive county, and the extent and splen* 
dour of the hospitalities which were placed before hiiii 
and themuUitudes at large, at most of the houses 
wbere he lodged by the way. Hospitality is the 
Tirtae of a parcel-civilized state ; yet is there some* 
thing interesting to the imaginatiott in those ac« 
^poonts of unlimited entertainments, where old but-* 
ysansBf whose hinges, as the old s<mg aays, were 
5qiBte worn off the hooks' with age and use^ 
and kitchens, and beer- houses, and pantries, wefe^ 
equally the scenes 6f festive enjoyment to the pro- 
Quscuous populace, as the banquet-ball was to the' 
prince himself and his nobles— the more interest- 
mgf perhaps^ when we think of the desolation 
which, overwhelmed all that was merry in Eng- 
Ifmd, in the immediate succeeding age* To a 
Aind of sentiment, these jolly doings suggest but, 
the idea of a broad and noble river passing smoothly- 
and unconscioosly on til the tnrmoUof Uie^atenupt. 








9am Es liBcl scarcely enjoyed liis Aeir goternment 
ftt London above a week, when he was annoyed 
by a disturbance of a domesUc natnre, which had 
just taken place in Scotland. It will be recollect* 
«d, that he had left his wife and chiklren tfaere^, 
^vith directions that they should follow him about 
twenty days after. Part of the arrangement, it 
appears, was, that the Earl of Mar should return 
to Scothind in time to prepare his ward. Prince 
Henry, for the journey, and also, it is probable^ 
to form an escort for the royal party. The Earl 
liot returning at the promised time, and no new 
directions reaching her Majesty, she resolved t^ 
go to Stirling, and request to be put in possession 
ia( tb^ prince's person, in order that she ni^it 
fitepare him against the day appointed for her jour* 
wy, which she was naturally anziods to keep. 

Unfortunately, her Majesty bad been concern* 
.ed, In the year 1595, in a conspiracy with Cban*" 
.dcMor Mdtknd, to get possession of the Prince's- 
. {MQMiti for Boiiie purpose tenehiiig the peace of ths^ 

4M hin os^. 

nation; on which wcowof^ James had gireii tfas^ 
Earl of Mar a strict precept under his hand, npoa 
no account to surrender his chaige to any person, 
whatever, without his express order to that e&cC 
There was also, at this very time, a mmonr in, 
both countries, that she designed to brii^ her son 
under Popish or Spanish influence. For these t«* 
nous reasons, the. Counters Dowager of Mar, who. 
kept Stirling Castle in her son*s absence, absolute-. 
if refused to deliver up the young Prince ; so that 
ilie Queen, after a long journey for that purpose 
from JEldinburgh to Stirling, was obliged to return, 
without her errand, her mind afflicted at once by 
the mortification of this insult, and by the reflec* 
lion, that she would thus be prevented for aovof 
time from seeing the land over which she and her 
husband had be^ called to preside. 
. Such was the agitation into which the Queen 
VfBB thrown by this disagreeable inddent, timl ajbe 
jBiiscarried oi a child with. which she was then, 
psregnant, and conseq^ntly endured a very serioi^ 
illnes^. In the violence of her resentment .againsf 
Mar and his mother, the former of wliom was cer<» 
tainly blameable for not attending to the appoiotf . 
meiit, while the latter I^u} perhaps uttered ner re? 
inssl in no .v^ry poHte terms, her Miye^y ym^ 
abetter to the King, full of angry invectives »« 
gainst those two personages and .. their servants, 
and upbraiding him for loving Mar better than 
herself. James no sooner learned what had tdcea 
place, than he despatched the Duke of L^nnoi^ 
with a wanai|t to the Earl of Mar, who hi^npw . 
eome to Scotland, eippoweriog him to deliver m, 
the '^tince to jier 'Majesty ; but h^ scruple, fo/t^ 
Wf^.a cirase> to ci^de (^ ftiend of ^ long .ilan^. 


k%; aad «iiob apt^rtimL fidelity.' He wrote a ]eu 
lef to her Mtjestf 9 cdndoltag with her on the ao* 
ddent which had hefiftUen her, ahd ite cause, \m% 
firmly, though mildly, palliating the mieoondnct mi 
ha» old flchoolfellow and friend. In common hi8« 
teries, it is generally stated, that, by wmy of m(4« 
Kfying her, he affirmed the pmdeace of the Earl 
of Mar, as haring been, next to God'a providencsi 
the chief canae dF his enjoying his new kingdora» 
ind that Anne, with a true wontanfs spirit, remark-t 
od, that she wonld rather hare new seen her new 
ki^ldom, thmi been indebted ibr it to that person* 
But, if the Queen really did ntter aach a tseaAi 
aseat in the first heat of her resentment, it ia cer« 
tain Aat she replied to her husband's letter in verj^ 
different leilnis. Bodi the letters have fortunately 
been preaenred ; and as they do great honour to 
the feelings of bodi parties^ aiid tend to refute tbi 
aeandalona pasqnib which have been received aa 
teattmony against Jaasea in his capacity of a haa-' 
band, they ai« here given entire. We acareely know 
any compositions of ihe kind which surpass them 
in pathos or warmth of feeling : the ktter ia given 
frmn the original, which is p^eaen^d among tho 
papen of Sir James Balfour, in the Advocates^ hU 
hnary at Edinbargh, and never was before piiated^ 

* ' Immediately baftire the resaaite of your l^sdrj 
I was pufposed to have wikten unto yon, and ihti 
without any great occasion, except for fteeiiig my^ 
aelf at yoarbttdairom the imputation of swedre^ 
aaia; bat^now^ytauva lettir haa.gevfn novo aaaitlMit 

48 liFE 0r 

to myUSt idtboagh I takd matl\ detyte to 'n^MIe 
in flo unpleasant b prooea* I wonder that natber 
yoarjong knowledge of ny nalnre, nor my Isnto 
iDamiflte pvrgntion nnto yon, can cnre yon oi Unci 
rooted erronve that .any living darre apeak or in« 
ibm me in any wnyea to yonr prfjodiee, or yntt 
that ye can think thairae your nnfriendia thnt nM 
fme senrantb to me. I can say no- more, bnt pro* 
teste^ npon the peril t)f my salvation and damns- 
itOB, that nather the Erie of Marr,. nor any fieah 
living, ever informed me that ye was npon any 
Fapiah or Spanidi course, or that ye had any other 
tbwcbtes, bnt a wrong conceived opinion that yn 
had more interest in your sone, or wold not deKver 
bim nnto you; nather does he farther charge tho 
noblemen that was with yon tbaire, bnt that he 
*was informed that some of thiume Uiocht by fore^ 
to have assisted yon in the taking of my aonne out 
of his handis* But as for nny other Papiste or fot"* 
rine pvaetise, by God he doth toot so much as id^ 
leibdgo it ; thairefore be says he will never ym* 
onme to accuse them, since it may happen well to 
importe your oiBBence: and thairfore I aay over 
againe, Icsavo these froward womanlie nppfehen* 
aioni ; for I thank God I carrie that love and re* 
apecte nnto you, quhich^ by the law of God and 
nature, •! ought to do to my wife and mother of 
my children y but toot for that ye are a king's 
dauchter; for, quhither ye were a king's dauchtec 
or a cook's dauchter, ye must be all alike to me, 
V^g once my wyfe* For the reapecte of yonr 
bo&ourable birthe and desoente I married yon; but 
the love and respect I now bear you^ ia» becaaan 
that ye a«e my married wyfe^ and ea pvtsSccr <4 
mf booonr as pf my other fortunoi. X htmf$tim 


"jmsL e)[ciud my mde plitinaem in Ak ; Air tiMtiag 
Bp your birth is a needless impertinent arguBDeni 
to use« Grod iS'iny witness I have erer preferred 
y9ii to all my baimes— nmch more then to any. 
subjects ; but if yon wilt ever give plaee to the re* 
ports of eyerie iSattering sicophant that will per* 
saade yon that when I account well of an honest; 
and wise servant for his tme and faithiol serricft 
So me^ that it is to compare, or prefer him to yon^ 
then will nather ye nor I be ever nt reste or peace* 
X havei' according to my promise, copied so mudt 
of diat plotte qnhairof I wrote nnto yon in -my- 
laste, as did conceme my sonne and yon^ qnhich 
ksrein is inclosed, that ye -may see I wrote it not 
withont gnde cavse^ bnt I desyre it not to hare- 
tfny steretarys than yonrselfe. As for your dool 
made concerning it, it is utterly impertinent at 
this tine, for sic reasons as the bearer will show, 
unto yon, quhom I havd likewise comroandit .tcr 
knpairte dyvers other points unto yon, which for 
few of wearieing your eyes with my mgged haade 
X have hmin omitted $ praying God, my hairte, to 
praserve you and all the baimes, and send me &' 
blythe meeting with you and a couple of thaime*? 


* James, R* ' : 



t ^ Sir, Pleas yoKr Majestic, I have ressavit your 
'Idajestie's letteris^ th^ first fra Sir Geoif e Don* 
I^M^ and the uther fra my Lord- Dnke. I thank 
*3(oariMigestie hnmblie for your four jewillis aent.' 
^asy- Lord Dnke and tike Comptroller, but meloL 


Ottir fi»r diit loveing pn>of of jroor byftdom in mf, 
dtstret, wbilk beg perfytiie confimtt the aMUi^Ge 
a your favour, whilk your Miyestie has efter frrf 
dotttftaHtUe home to me. I am inflnitUe aori^ hut 
yottr Majesties griof and displeasonr taoe for ray 
pernl anfd'payne, and mair that I should have dona 
tfny thing wMlk hy the report of ny unirieiidiv 
eimld have maid yonr Majestie think that I had 
done any thing to offend yonr Majestie (for tbaf 
haiat that hes bred my hairme and yonr displeasour 
proeeedit upon my earnest desyre to obey yoti^ 
opmmand, «nd keip the day appointit be yonr Ma^ 
jestie lor my removing with the prince ; vrhais. pie* 
parationes l^ing lingsrit be the delay of the Erie 
1^ Mar^s bame-coming, without any certidn adver- 
dwineti^ or assurance of the tyme thairof, whan I 
p6ntivit sua mekill tyme spent as thair [was]} not 
tfileuch to provyde the Prince of his necessiiris, I' 
tike purpous to cum to this place to see him and 
tide Inm with m<, to mak him reddie igane the day 
ifipoynt, wbairin being gainstaid, as your Maje«de 
Itttewisy I bare ressavit sic hairm^ whilk grievis 
laenot so much as your displeasour, whilk I pray 
your Majestie promote, and to. assure yourself, Uifit 
before God, nather of myself, nor be any counsel or 
assistance of any man lefund, I novit nor did no- 
thmg that I l&obht micht have offendit your Ma- 
jestie ; and tbairfor I will pray your Majestie nather 
to give ear nor credit to sic hi» reportis, but to per- 
snade yourself that at meiting I sail give your Ma- 
jMl0 pierfyte contentment' be die account of Aj 
pwcMdingiB, and till thaA and ever sftll indeavonr^ 
ttyself to obey your commandments* As to my com-' 
iftg to your Majesde, I stJl neid m veBiemhrands ; 
i^y gnttest honour^ joy, and ODiileBiit»ent>^* 


pttudit be tlie delaf of yQut pretenee, idiilk I piM 
Gq^ to grant speidelie and joyfulKe. My heakh 
{MOmits me not to prefix ane certdne day; bot 
HIV afieotions ea^I prevent my fitrengtb in the baiet 
of that desyrit jonmey to see your Majeede, wiioM 
riieartilie desyr a longi proeperoiui and bappf 

* Yonrawin, 

< My hairt, for Goddis aalk t^ na caire nor aageiv 
for it wiU reneu me payne and displeaoor* ' * 

After Prmee Henry bad been d^rrered np t# 
her, tbe Queen left Scotland, with the whole of- her 
Inmily, and proceeded to London. Her jonraey 
was private and unostentatious, compared with that 
of tbe King ; and, as she was unable, from her lata 
illness, to ttKTeX very fast, she spent the whole 
month of June upon the way. The King received 
her and the children at Windsor Castle, with much 
eeremony, and great public rejoicings. On the 2nd 
of July, a few days after her arrival. Prince Henry 
was installed, as a Knight of the Garter; on which 
occasion, though as yet only nine years of age, he 
excited the admiration of die byBtanders by his 
* quick witty answers, princely carriage, and xever* 
ent obeisance at the altar ; all which appeared vary 
etrange, * says the chronicler Howes, < consider^ 
ing his tender age, and his being, till then, jdtoge* 
their nnacquainted with the matter uid cjrenmslaa* 
cee of that solemnity^ ' This youthfypiiaoef who 
cannot be said to have ever been a boyv waa im^ 

*^ Ibis ^ to >bjflsty*s own hnd. 

mediately aftervirards (July, 20») pl«ced<ia%lMpa« 
rate household of his own^ with a xetinne of nmrea* 
iy servants, 'twenty- two to^be abor« atairsy and 
forty*eight below ; ' which number, enonnoiM aa 
it may appear, was doubled before the end of dbo 
•^ear JL603, the style of living at that time invol; 
▼ing this among many other absnrd modes of waste. 
Charles, the yoangei;bro|^her pf»the Prince, and 
who was l)ow styled Dake of York, was placed 
under the charge of Sir Robert Carey and his wife, 
being as yet too yoUng, and too weakly a child, l^ 
be thought entitled to a separate hpnsehokL It 19 
a somewhat remarkable circumstance, that this 
{Hriace, who Was .destined in after life to go through 
•fo many scenes pf personal trouble and adventure^ 
was at this period of bis life so weak in the Hmba 
aa to be unable to walk. Carey also tells us, that he 
aeemed so un]ikely to live long, that the coiirtien> 
who would otherwise have been but too glad tatake 
him into keeping, all hedged off, to escape a duty 
which might have involved so much risk, or at 
least obloquy ; and he himself, though by no meana 
a scrupulous adventurer, had some qualms in under* 
taking the office* James, as already mentioned* 
never could himself walk well till he was six yean 
of age, owing to the tainted milk he imbibed in hi^ 
first year from a drunken nurse, wished to have the 
limbs of this unfortunate child confined in a pair of 
iron bootS) which should at least keep thenl straight, 
;though adding nothing to their powers of locomot 
tion; but he was dissuaded from attempting so 
cruel an experiment. In the course of a few yeara^ 
Charles Attained to have a better command ovef 
his limbs than his father ever had over his, and that 
without hating iiadet'go4e- luaiypectdiar* treatment 


for the purpoee* * As for the PrioeeM Elkabelfar 
die only female child of ihe royal family, she waa. 
placed under the tutelage of the Lady HarringtoOie 
wife of the memorable and fecetioaa knight» Sir^ 
John Harrington ; who» in the little interval be-i 
twizt the dea^ of Elizabeth and James's departnroi 
from Edinburgh, had bespoken his Majesty's fa-» 
Toar by a present of a splendid toyjn the shape o£ 
a dark lantern, emblematic of the demise of tlh^ 
late Queen ; one side of which, it may be mention^ 
ed as a curious feet* contained a fac*simile of ai 
drawing of the passion of Christ, whk^h James's 
ancestor King Dand the First was said to havQ 
drawn on the walls of an apartment in Nottinghao) 
jail, when confined there after the unfortunate battlo 
of the Standard. 

It is a very preyailing impression^ the result of 
imperfectly reported history, that the people of 
England were forcibly struck by the contrast be* 
twixt Elizabeth and James, and, immediately after 
bis accession, began to display symptoms of yio*- 
lent discontent* Nothing can be farther from th0 
troth than this ; or» at least, nothing can be mom 
inconsistent with the testimony of private letters^ 
and contemporary publications* If we can place 
joeliance on these documents, and really there are 
no others to be resorted to for information, the 
people, high and low, displayed a forgetfulness of 
the merits of Elizabeth, which was only to be 
jmatched in degree by their adulation of her aucr 
cessor* According to a curious, and apparently 

very faitkfial writer of that dayi the talk of th^ 


^ It is a ciirious fact, that Q^een Anne was also carrie<| 
in atms till her nituh year, from inabilitj^to walk. 

pMpfe at W Mitie^ty^i 1iitiei!al was the niosf * iil!i<-' 
iJHfi)$reiit imaginaole. * Mftfiy seemed to m&y^ 
at irtdn find ordiliaiy things ; as, namely, ll^at, Hv^ 
iiig add dyin^ a ▼h^Qy' she was horn on the vigil 
of that feiBMt 'which was yearly kept in remem^ 
bilttiee df the Mrth of Oar Lady the Virgin, and 
dfat she died on the rigi! of the fieast of the Att«< 
nnttdation of Oar Lady ; that she departed llie 
world at Richmond, where her grandfather Kin^ 
Henry thd Seventh, whom she very ranch resent 
Msd, ended liis Kfe, and npon the self-same day tof 
tlie week (I' I y whereon he deceased; that she had 
migned sd many years-, that the greater part llieif 
living had ner^r kkiown other prince ; som^ A6 
tiMBi^ were that spake fondly of predictions going 
before her death, and among others it was giveff 
out, that an old Hon in the Tower, beming her 
iiame, dming the time' of her sidmess, jnned away 
and died. ' £ven among the better informed of 
th& Ibwer classto, according to this writer, the fe*' 
marks were by no means very favourable to hef 
Majesty. But it was among the npper ranks thai 
tbrgetfolness of EHiiabeth's virtues was most' com 
^icnons : their general behationr during her tasl' 
illness, and after her death, Was either in^catlv^' 
1^ the little love in which she was held, or of theit 
ndnstarom ingratitnde. On the other hand, Jantes 
was every Wher^ hailed by acclaiming mfMxn/lk^ 
"who 's^med as if they coald not find the slightest 
trigection in theit own minds to his title, hut'wisito 
disposed to thro^ theibctelves entirely nnd^ felifr 
fctit, as rejoidng to be the rfaves of sudi'a iHaMr. 
The leading men of the nation paid their court mb 
hSm widi ezpresttons of the warmest regard for 
Uspeeiibii. Ibe middle hmks eiprased ibeni- 


selves well pleased with, bk general deportment 
tawacds tbem^ ..and the .gracious answers he gafe. 
to their petitions. There is something, even in the^ 
enthosiasm with which the common people threw 
up thdr hats, all conscious and certain that tliey, 
should never regain them, highly probative of the 
esti^iation in which his character was held. Nor 
was there the slightest circumstance in his con-, 
duct, after he reached London, to damp the fer-, 
▼our of this spirit. He has been accused of par*, 
tiality for his own countrymen. But that is a 
mere dream of history. He was quite impartial 
la. the distribution of his favours, so far as the na-, 
dons were concerned. His having placed ,his 
children- in the hands of Englishmen* is enough in ^ 
itself, to exculpate him from this groundless chaige. 
But the truth is, with the exception of bis making 
a few of his old Scottish friends members of the. 
Fri^ Council; which was the very least thing he. 
could do in reward of their services, ^nd perhapji, 
a necessfury measure as a sort of representation of. 
Jutland in .that body, he had scarcely conferred, 
ai^y favours whatever on his couJ9tryme^; n6v were 
ttpere, indeed, many now around him, either to ask; 
or receive extraor^ary iavpurs. 

These remarks are made with a view to intro- 


duce a, brief notice of what is called ' Raleigh s. 
]^kyt, ' a conspiracy which was- detected early in, 
July,. before James had been much more than six. 
weeks in f^ondon. That an enterprise of this, kind, 
Aould have been- undertaken so soon af^sr his ac-^ 
cession, .appears a circumstances so strongly indi-, 
q^tive of national discontent, that it seemed to the 
wii^ter necessary to say something to the opposite 
cffe0|» as well as to remaik, in anticipatiooi that 
vou'iu D 

00 ' Ufeot ' • 

• » • • • • 

s more diia^rftble '<Mn% of tte intnie fete 'igldiifll^ 
die wifthes of ilie fiitioiiakl many, wes never de*' 

' HiIb plot was flwiaroely ao mvdi aaingle and en-' 
tire plot, as It wiis « composition of yarioas incon* 
ghioiis particles of plots ; the objects of the dif- 
ferent persons 'Concerned bfeing of 1!he i^st dis- 
eordant> as well as indefinite nature, msbmncb that 
fine who endearoured to unriddle th^ir schemes,' 
finished By declaring them to hare bad no common' 
gfrotmd bnt discontent. In the fint plabe, there 
were two Catholic priests, Watson and Clark, and; 
tf Oatitolic gentliiman named Sir Griffiti Markhami 
who. proposed to present a petition to the £3ng in- 
ftrbnr of their religion, backed by such a malti>' 
tnde.of their distr^ned brethren'feLs would force a 
dompliatice. Ilien there was Lord Grey de Wil- 
tbn, ff young man of a fieryimd generotis natmre, al<* 
though a Puritan, who etiti^rtainjed much ihe same 
design in fiarour of his sect, bat whose diilef caose' 
of' discontent was the tcfbfnetK with which he had* 
been treated since the adcesnon, on account of Ua* 
having been one of the chief enemies of Essiax.' 
Next, tiiere were some base and utterly miprind^ 
pled wretches, whose only dengn was to advance^ 
their personal forttme's by the designed revolution. 
ZiAstiy, tiiere was a plot aloiiost entirely dSstinet' 
fivm these, headed by Lord Cobfaam, a wi^rthlesa 
and foolish young mrfflemaa, and Sir Walter ^Ba^ 
le^; whose object Was to dethrone the King^ 
iad set up his cousin Arabella Stuart; which they' 
chiefly proposfid to do by the assistance bf tiie' 
Archduke of Austria and the King of Spain. It- 
does not appear that mtich communion ev^took 
place among all ibese -varkrtis <mdividitel^' befbief 

KING JllS^eS ttiE FIRST. §t 

ihbir sdhentos'wero detected ^ "their traitodiiB^ .«• 

Sir Edward Coke remarised' on their trial, Tvfwi 

* like Samp6on*8 foxes, which were joined in thetf 

tiilB, thongh their heads .were* severed. ' Pei^ajMl 

they were only beginning toeoalesce wiien tm 

detection todc place. ' 

The last of these fmetioml plots was proper]^ 

the project of the second person named ; forCbb- 

ham, one of those persons who are described m 

*- the tools which knafes do waa^ with/ was iqere^ 

ly the passive instmment or catspaw of XUJeigiil 

This latter person, whose name, by a stradige pet* 

:rer8ity of moral ifeeling, is oao'ef ttieMbost .es* 

deared in Englisfa history, had hem the friend of 

GacU, and his coadyiitor inprbcnnog the'destitlc^ 

tion of Essex : alter that, he was llnrowa off and 

aeglected.hy Cecil ; oh Jamea'e aoGesskn^'findbig 

liimself not treated with «1&at ^tinocion to. which 

he had been accustomed wider Elizabeth, and 

which had become iMcessary to him, he grew dis* 

eimtented.' To increase his chagrin, the King 

thought it necessary to dbplacehira fvom his diiv* 

ation as captain of the guard, to make way for « 

(Scotch friend, * on whose fidelity he- Conld vely^ 

and Raleigh, although oompeiiBBted for tins by li 

pension, and altfaongh his good sense must ha?i 

allowed the propriety of the Kiag's conduct, as 

bat a nataral precantioa lor aelf^defence— -as hi* 

deed atideie .naatter of coarse— retired in mortal 

disgnst to fabricate dus inaana scheme of roveage^ 

That a man of so much taieat aad axpertenca 

should; have done any thing so *£ooUsh, may welt 

• Sir Thqttisi Erskiii?» mho b«d prQVsdbis fidelity, b^ 
i8i)9ba^i9Ui>fit'tbe.Gow5yjQOi|spiracy« :« . • • 


sppesr strange. Bat who can predieate» from'ta'* 
lent and experienocy tlie conduct wbich any man 
will pnrane wben abandoned to the guidance of 
paaaiony especially when, as in the present casey 
there is a stinging consciousness of haring been 
urged by unworthy motives, in applications which 
have met with deserved unsnccess ? 

On being taken into custody, Cobham, in a fit 
of passion, occasioned by hearing that Raleigh at- 
tempted to samfice. him in his examinatioo, ut> 
ttti^d a lull confession of. his designs, in which he 
inculpated his accomplice, or principal. Raleigh, 
despairing ' of escape, -attempted to kill hims^f; 
but, afterwards conceiving better hopes, threw a 
letter into Cobham's window in the Tower, (pin- 
ned to an apple),, disavowing what had caused the 
unfortunate nobleman to impeach him, and im- 
ploring him to retract his coniiessions, as there was 
BO evidence to prove either guilty. : Cobham obey- 
ed this injunction, as far as he was able ; but, the 
correspondence being detected, he was held to. his 
«rigmal confessidn. At his trial,- which took place 
in November, and was conducted at A^nchester 
«u account of the plague then raging in London, 
he adopted the only expedient which seemed to 
fftowM him a chance of life, that of making a 
confession of his guilt, and inculpating Sir 'Walter 
fiiileigh. Upon that simple confession alone, and 
without anytproof by witnesses. Sir Walter was 
himself tried and found guilty ; a proceeding wkich 
would now be thought contrary to law, but which 
was. declared to be .perfectly consistent with it by 
the judges who sat on this trial. At the same time, 
liO^ Grey de Wilton, and the Catholic conSpira- 
tors, were tried and condemned, it havthg'be^eii 


proved ^ that they contemplated a mirprise of tha 
palace, and the seixafe of the King's person. 
,• Four of the inferior persons thus found guilty 
of treason were executed in the harharous style 
customary in England in such cases. But Cob-^ 
bam, Grey, and Markham, the three of higheti 
rank, were pardoned after their heads had beea 
placed on the block. Sir Walter Raleigh was re- 
inanded to the Tower, where he was confined fof 
the next twelve years; and Grey and Cobhans 
besides being condemned to share his imprisoiw 
ment, were attainted and deprived of their estate^. 
The last, after surviving an imprisonment of man^ 
years, lived to be refused the crumbs which fell 
from his wife's table, to derive a wretched sub- 
Bistence from one who had once been his servant, 
and to die in a garret which he had to ascend by 
a ladder ; a monument of the execration in whidi 
mankind hold that pusillanimity which will betray 
a friend for the sake of personal salvation, and c^ 
the degradation from which antiquity of blood and 
title, alliance with the mighty of the land, and tb^ 
reverence generally given to greatness in distress, 
are all unable to save him who has first degraded 

One of the King's first duties in his new capa- 
city, was to receive and entertain the Marquis de 
Rosiii, afterwards Duke of Solly, whom Henry 
die Fourth sent to him in June, to attempt tfa«l 
formation of a league betwixt France and England 
(formi^ly agitated with Elizabeth), against th» 
power of the house of Austria. The account^ 
'which this eminent person has given, in his well- 
known Memoirs, of his reception at the English 
court, is mteresting and instructive, although spoHt 

ffll XfF& OF 

iapome mearare by pcc|iikUee8 of coontry anil dba<f 
lacter. < JamM, ' aays he» ^ was by no nleaiia ao 
w^ll inclioed to Henry IV« aa Elimbath had been i 
)ie bad been uAd that the King of France coiled 
bim, in deriaiony Captain of ArU, amd iJlerk of 
^rim* * * * Lea me add, to make, him mora 
]Mrticalarly known, that be waa upright and coa« 
adientioas, that be had eloquence and even emdi^ 
lioa ; bat leaa of theao than of penetradoo, and of 
fhe show of learning. He loved to hear diaoonno 
o^ affiedrs of etate, and to have great enterpriaeri 
propoaed to himi wbioh bo diacuaaod in » apirit of 
quat^m and methodt bnt witbont any idea of eai^ 
fying them into effect ; for he natondly bated wvt% 
and still more to be personally engaged in it ; wit 
indolent ia aU his actions except hunting, and re« 
miss in affiurs ; all indications of a aoft and timid 
vatniO) formed to bo goTomed. ' 

One of tho orders which Rosni bad giveiiy pron 
paratory to the ceremony of his andieiicey wa% 
that hia whole smte should be pat into monmingt 
which seemed to be essentially necessary^ as tbo 
oatensible object of bis embassy wias to compU* 
iliient James on the death of Elizabeth. ^ I had 
learned, boweFor, ' says he» *• at Calais, that 210. 
onei either ambassador, stranger, or even Engliak- 
aoan, bad presonted himself before the new King> 
in black ; and Beaumont f had afterwards repm* 
aented to me, that my intention would certainly* 
be bobeld with an eril eye, in a court where th^ro. 
was an affectation of consigning this great qneea 
lo oblivion, no motion being now made of ber^ 
a9d m^ aren avoiding to pronounce her namo^ 

f The Frcpcfa. smbjumilor ia ordinaiy% 

i^«i • J 


T^ l^Qg ^e /cf^ ][ shptflji l^m. ]f^% req^ gk4 
fo d^guiae frqm myself \hf^ x^pcemty (or my ap- 
Pfwring ia n dreas which jse^mcid tq carry with i% 
a reprx>ach tp the. l^ing and t^ all £9glaiid : ba^ 
pay or4^i;8 <w ^>a ^ea4 w^re po^live, and alB9 
^hly f rqp^ ; 09, ^hi^h accQimt I . disregarded 
jtbe ea^aty o{ QeaijoiiQii^, t^iat I wonld defer putr 
ting myself to, t^is expepse tijl he. bad i^rUten ^o 
3ir William EJrskfne* a^^d aomQ odieira . wj^o best 
ini^^cslopd th^ cer^nicmi^l of the coWft ; neverth^r 
lesS} he wrote. B^ had no answer on Thuiaday^ 
^xiday* or daring, the whole day on Saturday; 
and I persisted in my resolution, in spite of the 
arguments which he continued to uiige against it* 
On Saturday night, the very eve of the day cif 
^udience, and so |ate that I was going io bed, 
jBeamnont came to tell me, that Erskine had sem 
|iim word, that all the courtiers regarded my ac- 
.tion as a designed afijront to them ; and that th^ 
^uig would take it so ill on ^ly part» that nothing 
ID^are would be neceisary to render my negpciar 
Jfion abortire from tb^ very beginning. This inr 
formation agreeing with ihaX of Lord Sidneyt 9f 
Jm Fontaine, an4 of the deputies of tha Statei^ h 
.was impossible for me to doubt it. For fear of a 
greater evil> therefore, I caused my household t9 
change their dresses, and proyid^ themselYes with 
others where they could. ' . 
. All this is intended to be very severe oppii 
Junes ; and much has been said by the more int 
;ridu^ of his histodans in comment upon it. BuSp 
really, when we consider the ch^pumstances mdef 
]abic^ James stood |n. relation tp his predecessor 
—her slaughter of his mother, her unrelenting tf* 
raany over hiimdfi hjor ntfoial to acknowledge his 

6S ' LIFBOf 

f • • • ♦ • • 

thle to tbe teiy hst, md, aboTO ifly Vm final pro* 
evrement of her throne by the naked tirtue of hia 
hereditary title» and the estimation in which he 
W^a held by her peoph^ we cannot see any great 
crime in his forbearing to put himself into monr-^ 
ning for her. It is evident that this is att he eaii 
■be really charged with ; for there is nothing bare 
to prove that he formally foibade coort mourning, 
nor can the silence maintained among hia cour- 
tiers regairdtng the late qneen, be attributed to any 
thing else than their anxiety to consult his wishes. 
!Bat. theref is evidence to prove that he was neither 
iinconscions of Elizabeth's merits, normiwilKng 
.to allow them. In his first speech to parliament 
after his coming to the throne, he speaks of her as 
-' their late sovereign of famons memory, who died 
fiill of years, bat filler of immortal trophies of ho- 
nour ; ' and in one of his pamphlets, published two 
'or' three years subsequent to this period, he styles 
her ' that blessed defunct Ladie, ' a phrase which 
we cani^ot well suppose him capable of using, hi 
^reference to a.pason whom he either hated or 
despised. • 

^ Rosni afterwards gives us an account of the 
way in which the King entertained him and Beais^ 
Wnt at dinner. V James, ' says he, * caused only 
Beaumont and myself, to sit down at his tabl^ 
where I was not a little surprised to observe that 
he was always served oh the knee. The middle 
of the table was occupied by a suriouif in the form 
of a pyramid, covered with the most precious pieces 
of plate, and even enriched with jewels* ' ' « . ' 
Here we have another circnmsfiance, wUgH 

• Se« ills Worik% f». 853i 

• >••!* 


»■ • • • , - « 

Imi'fiiren oc^iatoii to 90016 terere retnarkr on 
-James. Bjf some wiileni who oapparen'tty ters 
'Teatd nothing elsd on the suhjfect than the above 
rparagrapfa, he iir shown up as maintaining an al^ 
moat Oriental ayvt^m of rererence towards his pe»* 
son ankong his servants; Bnt this is pnrely a the* 
-dry nused npon one shnple fact, in conseqnence of 
the prevailhig impression regarding James's notions 
of the royal dignity. The troth is, James was 
much* less scrnpalons abont etiquette of this kind 
than the preceding sovereign, with whom he is, in 
general, so nnfaTonrably coiitrasted. He disconi- 
tinned the practice of kneeling, so far as his supe- 
rior conrtiers were concerned, -which his prede* 
cessor had all her life ngoronsly kept up, and 
whieh, if we are not mistaken, she had established. 
At the very worst, the gennflexion of his attend- 
ants in serving him, though surprising to a French* 
man, was nothing more than the custom of tht 
'English court. 

' * The conversation during a great part of thJa 
Tepast, ' continues Rosni, ' was on the same sub* 
jects as it had been before, (on the weather* and 
en hunting,) till an occasion presenting itself to 
ispeak of the late Queen of England, the King did 
eo, and to my great regret, with a kind of cont- 
.tempt. ' [This was only conversation, and should 
Igv for little or nothing.] He went so far as to 
aay that, for a long time before 'the death of this 
princess, he from Scotland had guided all het 
counsels, and had all her jninisters at his disposal ; 
by whom he was better served and obeyed * than 
faeratelf. [Nothing is more likely.] * He then 
called for wine, which it is never his practice to 
mingie with water ; and; holding his glass towards 

fM - LIFE CWP ' ; f 

fBeanmaat.aiid myself be dra^k* to tbe. health <# 
,t)ie king, qoeen, and royal iSuoily o£ France. I 
«pMged him m retoniy ' not fprgettyig his cbildrai. 
J3e drew towards my ear when he heard tbeqi 
j^amedi and. whispered pie, that the nest glass 
.which he drank ahoiild be to tbo doable anio& 
'; which be meditated betwixt the two royal honse^ 
•TTiis was the first word he had said to me on the 
;aubj^ and it did not appear to me that the tim^ 
•which he had taken to mention it was well cho- 

« , ■ ■ 

jsen* ' [Had the ambassador beei| aware how ge- 
joeral was the.costom in l^aglandu as it continnea 
.to be tp this day, to transact important bnsineaa qk 
dinneTf be would not have been surprised at this*3 
^ I did not fail, however* to veC't ive the propos^ 
with all possible signs of joy ; and J replied^ alsp 
jn a whisper, that I was sore Henry would not he- 
sitate, when a choice was to be made between h^ 
£<y)4 brother and ally, ^nd the king of Spain, who 
had already applied to him on the same snbject. 
James, surprised a^ what I told him, informed me» 
jn his turn, tba;t Spain had mi^e him the same o£- 
fer of the laianta for his son^ as the ^iqg of 
^France for the Danphine* ' 
] Upon the whole, aHhongh startled a little aft 
4nt by the homely appearance and manners 6f 
i$he King of Great Britain, this illustrious statea*- 
^onav^ allows a good deal of praise to his general de^ 
^paeaiiour. He * speaks of him, in one mstance, as 
^xpressiipg himself " avec la demiere politesse* ** 
JFames had been talking of hifli &Yourite sylvan 
aportsy and of the French king'9 passion for each 
^nnysemeats s theni turning the diiconrsj^ upon 
^Suily, he added, says the amjbaas^qr^'* qm^ Hepa 
l^irit Yittwi- da «a p^a m^ m^i^iy fi la ch^^ae^pitr 


AfiUttB chasMiuv b Rol^ FntaciB iae p<Mu> 
foit pas rSlre-— Hear jr was r%ht not to let me ad-- 
djct m^iiS t0 the chaaei for^ if I were a hontery 
lie )iini«elf covld not be so* " ' * 
\ Rosni was not anceessfal in the whole object 
which he came to negoUate. He aoon found James 
to be of too pacific « temper to join his master in 
tbe eKtenstve scheme of oppontion which he had 
projected with Elizabeth against the King of Spai» 
and' the Archduke of A vs^a* So £ar ipdeed^ wpa 
the pacific monarch from entertaining any yiews of^ 
this kind, tha;t he had already resolved upon con- 
ending the war which Elizabeth had so long car- 
ried 6n against Spain, Rosni was obliged to con- 
tent himself with procuring James's name to 4 
treaty for the protection of the United ProTincea 
fyotti the tyranny of that powier. 

Considerable gloom was cast upon the com-, 
diencement of James's reign in England, by a pes- 
filence which happened to break out just about the^ 
1^^ when he reached London. Notwithstanding: 
ibis dalamity, which caused the death of thou-, 
asmds weekly, the ceremony of his coronation took 

J)ad6 at Westminster, on the !i5th of July, f Per- 
a{^s, 1^ was induced to hasten this transaction by 
Its appearing, from the Examinations of the inciKvi- 
dtoals charged with the conspiracy, that they ha^ 
supposed themselves incapable of the crime of 
tteasbn s6 tonit as he was uncrowned, and w^ileas* 
yet the oath between him and his people had not 
been passed, ! 

•^ " ' • Quarterly ReView, XLT. 57. * ^ 

""f BciM|^ 9t Jktae^s day, and ooe of coiifse'soppeMd toi 

X f' - * » 

Ik / jt •- •* • • • • ' k 


. It will not ^peair Wonderfial, when the enper^ 
ititioos ehar«cter of the age it oonsideredi that one 
of the cbief tbloge noted by the pnbiic on this 
citing occasion, was the folfilment which 
IK^vtr to be given to the andimt national propheey 
Regarding . what was called ' the Fatei Stone of 
Seoon. ' This eelebiated piece ol marble, whero-* 
on, as Langtoft the Chronicler safs with mm^ 
amusing ruuvetSf 

' * Oi yore the Scottycbe kynget wer breecfales setfie, * 

which had serred for the coronation of the kings 
of Si^tland, from time immemorial, till it wae 
carried avniy to Westminster by Edward I., and 
to which was attached the' well known monkr 
&h legend, declaring, that a Scottish race should 
inherit the land whererer it was placed, was now 
obserired by the people, with feelings which would 
at the present day appear ridiculous, to be at length 
replaced under the sacred sitting part of a Caledo- 
nian prince, who, in the fulness of time, had been 
sent to prove, as that legend promised, that des- 
tiny was infallible. 

' The King, before, at, and after his coronation^ 
displayed a surprising profusion in the distribution 
of honours to his courtiers. Cecil he created Ba^- 
ronEssingdon, and granted and elevated a great numr 
ber of other peerages. To such a height was this 
carried, that a pasquil was put up in Paul's Wall% 
announcing an art very necessary to assist weaf 
memories, in remembering [the names of the new 
nobility. He was much more liberal still in the 
article of knighthoods, of which it is credibly aA* 
firmed that he conferred a thousand during' the 
first year of his reign. His conduct in 4hi8 matter 
has been unfiivoorably contrasted with that of Elir 


Sibetb, who wSfl amasingly penurions of hononn,' 
imd neyer gave them without ezceedingty good 
reason. It is said that be materially* cheapened 
titles of all kinds. Bat yet there is perhaps some 
tra^ in what Baker tells us in his Chromcle, that 
£liaabeth was absurdly fastidious on this score/ in- 
•omuch that towards the end of her reign there 
was sometimes a difficulty experienced in msking 
up a sufficient number of knights for janes. To 
be sure, the authority of the venerable chronicler 
b apt to be a little prejudiced, seeing that he him- 
self, as he is forced to tell, was one of twenty per- 
sons, who received the stroke of honour from the 
King at Theobald's. But, be this as it may, a 
peer of England, after James's reign, was a very 
different thing from what he had. been before. Of 
sixty personages of this dass, who existed at tho 
demise of Elizabeth, almost all were of ancient fa* 
mily and title, and possessed of immense estates 
imd territorial influence. One. of them, the Eail 
of Hertford, left five thousand pounds a yen as a 
jointure to his widow ; the same sum which King 
James enjoyed as a peosion from Elizabeth,: and 
wbich was probably the better part of his income. 
In the succeeding age, when they were found to 
be just about doubled in number, they were also 
found to be reduced one half in wealth and dignity; 
and tbe poverty of the peers is generally supposed 
to have been the reason why eo many of them en* 
gaged in tbe civil war. 

. By fiar the most memorable transaction in wbicii 
James was engaged during tbe first . year of hia 
reign, was the- conference wbich he appomted a;^ 
Hampton- Court, January 1604, between the lead*, 
ing divines of tbe church and- those who! wera 

•8 tT^zolr "■ 

glyied Puritans ; a OMeting over wbich be pmidetf 
ki person^ and ia the bosinesa of which be took ai» 
active share. It Will be recollected, that the third 
gentleman who came to bim from England afiter 
the death of EliaabeUi, was one who wished to 
bespeak his favovr for the Pnritans. All the wi^ 
aa he passed through England, be was met by vpJ 
plications of the same kind, one in the shape of 
a petition, praying a new reformation of the cfanrch' 
of England, which, from its being set forth us eon-* 
taining the signatures of a thonsand cletgy, thoi^ 
in leaiity there 'were only seven hundred and fift jr^ 
was named the Millenary Petition ; tmder whicb 
name it is yet known In bistery. The objects of 
these petitions appear to a person, who is neitbai 
a member of the cbnrch of England nor a pmnt8n» 
ao unimportant, that 'be finds a difficnlty in credit* 
lag ibe earnestness with which they were adinazh^ 
sad, or the fact, thai apon sncb trifles were grooncP 
ed the discontents which ended in the civil ^rari 
The outcry of these asen was chiefly against tfacf 
aae of the cross in bi^tism, the ring in marriage^', 
aad the snrplice in wonhip ; against bowing at tiie 
lameof Jesus>aadtbe'iise of the terms jme^ and 
dMbtfum in the liturgy ; against subscription ol 
aameof the tbirtyoniae articles, the freqaeney of nuB^* 
riage licenses, and the custom of bapturing cbil<« 
drni at home without a clergyman,.in eases <wbeiie 
the life of the child was imminently threatenedJ 
But, in truth, it was nevier from the native im-» 
poriaaaoe of these things that the grand dispute be* 
tweeo the chaich of Englaad and its dissenters 
anose; it was from the obstinacy with wbich the 
adherents and the recusants maintained tbe contro*^ 
in its Jtat slages) the ^pvide of ibe former 


engaging them to ^oirtinoe to bHuse i^ifth tliey* 
Imd at dnd time flanction^d, atid the pddd of tli«t 
la€t^ as jitron^ly disposing dvem to hold out agam^^ 
an ^rroir which the^^ bad cond^anried. * * 

' Although Jan^ ptof^Med that h& bl^ed; ifi* 
calling tift Hampton-Court conference was, that' 
h% fttight gite a farr heating to both pain$eB,= It^ 
seems certain that he had l^fore^ialid tesolviSkt H-^ 
gidnst any material comp/Hance with the Wishes of 
the Poittans. At the trial of Sir Walter Kateij^t 
in the preceding Novetbber, Sif Edvraird Cc^ke* 
said, that his Majesty l^ad spoken these ii^ords iti* 
the hearing of many, * I willlose the crowii and' 
my life, before ev«r I will alter religion.* fiiP 
httd aUso expressed it tB his opinion, that It Wa)»' 
mote from obsti^aey than tendemiess df condi^en^f 
that the Puritans fifcmpled to yield tbeir^bedieneto' 
to the chttreh. Nothing is moi^ likeljr than thia r 
for he often tratet^d his'oitfn deepest sehemes dfi 
poMeft hf expressions which he unguardedly Afitp^ 
ped in famlKar cony^rsation ; being, like all m^^ 
mfft who speak moieh, and fbr efiect, lii^lo W 
Wort out things which he dismi^'to conc^L .^ 

~ l%e)*e Wt» fiibinething highly charactet^tte df 
•Kutoes, and somel^ing, we httre no doubt, gi^atf^ 
to his mbd, ite the whble^- this affair. Theoldgf 
was one of the subjects on which he Was laSsi 
l^artied and modt flucfnt ; and, th^efoi^, otao' on 
Which he was mo^t anxlotra to ooatene. Ixids^ii' 
il id-pro%ab!e that there was no oikhfer eogetit cau^! 
fdr the conference than his owh im^nlseAs fehTrcKrdft^ 
this lo^cal- disputation, and his lo^e of ^^lay ^ 
fbr there i^an'be. little doi!d>t, that a condefi^efifilon' 
tb slr^e with disifwtieifts eofold pronfdse tvog^* 
to the ehur^h. Among aeetsi the piiu^ee (if Is^i^ 

Td ' LIFB Of • 

Wilig qufistlont of dociriner ftnd of perpetuiUf • 
refeiriog to their- causes of sepaiatioD» are of es* ' 
seotial serrice, because tbey tend to keep a sort - 
of esprii die corps awake in the minds of all con-, 
eerned; bat it is obvioasly the interest of the 
ohorcb to take the good it gets, and never appear 
to understand that its doctrines, or its right to get > 
that goody have been called in qnestion* 

The conference commenced on the 16th of Ja« 
nnar^y after James had spent a whole day with his 
own dirines in preparing weapons for the contest. ' 
Snrronnded by nine bishops, and as many oleigy- 
men of inferior rank, all of wliom were dressed in ' 
fall canonicals, he sat himpelf npon a chair of statOf- 
with Prince Henry on a low seat by his aide : the' 
pnritaa clergymen, whom he had selected for op«. 
ponentSy were only four in nvmber, KnewBtabbs, 
Sparks, Reynolds, and Chadderton, the first being- 
professmr of dirinity at Oxford, and all of theas 
members of the chorch of England, althcmgh mote> 
•r'less impugning its doctrines. Upon what prin- 
ciple this inequality of forces proceeded does aot 
appear, unless it can be snpposed, that, as in caeesf 
where animals of different kinds are set to com- 
bat, the King esteemed four Puritans a suffidem 
■iatch for more' than ibur timea the number of^ 

A battle of trifles then commenced, in which- 
James took an actire share, sometimes di^lsying 
profound learning and acute intellect, at other- 
Ij^mes indulging in wittidsms, which had certainlf 
been better, spared on such an occasion. The bi*-' 
^ps professed thepiselres highly pleased with- 
tiieir royal auxiliary, whose eloquence was such at^ 
one particidar stage of the business, that Ardibb*. 




be eartainly spoke fron^ the diyine spbit. Stt 
John Harriflgtes says, in his sarcastic way, ' th^ 
BfHfit was radm fool-inreathed/ — ^ He rather naei, 
npfaimidiiig than argmnents/ oomtmiies this writer; 
^ told the pelitioBen that tbej wanted to strip 
CSiiist again; and hid lliem nway with their sm^ 
tilling. ' Yet Egerkm, the chancellory declared hH 
mafia knew the meaning of the phrase--^' Ret ed 
mUtia per$am^ cw^ Mcerdotey' till he heard Jameti 
gifing his opinioBS in this oral oontrorersy. What*> 
cWfr was his demeanottr, there seems IHtle reason 
tOidoaihl} tinU he ttd tho ^Ktines pmted nearly aS 
ihe'objtfctiont ^.the Pnrilana to he grdondles^* 
sad the wMe to ho tidflbig) sotoas it isposdhte 
to pfove any thing ia polemical dimity. * 

A specimen of his witticisms may perhaps he 
amiitiiog. When Reynolds objected to the chnrch- 
ing of wosaen trader the Jewish name of pnrificn^ 
tion, Jtfmes^ ooneeinng him to be hostile to the 
eetfise itulf, said, that, n» women were wmOf 
loath to come- to AmA^ any oceamn wai» txrn^ 
Inondabie whicb might dmw &em ttnther. ^ Front 
wUdn the euffiowi fiBet>i9 to^ be inferred, that, id 
Jwum^ tagnf women weie less addicted to chnrc^ 
gehig than men* He presently balanced this sftr-^ 
cMn against the set, by n compliment which he 
lotmd occasion to pay ^tt, idken « ca?i] was 
Mated agatnat thai most innoeent phrase in ihe 
flBOtriageHMMoB, * Witfl my body 1 thee worshipb* 
^-«^^I|ioamannerof speech," said he, *'aswhefi 
wm say a worahipM gentlemfm ; and as for yoii» 
Dr ReynoMst allow me to hint, dist vmny speak 
of-Robin Hood before they hare shot with hW 
bofr.t if yotthadft good wife yonnel^ yon wonli 

¥OL« II* ft 

1f2 &ffE CHT^ . 

dunk dl wonhip^ tad Immmii^ usell hettowttd on 

. The obj/BCting miaistere hariiig expressed a wUb, 
for the revvral o{ what were called praphecyings^^. 
irregalar meetings, for the purpose of exciting reli-* 
gioos fenrour by pcayer and preaching) which £H* 
spabeth had put down— James burst oat into i^ fife 
of anger. '< What I " said he, ^ do you aim tft » 
Scottish presbytery ? That agrees as w^ witb 
jmonarchy, as God and the Devil. Then Jack and 
Tom, and Will and Dick, shall meet, and at ih«& 
pleasure censure me and my council* No^ m^ 
Stay for seven years before you make this demands 
and then» if you find me grow pmsy and &t, I 
may perchance beacken ta you, for that goTenH 
ment will keep me in breathy and g^fe ma woii^ 

After this, professing to see his supremacy aim* 
ed at in the whole of these apparently trivial oodit 
plaints, he said he would tell them a tale. *^ Whei| 
Queen Mary, " said he, " overthrew the Refcma^ 
Etion in England, we in Scotland felt the e&cla 
of it. For thereupon Mr Knox writes to thi^ 
Queen- Regent, a virtuous, and moderate lady, ieU« 
ing her she was the supreme head of the chnrch^ 
and charged her, as she would answer it at God'» 
tribunal, to take care oi Christ his evangil in snp-i 
pressing the Popitth prelates, who withstood thet 
same. But how long, trow ye, did this continue? 
Even till, by her authority^ the Popbh bishqia 
wer^ repressed, and Knox with hu adherents 
braught ia and made strong enough. Then they 
began to make small account of her supremacy^ 
when, according to that^ io^6 moon-light where^ 
with the^r were illuminated^ they made a fi^rthen^ 


fefoMMdiM of themselves. Hoir tbey ined tbe 
pflfor lady, my mother, is not nnknown, snd ho# 
they dealt with tne in my minonity. I thus apply 
it. My Lords tiie bishops (this he said putting 
ia» hand to his hat), I may thank yon that these 
men plead tinis for my mipremacy. They thuik 
dieycnnnot make their 'party good against you 
Irat* by appealing tinto it; but if once you - were 
J6nt, and they in, I know what woold become of 
my «iipremacy, for No bishopf no king, I hare 
learned of what cat they have been, who, preach- 
ing before me since my coming into Ekigland, paite«> 
dd orer with silence my being sapreme governor in 
canses ecclesiastical. Well, Doctor, have yon any 
thing more to say ?***^Dr ReynoMs. <' No more^ 
if it please yonr Majesty. "— <' Then, *' resumed 
the King, '^ if this be all your party hath to say, I 
mif&k mate them eonferm tbemsehes, ot else herry * 
them oat of tholand, er do worse.** 

Having thas gained or assumed the victory^ 
Ames pronounced it as his firm intention to force 
a "unifonnity in church- government and worship 
by Ins Court of High Commission^ and to inflict 
punishment on all recusants. The result of so 
vfoleBt a step- was not so- bad as- might have been 
expected. -* Hencefor^,' says Fuller, in his 
Church History, ^ many cripples in conformity 
were cured of their formrer halting* therein, fjid, 
each as knew not their own minds tifi they knew 
the KiDg s in this matter, for the future quietly 
digested the ceremonies of the church* '' f 

'* Jfferry^ dispossess ; a word applied in Scotland to tha 
despoliation of birds" nests. 

*f It deserves to be mentioned, that the translation of tho^ 
Holy Scrijftares at present in* use was suggested at thi» 

Oa the 19di tf March 1404*1 n^afly » year aftef 
!ihe commencemfD^ of .14is .feigOf Jawe^ f^ Af 
jfiiBt timet met the two Hoo^ of the Eqgliab P^rr 
liament; the meetiog having bee« pflBtpo«ed.j» 
OQQsideiBhle time on luscoimt of the pbgofi, whick 
WB» flow only lioariiig a dty whem^ it had d^trofed 
thiirty out of a hundred and. fifty thofiaand inhabi* 
taot9. On thia occasion, to him one of the moot 
interesting in his whole life^ be delivered a apeeeh 
of considerablo length, embracing almost all the 
feelings and ideas which might bo supposed la aria* 
to him in his new sitnaUon ; a harangue wbicli» 
although certainly not dignified enough in eferf 
passage for a Kiag addressing.his suhjeetsi is said 
to have made a favouraUe impression on tho $M9 
tion, being full of aagacioos. observation and bcM* 
Tolent sentiment* 

VShall it ever be blotted ont of my mind»' sagra 
he in this composition! ^ how, at my first estqr 
into this kingdomi the people of all sorts rid and 
xan» nay rather flew to meet mfr^their eyes flsMh 
ing nothbg but ^pwrkles of affectipn— 4beir motttha 
and tongues uttering nothing bnl soands of jo7*<t 
their hands, feet» and all the rest of their membe») 
discovering in their gestures a passionate lo^glagii 
and^^amestnessy to meet and ombiaee their neii 
sovereign I ' 

He congratulates the nation on the peaee wfaio^ 
he Bad now nearly secured for them, avowing* ,m 
his sincere opinUm^ that the non^ngagemcai .of a 

conference by Dr Reynolds. James hid, in Scotland, ex* 
pressed to the General Assembly a desire to hare the Bible 
tranalatcd anew, as the translation then in esdstence h«4 
been vitiated bj its schismatio composers. He nov gUdljf * 
•nt^tvd into the pr<ject fuggsttsd by fts^QoUbw ^ 

_ 9 


einntty in met m» a Udsiing of no vahiabfe a na* 
tttre aa td be worthy of being porehased at any 
price bnt dhhdnotir. He congratulates his audi- 
eiioe, also, oa the connection which now subsisted 
throogfa him between Scdthind and England^ ask* 
ihg trium p ha nt ly, if twenty thousand knen be a 
elilh>n^ armjr, are not forty thousand twide as strong "f 
by wbich he seemed tb imply, that he cohlidered 
^eo«!and ^ual to Bngknd in military force. Ho 
timn uses soioae arguments to show, that it was for 
A» interest of both to be joiiied in an incorporate 

' ' It (Speaks' in bitter laugttai^ of the two n^dtk who 
<9lrtythemseltiBs\against the established church: 
dti the one. band, the PuHtans, with their aflbcta* 
tions of peculiarity, and thehr seditious Setttimente 
iuiregard tb civil goremment; on the other hand 
tbe>Ort;hdfic8^ wil^ their ^niil of his supremacy 
ovetf the cirarch,' and their disposition to assasst* 
tete Iteretic priiftces. There can b^ no peace, he 
thinks, till these are quelled. Yet he auows that 
thpe^ Church of Rome is his mother church, and 
that there could be no reasonable objection to it» 
if it were only cleansed from some impurities. In 
order to counteract the baneful efforts of these men, 
he prays the Lords Spiritual to be diligent and ex- 
emplary. The devil, he says, is a hustf bishop^ wlio 
is aiways gmng about endeavouring to confirai men 
in his blaek creed ; and it is necessary for the Bi* 
shops on earth to be equally active on the oppo- 
site score, Bancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
quietly remarked^ that he might have h«re used 
another word* 

In conclusion, he made a few remarks upon his 
diatribation of honours and rewards am<mg Us 



firiendar ^ vaibjecthe laaew to liate excited no tS^ 
tla remaiky and wbich he might think liable to mi»> 
interpretation. Where there were 00 many daim^ 
antSy he 8aid» he f onnd it difficult to perform thia. 
duty properly. < Three kinds of thmga wece 
crafed of me» adfanoement to. honoor, preferment 
to place of credit abont my perBon» and reward in. 
matters of land or profit. If I had beetowed ho- 
nonr njpon al]» no man wonld have been advanced 
to honoofy for the degrees of hononr consist in 
me fe r ri iy some abore their fellows* If every, man. 
had the Bke access to my pnry or bed-chamber^ 
then no man conld have it» beorase it cannot cmn 
tain alL And if I had bestowed lands and le^ 
wards upon eTeryman, the fonntain of my liberally 
woidd be so ezliansted and dried, as I woidd lack be liberal to any man.* He then ac^ 
knowledges the. error natural insnch a casSy.oC 
having distributed too mnch; for which be pro- 
fesses repentance^ and promises never to do tbo 
like again. Hnme has remarked the nnkiiagly na* 
tore of this explanation ; and it certainly was niK 

Untur ]ef§» 

f « 


' • '. i 


- J 




#ttOM>nb UNIOK ^VfWtttt ftOTLAKD AV& KNGLXKb— »UBU« 

t i • " • * . 


The chief mittter. which James preMDteii m Aiii 
l^ie^ch to the attentkm <df parlmmeiit^ ^ma a vnioii 
it^tmxt England and Scothbd, an object which he 
|iad aiofieffol^ at heart} and whkh he thought mi^t 
ftoW he ^coi^^eaienUy effected, since the two tsoaa* 
triea were at length placed under the guidance of 
•9^ sovereigBt and couM aerer again enter into 
^var against each other. UfiSnrtnnately, for a 
ocheme so patrioliCy pM^wdices were entertained in 
both countries against it ; the English fearing that 
part of their wealth sMut, m such an event, go to 
bring Scotland on a par with then ; and the Scotch^ 
Mthe other hand, dreading that their predoua 
system of chnrdi*goremment would he sacrificed 
la fit the«i for a match with their Episcopalian 

. Tbe parliaments of both countries were nererthe* 
less prevailed upon to nominate commissioners^ 
who were to meet at London, and considw the pro* 
firiely ^ possibility of a union* Before this meet* 


ingi which took place on the 20th of the c n w ii ig 
October, James so far anticipated the object of 
their deliberations, bv uttering a prodamaticmi in 
which he declared it hia will, that the names Eng^ 
land and Scotland should be abolished, and tiie 

Eneral name of Great Britain substituted for botlu 
e at the same time made Scottish coins cmie»t 
in both kingdoms, and ordered the cress of St An.* 
drew to take its place beside l^t George's in tlie 
English flag, which was therefore called the UmMm 
Jack. It \b almost needless to enter into a detail 
of the transactions . which took place among Ae 
eommissioners. They finished tfieir meeUngs oa 
the 6th of December, after: baring settled upon ar- 
ticles which might be presented for the considera* 
lion of the King and parliaaieiit. But the diffieoK 
lies which arose in the forther progress of Ma 
measure were quite insurmomitable* Notwith* 
standii^ all the anzieties of the King, and afl Ai 
efforts of some far-sighted men, who, like hh% 
eould look beyond national prejudices ; notwitb^ 
standing the happy wit of a popular poet, wk# 
pointed out that the ancient name of the island 
(Albion), seemed to indicate tfairt; they should «0^ 
&0Pi7ne—- a stroke not likely to be without lis ^eAel 
in an age when the tertnrs of woids and ktlmi 
rather than the reflection of ideas, w«b heldlst 
wit-- 4he attempt to incorporate the' two aadoM 
perished with the hearty consent of both. ^ 

: It conld not OeuI to be amusiBg- to :* xiddeii 
reader, if we were to relate all the traits which csA 
be gleaned from contemporary documents,, of the 
leeluigs mutually borne lowarda each other by the 
£nglish and the Scotch al this junctors^; of the. 
««waggecing and. affected bigneapyund^^wU^Ai 


fiboidiy 6tk the ohib iiuid, eadettfoare<f to oonc^ 
|iBilMp8> ^ meaniiefls of their edveatioii and cir^ 
enmstaooes } of the Bhatneful igBorance uader which 
4o fiflglish lay,'oa the oth^r hand, regarding the 
leal tttoatiMi aaii character of things in Sootlaad* 
Such of • the CiJedonians as came into Englaiid 
«H^ the King, would appear to have, at the very 
fint, began to show in what light they held Ya$ 
aew ktngdqm*-4o wtt, as> a kind of good things 
which they, as his Yassalsi were partly entitled tO 
enjoy as well as himself; as only a larger sort of 
tpuJbdBy in short, which their chieftain had secnrefl 
for the general good of the dan. Perhaps this 
did not extend to the matter of actual depredation 
in more than a reasonable number of cases ; bnt 
the feeling was certainly mahifested in the hanghty 
and unruly eondud^faieh the Northerns exhibited 
in their intercourse with the English.. Tq such a 
degree did this proceed, that, so early as the 8tti 
of June 1603, James published a proclamation 'for 
the concord of the English and Scots, * declaring 
it his resolution' to proceed with equal affection 
tttd impartiality to both nations, and desiring all 
officers and magislrates to do the same ; the reason 
for anch an edict beings that ^ we heare of many 
insolencies committed py our nation of Scotland 
to our English subjects,' with this addition lurthery 
that * the magistratea and justicea are thought to 
be remiss towards such, in doubt lest the same 
ahottld be i^leflHively reported to ns* ' ' 

The pasqmie writHen at ^at titne> setting off the 
present pr^e of the Scotch against the supposed 
a^pudor~fMF theur origin, are innumen^le. Wilson 
vsf^ * thoBngUA repined to see the Scofe ad- 
rmmjinm htite bonnets to costly belivers» wear* 

69 xi?c^r 

itig» instead <ir wsd-ineal/ friiP«l«ia ft^iii» istS^ 
Ten fiaeqiiils written in-tkiit wfgtm^ynetllif $9600^ 
ed al* ' The ezchmge ^Jw^e^^ * mguial Une 
iHMiBet, ^ that w a nte d the crown»' for a bat uAm 
feather, is ja thia day the bnrdan of a aanf^ laoiifT 
liar V^ the ears of chikben at tScotland, although 
litiqvt^ of conne q«te ii|iaware of the period or 
^pienmataaoaalrbiii which hidkeaita origin. I Wo 
\f9m also the foUowiiig ilt>natarad pictnra in « 
compoei^n of the date* 

* W«U met. Jockey, wliUher away f 
9^11 we two hare a word or twa]rf 
Tbon was fo lotii^ tbe other d^, 
. How the .devil 4janies you to gay ? 

Ha, ba, ba, by Sweet St Aone^ 
Jockey is grown a geDtleman I 

^ < Tbj shoes that tfaou wore^st when thod went'st to plow^ 
Were Qiade of the hide of a Scottish cow ; 
They're tiimod to Danish leather now, 
Bedcckt with roseSi I know not how* 

' * Tby stockings that were of northern blue, 

' Hia(t cost not twel? epence when they were new. 

Are turned into a silken hue, 
' Most gloriously to all uienV yHbw* 

^ Thy Mt that was mad^ of a white leather thong; 

* Tbtepopohur epithet Ibr a Seotsman* : 
'. f Wbenfintmybcaw Jod»y]adc•mto.thetQl«|^ 
He bad a hhie bonwe that wanted^ba crowir « 
Bat nowbe baa goUm • bait md a fcatbnr 1 • 
■^ Hef, bfarajodufladioockiipyioarheaaar*^ 

f > 


W^ch.tIiaK:^aiid thy fiitlMr ««re 10 loiVi,. 
Is turned to a hanger of velvet strong 
Vnidh gold and peark embroidered amoiig» 

^ Thy garters^ that were of Spanish say. 

Which froooi the taylor's thou stole'st away, ' 
- Are now quite turned to silk, they say, 
^ IVith great broad laces faif and gay. / | 

4 ^Thy idoiifaiet «Ad breach that were so pllun, > 

' On which « loose coold scarce reoiain, > 

Are turned to sailin<--Giod-a4nercy trayne^ I 

' That thou by begging could'st this obtalo. > 

« Thy doake, which was inade of a heme-spun thready i 

, Which thou wast wont to fling on thy beds 1 

la turned into a scarlet red, j 

> With golden hw^es about thee spread. . J 

* iThy bonnet of blue, which thou wore*8t hitheTi^ 
To keep thy sconce from wind and Weather, 

, Is thrown away the devil knows whither. 
And turned to a braw hat and feather. * 

We we afraid it would be difBcalt for tbe moel 
thorough-paced defender of his country, to dispror!^ 
j^tthe Scots did give some little occasion for tho 
JBarcasms of the English. They were nnqaestion- 
ablf p^ors opmpariBd with tbe fjnglish, with whom 
they were at first contrasted. They were worse 
.than that : in deanBneMi, they showed ill in com* 
ymsfm wkh the more refined Soathrons» .Lad j 
Anne^Clifbrd, who visited the King at Theobald'st 
on 1»» progress from Edinbnigh to London, nar^ 
rate% without any apparent feeling of national pre* 
j«di»e^tfaat.:8h^ foid her Qompaniona became *aU 

92 ' ttrvoT 

■ ■•. ...-•» 

lousy from nVi&ng in Sir Thomas Enkine's cfiam- 
ber/* which she remarks to be a change iatbe 
fashion of the court from what she had seen in 
Elisabeth's time : a feet this which must be aUom^ 
ed to bear bar<i against the nation at large, not- 
withstanding the palliating drcnmstance, related 
by Pepys in his Diary, that in a good inn».at 
Salisbnry, in the later age oif Charles the Se- 
cond, he ^aa depouted ia a bed which waaia 
exactly the same predicament with Sir Thaaiaa 
Erskine's chamber. As for the aUegped inaoleacy 
of the people we are disposed to allow it ia its 
worst degree. It must hare been partly owing to 
thoir elation, of mmd on the score of their good 
fortone in attending the King to his rich inheritance,, 
and partly assumed from an idea that dioy could 
best disguise thehr natims poverty under a bearing 
of this kind. 

Mr Henry Peachain, in his woric called ^ The 
Complete Grentleman, which was published in 1622» 
relates a story of one of the Scottish adventurers 
of this era, wlrich may be thought illustrative' of 
what is. here advanced. After remarking that ' the 
truly valorous,' or any way virtuous, are not asfaam* 
ed of their mean parentage, but rather glory ijik 
themselves, that their merit hath advanced tfaeni 
above so many thousands better descended, * this 
writer instances a Colonel Clement Edmondea, ji 
Scotsman by birth, who had attained rank in the 
siervice of the States- General, purely by dint of his 
own deserts. A poor countryman of Edmondea^ 
tvho had newly come out of Scotland, and who 
was anxious to secure the good will of so iofluentifll 


UNO JA^^$ Tips FIRST. 99 

n pevfOOt began to iafpi^ biin» «s tb^ie were soi^ 
atrangexB present^ tliat my Ipnl bis fatber at booiq 
was qaite well^ and tbal be bad lately seen aacl;^ 
9Xid such knigbts bii coosiosi wbo were also in good^ 
bealtb ; thininng, no doiibt» tbat tbis was the beat 
way to ingratiate bimeelf witb a man of bis order^ 
Bat Edmondes interrupted bin in tbe midst of -bist 
rbodomontade, by saying to tbe gentlemen {ireseB%r 
*^ My friends, do not beliere a word tbat tbis kna^^ 
says. My fatber is bat a poor baker of Edinbargbn 
wbo works bard for bis living. Tbe rogne maksf^ 
liim a lord, only to carry my favour, by making 
you believe me to be a great man bonu'* 

Yet, notwithstanding tbe jealoasies and sarcasiaa 
wbicb were expressed towards eacb other by Scota 
end English m general, it would appear that.tbA 
prejadice was not of the moat obdurate nature a< 
moog tbe courtiers, many of whom matched into 
each other's fiuniliea. The Earl of Nottingban^ 
I«ord High Admiral of Englapd* and diatinguisbe4 
in history as the conqueror of the Spanish Armada, 
married, for bis third wife, Lady Margaret Stuarlt 
^ughter to tbe late Earl of Murray, and sister tq 
the present. Sir Thomas Erskine, and also Si^ 
John Ramsay, the two chief actors in the Gowry 
eoospiraey, obtained good Engjish matches, Thes% 
were substantial proofs of ami^. 

James had amused himself, witb bis Queen, for 
aome moutba after his arrival in England, by mak- 
ing pirogresses to visit their various palaces* Ha 
waa now settled down into bis usual practice oC 
banting ; a mode of spending bis time which b^ 
deteided in the foUowiagiDgenioaa manner. Hnnt«^ 
log ia necessary for my bealtb; my health is ne« 
C jB sa a yy kit Ae beakh of Ao kingdom ; tberofioca 


II is QeeMMuy for the good oF the ldi^;do& Aai t* 
fxOBL Under coter t>f Ais logtea) dednetion,'^ 
made no scmpte to order his eonncil 910^ to tmtMi 
Aim wih itfb much businesf. His hunting etewp" 
«dns were, however, attended witli inoooTeiuenees 
both to hiniself and others. The people occasion- 
i^y pressed so much upon him, while engaged* idr 
the very heat of the chase, that he was obliged 
to giro up his sport, and take refuge within his 
palace. This was to present him with petitions;^ 
On one occasion, (March 3, 1605,) being inteiv 
rapted in the field, and compelled to amuse bim« 
aelf by playing cards at home, he issued out b 
proclamation, commanding that the people should 
not come to him with their petitions, except when 
be was going out or coming home. It is p1ea»» 
ittg to observe him thus provide for the necessitiea 
of his subjects, while he made arrangements for his 
own amusement. -On the other hand^ his biingv 
ing a large court into parts of &e country wladi 
were not accustomed to its support, caused, is 
thaf age, when provisions were collected by the 
royal officers at their own prices, much distress to 
Ihe people. * Mr Edmund Lascelles, in a letter to 
ibe Earl of Shrewsbury, (November 4, 1604,)" 
relates what he calls ' a reasonable pretty jeast,*' 
which was played off at Roystown in remonstrance; 
against this grievance. * There was one of llie 
King's hounds called Jbwler missing one day. Th\Er 
King was much displeased that he was wanted x 
notwithstanding Went a hunting. The next day> 
when thfey were on the field, iJowler came' iir 
aibong the rest of the hounds ; the King was told' 
of him, and Was very glad, and, looking on him-, 
•pied a paper abotit his iiecky and in ihe paper 


wm wffittetty ** Good Mr Jowfer^ we pnj yoilt 
a|Mak lo the Kiiig« (for he hears yeo ererjr dt7,> 
and se dodt he not as) that it will pleaae hi» Ma*, 
jea^ to go back to London^ for ^ee this ooantryr 
will he andoDe ; i^ our proviaion ia apent alreadjry 
mid we are not able to entertain him any longer* ^i 
It was taken for a jeaat, and so passed over, for 
his Majesty intends to ly there yet a fortnight. \ 
In all probability, Jamea conceived little uidignaf^ 
txua against the anthor of this jeu detprit ; for he: 
Iiad the generosity, not yery common among witii^ 
ef being inclined to pardon the most palpable hitsr 
ngaioflt himself, ewea though accompanied by dis^^ 
respect towards ins royal dignity, from a kmd o( 
corporation-feeling which he seems to hare enter*, 
tained in regard to aU soch matters^ A rery aba« 
nive aatire being cmce read to him, he said, at» 
▼arions passages, that, ' if there were no more men- 
in England, the rogne should hang for it. ' At 
kit, however, finding the author conclade witfai 
this couplet— 

* Kow Crod preserve the King, the Qpeen, ihe Peers, 
And grant the author long may wear his ears \ ^— » 

he burst out a laughing, and said,. *' By my saul, so^ 
thou shalt for me ; thou art a bitter^ but thou art. 
a -witty knave. " * 

One of the common charges against James is^ 
that he was too devoted a hunstman, and thus 
spent, in his personal amusement, much of the 
time which should have been given to public 
business* The contemporary satirists are inces-. 
aaot in their complaints on this score, generallj[ 

* Howers Letters^ Fart I. Lett«r.30» 

0t«tmg thtt 4» dmded Mi tiiift iielweeii his 
dish and his Iwimdst tliit is^ bit litenuy .and 

Zhan pnnaita ; the fanner for bad wt^Aegf nad 
B lattar lor good. Snrelyy boweTer> aone defaw 
onca sboald be paid to fan own apologieo to hioi 
coandlt wbtch lepiesent his bealth as requiring jtha 
SBsrcise of the chase; a statement eonntenaaeed 
67 what ia known regarding his originaUy feeUa 
and impinrfieet oonstitntion. At the woiat» it ia.a 
digfatiaidty and one wbieh aonld hare no w<ndmi 
•ftct than to throw the management of the kiUfifi 
dek into the hands of the miaisterSf who wean 
peihaps beat fitted far iL It ia an lll-natorod «ec| 
of honestf which ca n sea a histocian to inslitiito ma 
inqnisition into the private amnsements of n ao-» 
Tnrsign ; and there is really no end to the inndi-' 
ons remarks which discontented writers wilTmakfr 
against better and greater men than themselfnp^ 
Conld' any Aingy for instenee^ be more absurd dum 
the attempt at salbe in the follewiog passage of 
' Osborne's Traditional Memorials,.' mie of iblt 
prmcipal sources of the slanders which bare be^ 
handed down in Connection with James's name ? 

* I shall leare him dressed to posterity in the 
Colours I saw him itt, nie next pn^rcss after faia 
inaugur ation, which was as green as the grass he 
trpd on : with.a feather in his cap, and a hem in^ 
stead of a swmrd by his side ; how snitable to Ins 
age, calling, or person^ I leare to others to jn^ 
from his pictures ; he owning a eeuntenalioe ans 
semblable to any my eyek ever met with besidei 
$n host dwelling b^ide AathOl, formerly a ahej^ 
herd* ... 

This professes to be very satirical, and ordin^ 
srv readeka tite apt'to tuppoae Aal it is etkcAwm- 


hrm^i taV whin the Ihlsgis udwaly^Mmiatedf 
tae ctfttame'SO aewmky Gommemed 4>ii toniB m% 
M-4ie cpiite the proper dreas of a hnnttiiian of high 
mnk iBKt the pmod, and the sneer at the King'e 
features k what no 'welUbred person would say of 
taM^ther. The first ahenrdity is Yery like one com* 
matted by Sir Dudley CarIeton» in a satirical a4N 
eouat of the Mask of Bladaiess, wherein he re* 
nfailcs, that^^ie Qoeen and the Peeresses^ who per- 
BMttod Moi^ni in that exhUiitioa, and were of 
coorse painted blacky woaid have lodced a great 
d0al better ia 'their nataral red and white. Mr 
6lfford»inliiBnote8 toBen JiMisony ironically ob» 
aii'yis S) in refierenee to this lominoiis piece of dia<^ 
nHililc'oritioiiniy^iat some haadsomeOthelb should 
take a hint from it, and astonish hb audience by 
a ppe a ri ng, some night in his natire colotucs. Yet 
£^ Da^ey Carieton'a accoaat loi the repsesenita^ 
tiWi of the Made of Bh^knen, ia eoe of the 
diiags most frequently quoted by modem writers; 
ia tididile of t^e court of Kiag James» 

^ The ^puUiiaitkni «f a tteaftise by the King, under 
die^llAe^f ' A Camterblastio Tahabce^' took place 
«l Ibis period, and fan gi^n occasion to fiiUy aa 
asodi aneeriog remark «s any other cireumstanoa 
hi' Jenids'B life. < Ttro of Sna works, ' says tha 
QtttM^ lUnriew, * Ae BwnODology and the 
Counterblast to Tobaeoo» are a standing jest with. 
MnlM|rswiK>]^^iMyiieversaiwtheiii. TheCoun- 
tutblait Is a pamphlet drawn up for the people* 
Ullh an occasional quiet strsin of humour, and aa 
hig«iiiou8«amyof tesiliar aif;aments^ in a style 
directly opposed to pedantry, and ia language for 
Ad most part as plamly £n^h as that of Swift 
lAmtM^ a eifieuatft«iice worthy of remark in tUa 
vol.. II. V 

"88 XTFE OF '. .* 

and some mother works of the Kiog, conftidedii^ 
how much be had been acciistoiQed, daring his.ear'* 
Her life, to write in the Scottish dialecty and bow 
many of its peculiarities he is said to hare retained 
in his conversatbn. Had the Connterblast been 
Green's or Decker's, it would have passed as a very, 
pleasant old tract*' With the whole of tUs ex- 
ealpatory pleading we cannot join, although it is in 
some measure just.— ^Bnt it wiU be necessary, m 
the first place, to make the reader acquainted with 
the nature of the work in question* 

The Counterblast to Tobacco was the first work 
which James published in England, and it appear* 
ed very soon after he had settled himself in that 
kingdom. It is perhaps the briefest of all his mia* 
cellaneous tracts, the first edition being comprised 
in only a few quarto pages. When first pubhshed* 
it was anonymous ; and it is evident from severat 
passages, as well as from the great freedom of km* 
gnage employed, that the author originally design* 
ed it to be ao. But, perhaps on account of die. 
applause it met with, he afterwards caused it to be 
received into the collected edition of his acknow- 
ledged works, where it cuts aa atrange a figure^, 
surrounded by polemical and classical discussi^Wi. 
as would the picture of a Dutch 
Teniers, if placed amidst the* hermits, aadaaiiU% 
and goddesses of the flcfaool of Italy. 

James, very probably for some rea$on purely: 
physical, entertamed a violent antipathy to the 
smell of tobacco«-*-an aat^atby which he is said 
to have transmitted to his son Cfaaries L There 
is a tradition in Scotland, that he ejected ithe cler- 
gyman of Gnllan, a district in East X«othian» for 
the simple reason of his being an. iaunoderal».d#* 


^ftuehee ia the use of thk herb. Il WDuld.appear» 
that, on bis coming to England, he waa greatlj 
sboeked to observe the progress which the practice 
of smoking had made among men of all ranks, and 
how much it had tended to render disgosting thos^ 
domestic and convivial scenes upon whose elegance 
so much of the pleasure of life is dependaot^ 
Feeling the grievance bitterly himself, and think- 
ing it must be equally so to many others — ^inspi^ 
vedy moreover, with a notion that the lives of hi» 
Bubjects were shortened and endangered by smok« 
ii^, he immediately conceived the idea of setting 
forth a little anonymous ^62« cfe^/E^n^ against it. 
The title which he assumed for his work is a pun^ 
the word blast being then used in England, as in 
many parts of Scotland at this day, to signify what 
ia now technically called ^tn^ a p^ 
- In the preface to the Counterblast, he alleges, 
as the cause of this vice, the great increase of 
wealth in England during an age of peace, which 
liad rendered men effeminate, and compelled them 
ao resort to . iminroper indulgences for the ^ske of 
amusement. It is the King's part, he thinks, «aa 
^ the proper physician of his politicke-bodie,' [h^ 
h9B. elsewhere described, himself as ^ the great 
9choolma8ier of the nation,'] to be perpetually on 
the watch, to observe that his people do not injure 
themselves in any way whatever. In the pre^en^ 
case, however, as the matter is obviously too meaa 
ao be'* a proper subject for animadversion by hia 
^lajesty, he thinks it right that a private person> 
one of the undistmgnished public, should take it 
•upon him to admonish them ; and such he, as the 
tmthor, professes to be. - At the begimung of the 
work, he remarks the undignified origin or early 

•0 LITBWr 

hifltorjr of telNUJOo; itfasviag been fiftt used lif $tm 
IndiBiM for the cnro of thek yfle diseaBes* It wtu 
fint introdnoed, he sayB, into En^and by a imn^ 
gfttor wlio 'bad jt»t disco^red a krge ttwat of 
eowitiy in America, and who broaglity aiong with 
this fltrBUge faerb^ and the cmtom of imokiag it, » 
feir-of the savaipe nativve of lliat ifegioii^ * 3«t 
pitie tt k, ' he says pollhetically, * l^e'poor wild 
barbarouB men died ; but thai file -harbaroQa cb»* 
ten k yet «Hve, yea infreafa vigoav.' ¥ram Jda 
hntmiatiBg*, in the nekt seMtenee, that the 
irfio introdneed it^'tv^s ^puxtirMf hated, '^ 
aie led to sappoee tbift he mean SirliValier Bo- 
l^h, to whom popidar atory aaeribea the honesi^ 
If aiich it be-«-<altbotagh Bakter, «& fan <>hniiiicl8a> 
telk as that the plant was <fii«t broaghl to the 
country byltalph Lane, m the 88th^of Qumb B» 
limbeth [^ldS6j. Ihe tme raaaons of ite being 
eo feronrlte a«egalementr arethe dkpoiitimi of men 
to patronke all faridonable notreltiea ; and the «»• 
tion> very generally dlAued, tlutt it waa a €bAo» 
Ificoit, or onm for aAl idnda of diseasea. lie holda 
«p a mrniber of argmnenta, gronnded in the aopai* 
atitioua phannaey ef that time, to prvawtbat'it k 
permcioaa to iftie healdi. ^ Siioh^ 'aaya he^ ift% 
airaitt of ^annttuig irony, < m ite mimcttloia e«nk 
p(Mencie«of oor ^trong-^taeted tobaooe, that k oorea 
an eonfciaribna aorls cdTdiMasea, in all paiBon%4md 
Itt all tknea^ it cores the gont in llie 4eet; nMi 
(which k mimGiiloaa) In' that ^ery inatanrwben 
Ae smoke thereof, as l%fat^ ffies np ima thehsa^ 

• Sir Walter^Mu, in liis^wntiiBe^ avsif vnpaiiiikrthsv 
9Bt$ef. Hit graat reputation in later ^mes k to be oacrib^ 
to the esteem in which posterity has held his eminent abU 
fitie^ his liberal prindtileB, ana hkuidui^py'iht^ ' * 


Ab rirtna tiieroof, m hemff^ tmm dofvnt to tii^ little 
toe» It helps all sorts of agnes^ It makes a maa 
eober that was drank. It vefreshes a weary man^ 
and 3^81 makes a man hungry. Beinfp takea when 
they goe> to bed, it makes one sleep soundly, and 
ye^ being taken when a man. is sleepie and drow« 
aiev tt will, as- they say> awake his bnun, and qniek* 
mt bts> nndefstandingk A» for curing the pockesi 
it serves for thai use but among the pockie Indian 
akresL Here in England it is refined, and will not 
dace to cute here any other tfaaa gentlemanly and 
cleanly diseases. O omnipotent power of tobacco. I 
Jkad ii h could by tbe smoake thweof cast out de* 
vik, as thesaioake of Tobias' fish did, (which. I am 
flBce could smell no stronger), it would serre for a 
predons reltcke, both for the sopentilious priests^ 
and the ksdent puritans^ to cast out deyils witb* 

Towards the conclusion of the treatise, he breaka 
ent into several bnrate of testy feeling against thot 
okjtoi of hie invective^ ami exhibits altogether ait 
eKaoefbatiou of spirit,, that can scarcely fiiiL to make 
the reader laugh, proeeeding: ae it does ia such se-* 
aioos earnest, from what was aftec all but an aceiy* 
deuteftaBtei and that in a rery homely and eveft 
ladksroaa matter. In. one place, be graFoly makea 
U out a kind of treason for the people to amoko 
tobaeeoi seeing tbali by doing so^ they disable their 
bodies- for the eervide ol their king and country^. 
^ What a shamefid tmbedlity* ' wfs^ he» ^ have, 
yo bcesight yeuttelfUB Uh that you are not able to* 
ride or walke the journey of a Jburas Sabbath^ but 
you mttst have a neekie cole bfought you from. 
the next poore house to kindle year tobacco with I * 
Afbr renuM;kiag|. that the proper, cbacaeteriatiGLiof 

flu . ' LlTBOl? 

a good sokKer U to endure the want of food and 
sleep, 'not to speak of this vile indnlgenee, he 
a^ks, if, ^ in the times of the many glorionr and 
▼ictorions battajles fought by this nation, th^e 
was any word of tobacco ? ' If any of yon, saya 
he to the soldiers, stayed behind your fellows on 
a march, in order to smoke tobacco, * for my pert 
I should never be eorry for any evil chance that 
might befall him. ' He points ont, as a strong 
reason for the abolition of this cnstom, its expen* 
aireness ; ^ some gentlemen bestowing three AuM" 
dred, some four hundred pounds a yeere on tfaia 
precioQS stinke, which I am sore might be bestow* 
ed upon far better uses ; ' a statement almost in* 
credible, unless we allow for the great quantitiea 
consumed at entertainments, and for the duty or 
tax, which James, by way of enforcing liis Uterary 
^orts, had raised to more than six shillings, a 
pound. * I read, indeed, ' he continues, * of a 
knavish courtier, - who, for abusmg the favour of 
tiie Emperor Severus his master, by taking bribes 
to intercede for sundry persons in his master's caie 
(for whom he never once opened his month), was 
justly choked wiUi smoke, with this doome, Fktmoi 
pereai, qui Jumum veruUdk; but of so many 
smoke-buyers, as are at present in this kingdoaa, 
I never read nor heard. ' 

' Having remarked the extreme impropriety of 
smoking at dinner, * and mentioned the fact, that 
the stomachs of great smokers bad been foond, on- 
dissection, to contain ^ an oily kind of soote, ' 
(which must have been a mere superstition of the 
day), he deplores the necessity which had com* 
palled some men averse from smoking to take of 
it in self-defence, and. also inveighs against th^ 


maHamBnA which now geto^lljr obtauifed^ that not 
to smoke with a friend was a mark of inciiriUty; 
and pettishness. ' Yea, ' says he, ' the mistresse 
£of a house] cannot in a mofe maoiierly kind, en* 
tortainher seirant, than by giring him, out of her 
faire hand, a pipe ,of tobacco. ' He then points 
out the disagreeable change whidi a. habit of 
smoking produces uponthe breathy adding, * More* 
ever, which is a great iniquitie, and against all bu« 
manity, the, husband shall not be ashamed to re- 
dace thereby his delicate, wholesome, and clean- 
complexioned wife to that extremity, that either 
she must also corrupt her sweet breath therewith, 
or els resolre to live in a perpetual stinking tor* 
nsent I 

' * Have ye not then reason to be ashamed, ' 
says the royal pamphleteer, in conclusion, and we 
must be excused for giving this paragraph in th& 
same en^hatic arrangement of type as in the ori- 
ginal, * and to forbear this filthie novelties so base- 
%* grounded, so /oolishly received, and so gros^y 
mistaken in the right use thereof ? In your abuse 
thereof, . sinning against God, harming yourselves 
both in persons and goods, and raking also there-r 
by the notes and marks of vanitie upon you ; by 
^e custom thereof making yourselves be won- 
dered at by all foreign eiv&l nations, and by all 
strangers that come among you to be scorned and 
contemned : A custom loathsome to the eye, hate- 
ful to the nose, harmfuU to the braine, dan- 
gerous to the lungs, and in the black 
stinking fume thereof, neerest re- 
sembling the horrible Stygian 
smoake of the pit that is 
bottomlesse. * 

Such 18 dke cekbnited CoonteiUasI to ToImo* 
00 ; and aaBoredly, after penniiig ifaeae speeuMoe, 
ind giving bat a glance to the general natnre of 
the booky fevr readeis wikl hesitate to joia diepfe- 
ient writer in cooaidenng it a most ouirS and moafe 
nnkiogly performanee* True, it was originnUy 
written in the aasamed chaiacter of a plebeian^ 
expressly from a conscioosness. on the part of the 
author ijiat it waa not a salject of snfficieDt dig« 
nity for a kmg to handle. Bnt yet, as he. ao- 
knowiedged it afterwarda, and gave it a pkoe is 
his works, that is bat a slight pidKation of such a 
■lonstroas elfeace against good taste, sadi. a n^-. 
mediless TiolaUoa qf civery thing like pmfcasioDaA 
respectability. I am afraid^ the Coanterblaat nana 
be res^ipaed to the kntghter of those, who hirfd 
James in contempt, as a most notable inatanea o# 
that homely spirit by which he was. so perpctttaUyi 
breaking down the diTuiity he belieced hiinelf tcr 
be hedged with* Like most o£* his oUioe oflfeneea^' 
it involred no personal' baseness; and' perfaiqpa- it: 
oaght to be allowed to possesa merit as ujem: 
desprit Bat nothing eke^ oaabe said in ita &i« 

»'A.ll ' 





Jamss faad lived upvnffds of two years in Eag« 
bMadt eiijoyii]^ all the happineas which a weU*i> 
veaaiag prinee can dari? e from the goTeimneat of 
a^ peaeafttl, proaperoii8« and affiectionate people; 
t^-oae his own p hwoc , he had lived two years and. 
» half of perpetual Ckri$ima8$ when his qniet^ 
Bttddenly distnrbed by the Gonpowder Trea» 
^Plainly the most magnificent^ a» well aa the» 
most atroeioM' crimey ever devised within tb» 
memory of Written, history. 

The denotiement of this- * big blade ^t> ' aa a 
quaint writer of the day entitled it, was preceded 
by few of those scintillatilHis or noisekss lightninga 
which generally foretell the bnrstaig of such a thno* 
derstorm both in the real and the metaphorical at* 
mesphere. It was rather like the unpredicted 
earthqaake, wfaieh^ bet one moment after peaoe^ 
and smishine, and life, and happineesi prodacea 
tumult and dburknessy death: and despair. 

Yet the motivea of the enterprise may be traced 
far backwards. into the hiatory of England; aad^ 
i» order to see good reaaons lor sneh en attempt, 
we have only to call to mind the continaed ezer- 

96 LIFS bT 

tions of the Catholics, on the one hand, for hait a 
centoiyy to restore their religioii» or at least pn>«> 
care toleration, and the continued persecation with 
which goFemment, on the other hand, persisted 
in Fisiting them. The nnhappy professors of this 
faith, who of coarse were chiefly inoffensive per^ 
sons in ordinary life, had, e^er since the Reform* 
ation, suffered under penal laws equally revolting 
to justice and humanity. They had hoped for a 
relaxation of those statutes when James came to 
the throne, and also more particularly on the peace 
with Spain, in both of which cases they were die- 
appointed. James was sufficiently disposed, oA 
his own part, to befriend them, and, indeed, did 
Inake no difference, in the distribution of his fii« 
YOurs, between the lojral of their religion, and the 
loyal of that which was established ; but, in regard 
to what was by far the most prominent part of the 
Catholic body, those Jesoits and others, yho em- 
ployed themselves in secret intrigues with fore^ 
princes against him, and who, seeking to deprive 
him of his ecclesiastical supremacy, advanced the 
doctrine that it was lawful to destroy or dethrone 
a heretic prince, he both talked and acted in a 
style of the most determined severity. It was, in 
rcidity, among these enthusiasts, and not among 
the Catholics in general, that the Gunpowder Trea- 
son took its rise ; and to them, in particular, be- 
longs, as a matter of coarse, the infamy of the 
transaction— if it does not rather belong to the 
government which, urged by the popular spirit of 
persecution, exasperated the whole professon of 
this faith by its cruelties, till these men resolved* 
i^ an act of onparalleled daring and wickedness, te 


beeomeat once the aveiigen of its quarrel, and the 
iiBstoren of its ancient prospelrity and inflnence. 
.' The project in which this resolution ended, of 
hlotdng up the King and his family, and ail the 
other members of the goTemment and legislatore, 
by a mine tinder the Parliament- Honse, was pro* 
bably suggested by a similar plot which was set on 
foot nine years before, by a person of the feunily 
of Este, for destroying the Consistory at Rome ; 
for among the conspirators there were many men 
whose intercourse with Italy was sufficient to make* 
that incident familiar to them. By another con- 
jecture, ' it might have been suggested by recoileo- 
tion of the fate of Lord Damley, the King's fii* 
^er, who was blown up in the Kirk- of- Field at 
Edinburgh. The persons first associated in the 
conspiracy were five gentlemen, Robert Catesby 
of Ashby, in Leicestershire ; Thomas Percy, kins- 
man * and factor to the Earl of Northumberland; 
Thomas Winter, and Guide Fawkes, men of good 
family, who had become soldiers of fortune ; and 
John Wright, of whom nothing particular is re- 
lated. An had been more or - less concerned in 
those dark and traitorous intrigues with foreign Ca* 
tfaolic princes which have just been hinted at, and 
which ended at last in this dreadful scheme ; but, 
if there were any individual among them who con- 
ceived the idea of a mine before the rest, it would 
appear to have been Catesby, a descendant of tiie 
celebrated minister of Riclnird IIL, and who had* 
long' been noted as a man of designing and fanati- 
cal character. Fawkes, in his confessions, informs 
ns that this ^non propounded the scheme to the* 

* The exact degree of relationship is not known. 

Other five; lMilhiB.etidMMDei urflomepoiAtoi doMaaif 
ezacUjr coDBisi with thai of Thomas Wiator« Ite 
aeema to hasa beea m tpring^ 160 4 th a t im a 
yoar after the Kiog came to Eoglaad^^thalr tha 
project laas first agraied ii|Mhi by the fi^.ooaqii»* 
Baton ( at which timoy the parliament waa expect- 
od to. meet in the aoauiig Febroary. Peihapa it 
should be meationed, that Percy origiiially entea^ 
laiaed a desigia of aseaositwiting the Kiag with hm 
own. hand^ ia seveoge for & iioii*fiilfihBeiit o£ 
oertaia promises which he pretended that Jamea 
had . extended to the English Cathdica throng^ 
him. ; but, on his disclosing hia intentioii to Galea* 
by, that deeper traitoc easily perraaded him. to 
shimp bis own im&ndtial 8cham^ in the genend: 
Qoe^ which had th» do«blo adwtfitage of being 
move complete in ita- plan of avenging the Catholic 
caase, and more safe ia execution* The project^ 
as. tbea laid down by Catesby» simply wasy to lam 
a mine nnder the House of Lords ; there to depo* 
sit a proper ijnaatity of gunpowder ; to airait thfr 
nsomant when the membsra of both Houses shoold 
ha^assembled on the first da|r of the parliament to. 
hear tbe-KingV speech ; aibd theni by setting fmr 
to the minoy to destroy in one moment the whoki 
aaaamblage^ King» Lonla» and GonBmons^ eoospria^ 
ing as it wens the very fiower of the. nation*. In the- 
confusion which they ealonlaled upon cauriaghyi 
this, tecrible act» they believed they should be abk' 
to nemodeL the church and state* as. they phased; 
and* aa they expected the. two yoni^ pnooaa tobe^ 
involved in the general destmotiony they designed 
to aeiaa the peason of tl» Princesa RlirnlHithp liv(<» 
ing at Exton with I^ord Harrington, whom tbef 


Aonld 'ptwMm Qneeiiy ma^d «dacate as *a Ca* 

Tlie adieiiie mm diselosedy in its progressi t» 
m Bfoall koot -<if English J&m^ with whom die 
oonspintora were in atricl ocnifidencaD**i^4iien who^ 
having ^wnt ^eir.ndiiile Hrei is intiigves witb fo« 
no^. states for the JveBtoiatiaB of their jneiig^oiH 
had lest every sentunent of f atriolism, aadewamp* 
ed^ahnost-all the other mond virtues i& one eiiier« 
poweriag enthiisiasni. It is «Teit sitpposed that 
Garnet, -the priiieipil of these persons, *clrraded 
with CHatesbjr the merit of conceiving the phrt^ 
Whatever shave they had in its projection, it is 
certain they were equally active with the five lay* 
ami in fwdiesing it* > 

When the echeme was aettled upon, Percy took} 
i^on lease, Jt aeiitary haose la Westminster Yaord^ 
near the fioose of Lords, where, about MichaeU 
mn 1604f, h» and thieeiof Ilia four associates be» 
goa to dig :a sabtenaaeona paasage towards <that 
eiMoe, while Fawkes^ ihe least known of aU the 
party, kept watch withont* ..At Ahia timei the 
parliament was expected to laeat en the ensmdg 
9tfe d 'February; mad it was iheir inteatiaiii be* 
feiethat ^riod, itolunRB s ktge.'Qhamhereadtvat^ 
od vaderoeaih the Parlmnsetit-Jiouse, wheroia 
thi^ ahoold deposit the | Mf w d ci i> Ifhe laboar -of 
dlggmg was Tery seviere te men who iiad hitherto 
lived "oo differently ; Ibat, to «4ippert esateaoei 
they had baked meats aad wines bvonght into ibe 
VBute-— enthttsiasm anpplied the Mat. They akia 
had tkeir vams depeailed bende tham: as they 
wroug^ being determined^ in. case of >a ftiscoverj^ 
ta «idl link liwe/aa dearly as psanOile. Thos they 
pffodeeded widi incredible diligence for aboi^ Aiea 

100 . . LIFE OF . ♦ 

months, carrying the rabbish out every night) and^ 
burying it beneath the soil of the adjacent gardens 
At last, about Christmas, they reached the wall of 
the Parliament-Honse, which, being thnee yards 
thick, proved a serious obstacle. Nevertheleasy 
they continued for six weeks more, picking the 
bard old mason- work of that, structure, through, 
which they advanced at the rate of about a fool 
a week. At Candlemas, about five days before 
the expected meeting of parliament, they had only 
got about half way through the wall, and were dfr« 
spairing of being ready in time, when, fortunatdyr 
for them, the meeting was prorogued till the en** 
suing October. • 

During the progress of their labour, it was 
thought expedient to admit other two perscma into 
the conspiracy, for the sake of their assistance in 
digging ; namely, Christopher Wright, brother ta 
John Wright, and Robert Winter, the brother, of 
Thomas. Previous to being made privy to the 
project, they were bound to aecrecy under the fol^ 
lowing oath, which was administered by Game^ 
along with the communion : 
• * You shall swear by the blessed Trinity, and 
by the sacrament you .now purpose to reoeivei 
never to disclose, directly nor indirectly, by wocd 
or circumstance, the matter that shall be prqpoaed 
to you to keep secret ; nor desist frmn the ezecot 
tion thereof, until the rest shall give yon leave. ' .' 

One day, as they were busied in their ezcava* 
tions, they heard a rushing sound, such as is made 
by a pile of coal which has £ftllen forward, and 
which seemed to proceed from the inner side «of 
^ wall» Afraid, lest they were. disooEeiadi 
(hey. graced their arms, and prepared,, to .at«ii4 


to their defence, 'r But, no farther synfptom of der 
tectioo taking place, they gradually recovered from 
their alarm, and sent Fawkee, the sentinel, to as* 
certain the cause of the noise. He soon retumed* 
with information that it proceeded from a cellar 
under the Parliament- House, in which a large 
qoantity of coal was at present in the progress of 
being sold off, and that, after the coal should be 
sold, the cellar was to be 'let to anyone who might 
cfanse to take it ; the familiar system upon whicli 
all things were established iu that age being sucb^ 
that the vaults under the Assembly-house of the 
English senate, were let out for the. meanest pur« 
poses, and probably for sums too trifling to be 
named. * They instantly formed the resolution of 
giving up .their work, and taking this cellar. Fawkes 
:wa8 commissioned to do so in the name of Percy* 
whom- he professed to be his master ; and the. os;- 
lensible use he proposed to put it to, was that of 
serving as a coal-cellar for the house which had be^ 
previously taken, and in which they were noTf 
canying on their operations. When this was don^ 
they gladly resigned their labours, which, but for 
the fanaticism that prompted them, must have been 
intolerable* They at the same time took an op- 
pfntunity of conveying the stores; of wood an4 
gui^ewder which they had provided for the mme» 
fwom a yard at Lambeth, on the other side of the 
Thames, where they had. hitherto been kept| to the 

. t It is qbs^nr^ble, from . the records of the Town- jCoun« 
^ of Edinburgh, that in the latter part of the fifteenth 
century, there were twelve booths or shops in the. lower 
psrtof the Tblbootb or Towo-house-^s structure which oc- 
casionally gave accommodaUoD to the Parliament of Scou 
land. .: I *.: . . ^ '. . : • 

l02 LTPfi OF 

oellar, wfaicb conid nnm vSotd them 
don. Thnsy they guaed the double advaatagie of 
aarmg themtelves a great deal of labQur, and of 
having the took they worked with brought into a 
emaller space. There was also this advantage ia 
the cellar, which they might have wanted in the 
mine, that it was immediately mider the royal 
throne, and therefore most likely to eecmre the 
principal object of the conspiracy. * 

On the prorogation of parliament, they thought 
proper to retire into the country, lest, by lingering 
out the intermediate time in the house, without rU 
eible business, they might become liable to utmpi" 
eion. Fawkes, commissioned by the reat, went 
over to Flanders, to arrange matters with a nom^ 
ber of English Cathdic refugees, for an invasioB 
of the country to take place alier the ea^loeioBb 
In July, while the rest were absent, Percy oaueed 
an additional quantity df powder to be depoaifted 
in ihe cellar. He and Catesby, about the eauM 
time, iiad a meeting at Bath, wiiere it was amoigedi 
tiiat for the sake of ndtiag money, of which tiny 
ivere In need, the latter tihould tdee into the eon« 
apiiacy whatever wealtiiy men he might think lit; 
nd thus were adaoitted. Sir £dward IDigliy^ a 
gentleman of twenty*ftf e years of age, who umm 
to have been amiable in «very €»tiier ifopect^ 
but his accession to this plot, and Mr FraDcis 
IVesham, a respectable oonntry gieittlem«D; the 
former promising fifteen hundred pounds towards 
the general fund, and the htter two UioittBfid. 
Percy had ahready promised four thousand poundi 
out €i the Earl of Northnmberland'a renta^ to be 

• Somen' Tracts, ii. 101. 


M^6d whto ifte best psjftuwitB' eftine klo Ufe 

Ad thb ptf^lkkiiefit 1K^ tfow «itp«fted to flii 
dd^^m cm the 5th of 0«t(Db«f, tiie douBpirtitiDts w- 
eeibbled in London towards l^e end of September, 
Bo^d finidly prepared ^e^ mine, by cbaoiging tttish 
^the powder as they supposed might havB be>- 
come damp, and making np ^e whole to tfairtyudK 
barrels, lie^e and smaU> being ki an the weig^ of 
nine or ten thdmand penfids, which they eo^erad 
oyer witli Ittr^ beams of wood and iron, to in- 
dretfse the efS^t, and widi fisggoto and himberi tt> 
give it an innocent appeatitoce in the eye of the 
piifalic. There were Aow in all tfwenly-two> ei^ 
eons acquainted witb thte dreadftil design; yet, snei. 
ivas the common enthusiasm which bonnd tbem^ 
HAd such lite impresdon of those awM religions 
iriteb nnder which they had received the secMi, 
Hukt hitherto no one had either relented m \m par- 
pose, nfv breathed a, whisper of it to any nncoa*- 
cemed person. As yet, these extNMA^Uiaiy men^ 
itoat 6f whokn weM hitherto gtiokless of llm slighti' 
<ttt 6ffence cogtii^flMe by law; conteiiiplaiies^ wMt- 
ont a feeling ef Cotttpaaetton, tbe puMpect of -di^ 
ista^oytng lihiity thdaeaad ef tiieir fiiliow-oreatiirei^ 
/for sdch wesUhe ttttniber estpeeseii to perisb) ; aasl 
wey who, in gener^ W(^ wenld bwre acmpied to 
iiiflict the leant wetnd on a» k»^vid«al, were inv 
d^U^d, by the ttdatahea bnt hnresisi&Nble asead of veiv- 
glon, to lay a whole nation, ae it were^ desolatew 
One scrapie e^nffoally rose in the miad of Aeiu- 
ther of the plot : It struck the mind of GateslKy 
ai^ a d^adM iSihig, that many Catholics would 
necessftriiy be involved in i&e same destmco 
tion with the ProtestaaMs ; and be pnt it as a cabe 

VOL.' II. G 


4>f confecienee to Garnet, * Whethari fin; the good 
and promotion of the' Catholic caoBOy (the.neiseft- 
aity of time aad oceaaioii-eo requiring,) it be hw- 
la), or noty among many nocents, to destroy apd 
.take away some inoooents also ? ' The Jeani^ 
;with the sophistry prererbially ascribed to hia o«- 
deft*, 'replied, that it certainly waa lawfnl so to .do» 
-provided that the good to be obtained thereby 
were greater than the e?i]i to be procured by 8ar«> 
ing both ; instancing, aa a similar matter of esr 
pediency, that an army advancing to besiege a 
town b not to be prevented from resorting to the 
nanal modes of attack by the fear of injuring a few 
•friends who may be among the besieged. Cates" 
by was content with this solatipn, and fordier 
scruple arose not. 

While they were rejwciag, with the joy of h^ 
Baticism, in. the near approach of the fatal day, 
Parliament was once more prorogued^till the fifth 
of Novembev-<-being for the third time. This was 
BO vnosual, that they feared it to be occasioned by 
a discovery of their design ; and, on the day when 
4he commission of prorogation was read in the 
House, they mingled with the crowd, to mark if 
any trace of what they apprehended coold be read 
in the conntenanees of the eomnussioners. ' No 
aymptom appeared ; the commissioners wj&lkedand 
conversed together, after the ceremony was done, 
•ovw the very spot where the powder was depor 
sited. The conspirators retired, with re-assured 
minds, to the country, to spend the intermediale 

At the end of October, having again assembled 
at London, the arrangements were once mora 
fdaeed .by them on the same footing as at the end 


of the precediag -moadu To eftch was Migaed 
aome partioalap duty or pl«ce« To Fawkes, as the 
most expert and most dariog, was^, assigned the 
task of firing the mine. He waa-to .mark 'the pro**, 
per hour fordoing so by a po€kelr*watch,.with 
irfiicb, though then a rare article, he. had provided 
himself. Half an hoar before tho crisis when the 
assemblage was expected to be fn% met, he was 
to ignite a match which should take that, space of 
time to burn ; and then, getting on board a vessel 
sta^oned for htm on the* Thames, he was to aei 
sail for Flanders, where he was to publish, a de** 
fence of the plot, endeavour to procure the favour 
of the Catholic princes, and, as soon as- possible^ 
send over a supply of men, arras, and ammunition.; 
Immediately after the explosion, as the Duke of 
York was not expected to be present, Percy was. 
to enter the palace by virtue of his character o£ 
gentleman-pensioner, and carry off the person of: 
that member of the loyal family, under the pre- 
tence of conveying him to a placo of safety., 
Tresham, Digby, and others, were to. seize the 
Princess Elizabeth at Exton. Catesby was. to pro-^ 
cbdm her a» Queen at Charing- Cross, with a>pro-> 
tector during her minority k' Various measures, 
were taken for conveying early intelligence of Uie. 
event to remote diatricls, where insurrections were 
to be expected. For the ecclesiastical members 
of the plot,, who scrupled to act in it personally,, 
was assigned a place on an eminence near Hamp- 
stead, from whence they could gratify themselves, 
with a distant view of the- explosion. This spot, 
is, to the present day, appropriately termed. 7Vat-> 
iors* Hill It .was also provided,, that, on the^ 
morning of the fatal day, they should take mea-** 

tOfi im cm? 

Mg (leeAi ttid n(nsib«rt fnm ntlefidilig fbe HcMise. 
The nttiiBbeir cmtopr^hett^d ^ w^Mei fb^ judg^ 
it to bs pTBfdcnff to teitiper tvltl^ 

It wdvkl o&MMI se^m, fr(Mft the applirefit iti^ti- 
ittMUty of the oxplodoti «t ibis titago of the Mrfu- 
tire, tie if there werto «oii¥« truth k what G«3r 
fktrkes said alter Its de«^iOfi, that God wotUd 
have concealed it, but the Deril diftclosed it. Va- 
rions theories hare been started, as to like way in 
#hich it watf diaco^tered ; as, l^itt Henry IV. of 
France teamed sotte ^artiCiilarB of it, wbldi ho 
diacfosed to James ; that the Eart of Salishctry, 
(iately Sir Robert Cedl), behig at the bottom of it, 
alao brought it to aiaecsclaireisaeiiiedt) aad bo fonb. 
Sbt, after all, the only ffeaMble accOtmt of the 
matter is that ptxbHshed oflSciatly at Ate time, and 
unitetaally accepted, tt^ich was iit substance noar- 
ly as follows :— 

On the evening of Saturday, the 2&th of O«fo> 
ber, eleven days before* the meeting of Paiikmeiit, 
Lord Monnte^le, (noto of Lord M orley, hat faim- 
self a peer by inltoffitaoce from his moiAier), whito 
i^out to sit down to snipper, recdred a letter ftoih 
one of his footmen, which the man said had b^n^ 
delivered to him by ato ' imtoiown man of a ritt- 
sonabfe tall personage,' as he was crosshig thi»* 
i^reet on att: errand with which his lordship hsAl' 
just commiBsionfed him. This was in Monnt^le a 
lodging, in one of the atrtots of London. The 
yonng nobleman, having broken open the letter, 
and found it to be written in a somewhat cramp 
hand, earned one of his domestics to read it to 
him fdoud ; when it was found to be literally as 
fbllows :«-> 


. < My lord oat «f the lore i hetrw lo tome of 
yonere frends i beare a Oieriof yDO^r pneserrBceen 
therefor i wouM adryi^e yiQwe ts yowe tender 
yonrer lyf to deryee wmie ex^cnw tothift of youer 
aMeadaoee at this parietMnent far god md maa 
h»th eopcKrmd to pnpbhe tbe wiiskedves of iiiis 
tyme aod think aot dygbtlye of tUa ad?erteai9e9it 
hot retyefe youre aelf ioto yonre oontri wli^wre 
yowe may enpeet tbe ewi^t in aafti for tbopgbe 
tbe^ce be ao a^^faiwiee of vm n$ai yet i aay^ 
tlmye ahaU recyre a tenibel Uopre tbia parbtainent 
and.yet they ahaH not see who fawrta them tbia 
cowBcel is not to be coafntinad beeaiase it nay do^ 
yowe goode and can do yowe no barme for tbe 
danger ia passed aa flrooa aa J4VW9 barie bornt tbe 
letter aod i bop god will give yowe the grace to 
mak A g<M)d use of it to mbose boly.pi«tectM>a i 
commend yowe. ' 

Tbia letter was addraaiwd on tbe back, * To the 
Right HoBovraUe tbe Lard Mow'teagle ; ' bat it 
wiaa witfaont date and sttbtcriptioB* X4prd Monnt- 
engfe was of conrse awcb puaaled what to make 
of i^ mysterioaa ooBteatfti Hia first imprasaion 
waS| that it waa wbat in modem phraaeology ia 
called a ioaau to prevent him finam attending par- 
liament; but be afterwaids coneeiTed» probably 
from tbe firm tbongb inelegaiit language in wbi^ 
tbe epistle waa expressed^ that lA was of sufficiimt 
importance to be laid before bia Maje9ty'a Secre- 
tary of State. Accordingly, without legard to. 
tbe lateuesa of tbo hour (se^en), thB disc^forta 
o( a wiater night* or» wbftt would apfNBfur to haiRe. 
then been the chief obstacle, the darkness of the 
alroela of London, he walked immediately to the 

palace of Whitefaall^ whm he deltrered £kemf$* 
terieiis document to the Ead of Salisbuiy. 

Cecily having read the letter, giire Lord MonaO ' 
e'agle thanks for having brought it to him ; not, be 
said, becatue there seemed to be mnch meaning in 
it| but it might refer to a design which, be had 
heard, was entertained by the Catholics, of pre* 
sentmg a petition to the parliament this session, 90 
well backed that the government should be nnabb 
to refuse it. Such was the mysterious languigiBy 
in all probiibility, which some of the conspirators 
held on the subject among their friends, and ik 
which Cecil had already received some infonn*- 
tion regarding' the plot from abroad. This UnSj 
statesman said no more at the time to Lord Momit* 
eagle; but, immediately conveying the letter 'to 
the Earl of Suffolk, Lord Chamberlain, he began 
to consult with that o^cer regarding its meaning, 
which both at once conceived to refer to an 'ex« 
plosion 'of gunpowder,- to take place while the 
parliament was assembled. * It has generally beett 
thought strange that the truth was thus pitch^* 
npon ao qwckly, seeing that the letter was wiitten* 
in the dukest language, and the idea of an elpIo» 
aibn of gunpowder under the Parliament House 
y»M not abstractly an obvbus one. ' Yet, if 4i6 
letter be very attentively perused, it will be found 
that the mind is naturally led by the language to 
this conclusion, or at least, recondite as it is, caA 
hit upon no other. • 

Before making any resolution upon the subject, 

Cecil thought proper to take the opinion of other' 

>. . • • . . . 

* Lttter from the Karl of ^Utbuxy to Sir diafia* 
ComwaUis, WinwoocTi *' " 


tifl:8e memberB of tbe coanci], the Eatb t>f Not- 
tingham, Worcester, and Northampton; all of 
whom agreed with him in thinking ihe letter not 
Unworthy of attention. It was determined, how* 
ever, by the whole fi^e, that it might be advaii- 
tageons to make no stir about it for a few days, 
both to let the supposed plot ripen, and that they 
might then have the opinioB of the King, who was 
to 'return from the hnnthig at Eioystoan on Thnrfr^ 
day, and whose ' fortmitte judgment n clearing 
and solving vi riddles ' was well known to thenk 
Accotdbgly, on Friday next, the day after hia 
Majesty arrived in towio, the Earl of Salisbnry 
ffreseiited it to him in his gallery, without any o- 
ther preamble than a relation of the manner in 
which it came into his hands. 
. Janes read the letter, paused, read it again, and 
dien remarked, that this was a warning by no 
ideaiis to be despised. This could be no pasquil, 
he said, no mere attempt at bringing Lord Mount* 
ingle -into a ludicrous situation^ the style was too 
pithy and emphatic, too sincere^ to be interpreted 
in that sense. Salisbury called his Majesty's ai- 
ti^ntkm to one particulu: sentence, * The danger 
is pa0t as "soon «s you have burnt the letter, * 
which he thought could only be the composition 
of a Biadman or a driveller ; for, if the mere in* 
cremation of this frail sheet could avert the appre- 
hended mischief, what need of the warning? 
James, however, was of opinion that that clause 
on^ to be iDlerpreted in another sense, that the 
clanger would be as sudden and speedy in execu- 
tion as the burning t>f a sheet of paper in the fire ; 
IM94 he therefore cpigectured that it ma by gnn* 

110 LIFE OF 

powder nader tke Homo of L^dt ihalt, tbei P(ir*> 
liamenft was to raceive such ^ a terrible blow*' 

Satisbiuy, wbo considered Jfones * uk umler'* 
tkmding prinoef if any we erer hiid» ' * wiw miwli 
stmck by hifl raaaoniog. on tbia w^ject, wbid^ 
thoi^ not coincident with bip own* led to ibe. 
same eondnsion. He left hint bowerer, for thait- 
tkne, withoat proposing any measures of seeorityt 
bat nitber ^ with a merrie jsast^ aa his eastomt 
was; ' f and it was not tall after a second conQvl* 
tation with die fbor Earls, tliat be neact day con-, 
descended to allow, beiore the Kiag> that there 
was any necessity for snch proQeedinga* It waa 
then agreed between tibem, in presence of the 
Lord Chamberlain, diat the better oficer shonU, 
in accordance with the duties of bis office, insti- 
tute a search through the apaitqients under the 
FiBrliament House; thon^^.not till the evening' 
before Parliament was to assemble^ in order that, 
the plot, if any sudi 6zisted« might be discovered 
at its very ripest. Perhaps it should here be men^ 
tioned, that the honour of nnriddling the letter, 
which we have given to King and minister sev^ 
rally, is claimed exclusively by eacb-^by Cecil in 
bis well-known letter to Sur Charles GoMHwallis, 
and by King James in his antboriaed reb^u^v^ 
but that, if James had been informed by Cecil tha^* 
he and Suffolk had also thon^t of gunpowder» no 
ckim would have been made for .bun bigber Aan 
the honour of having also done sq» tbnugh in tho. 
second instance. I At the sametisMy ituuiatbe. 


* So he tenm him in a pnvat^ latter* 
NtnUtiye in Jamn's Works. 

Several writen, not observing what Is here pointed 
wunerdftilly St the King for suppoting himself 



aliowftd, agmnal ite nerit clsiiii^ by>tk« Klog^ 
that, although the intevptetafioa pnt hy hij» Upon 
the prineipd seatenee of the Icitter^ was afortBaate- 
one, it Gould not be the true ooet for it leems: 
erideat that the writ^ merely aaeenti hy it, to ia- 
duce Mountei^le to harH the letter, in order to 
pat himself oiit of all danger from being priyy to a 

By a Biagalarly ftutaitoaei oirebmstsnce, the eon* 
spimtors ▼erysoon learned that the letter bad been 
sent to Monnteagle. Tie domestic who had read 
it to his Lordriiip st table, hs^ng a friendship, for 
Thomai \^terf called upon him next evening ; 
told him that such a letter had been received ; thsl 
Monnteagle, suspecting a plot, had instantly laid 
it before Saibbnry ; aad entreated that, if he were 
concerned in any sncb enterprise, he ahonld im- 
mecyately abaadoa it, isnd fly frpm London* While* 
the man was in his prea^iee, the conspiratolr af* 
fected to treat the aialter lightly ; but he was no^ 
sooner alone, than he set out for Enfield Chase, 
and communicated what be bad heard to a meet*- 
ing of his associates. They were much alarmed 
at the intelligence, and sbme area proposed to 
give up the adventure ; Cate^by, howerer, inaistr 
ed upon sending Fawkss to Loadony ' to trie tbs ' 
ul^termost;' dedariag tjbat, if he were in the ^nws 
of that penen, he would not (temple to go fos« . 
ward. Fawkea went aad came safe back, dedar- 
iB|^ that he had found every thing as it was; whieh . 
again elevated their sj^ts. T)my had a meetiag 

to hav« be^a tbf detector of 1^ guppowdsr ti?esio% 9i^- 
ha really yra^ PQtwith^taniUng tb^t oth^r two penons,,^ 
unlinpwn to li^, had pitphed upon th6 ^^e id^a before , 
hfan. . 

aft Buhmi OH' FHdty, wheoi by general cffataA^. 
TVetham w^ taoc^d with the gaih of having writ- 
ten the letter ; which, however, he denied. Ob 
Saturday, the very day when it was agreed by the 
King and miniitefB to make a search, Tresham 
met Winter in Linoohi's Inn walks, with informa- 
tion that Salisbury had afaown the letter to the. 
King ; on which ¥^ter connselled Catesby that 
ail should be abandoned ; Catesby now consenting 
to this, it was resolved only to wait till next day» 
in order to take Percy with them* On Sundays 
however, Percy prevailed upon them to rererse 
their resolution, and remain where tfaey were. He 
himself meanwhile went to the country, to a seat 
of the Earl of Northumberland* 

On Monday afternoon, the search was made^ as 
designed, by the Lord Chamberiain, accompanied 
by Whinyard, keeper t>f the King's wardrobe^ 
and by Lord Mounteagle. After inspecting se- 
veral of the lower apartments and vaults, they 
cane to that in which the conspirators had de- 
posited their powder, which they found staffed 
fall of faggots, billets, and coal, together with 
some old furniture. The Chamberlain asked 
Whinyard for what purpose this apartment was 
kept, and was informed that it was let to Thomas 
Bney, the occupant of the neighbouring house* 
for a coal-cellair. Then casting his eye around die 
place, he;* observed a tall man standing in a ooi^ 
ner— the demon FavHces-— who, on being ques* 
tioned what he was, described himself as Percy's 
man, at present employed to keep the house and 
oellar in his master's absoice. Here Lord Mount- 
^t\gle« who bad accompanied the party, privately, 
informed the Chamberlatay that he could not helji 


•dBpectiDg !^rc7 to be tin writer of the letter, re* 
ooHectiBg, as he did, his suspected religion, mid 
an old fHemdship which might have indaced hia 
to give him thiswarniDg. 

Notwithstandiog this hint, Suffolk left die vanli 
as he found it, htit not tiH he had made an accn- 
ittte, tliiough apparently a very careless inspection 
of' the place and its contents. On reporting what 
lie had seen to the King and his little party of • 
GOtincillors, and ac^nainting them* moreoTer with 
Mbnnteagle's suspicion, they feH themselyes die*, 
tnlcted between a desire of taking every precan* 
tioh for the safety of the King's person, and a fear 
lest any search diey might make would be found 
Yldn, and only dmw upon them the ridicule of the 
public ; all agreeing, however, that there were now 
more shrewd causes for suspicion than before. 
After this question had been discussed for some 
time with considerable anxiety, - James decided » 
them at last in favour of a search ; bat proposed > 
that it should be conducted by a mere Justice of 
the Peace, and under pretence of inquiring for 
some hangings, lately missed out of the wardrobe $ 
by which means, they might avoid giving offence 
to' the Earl of Northumberland, Percy's kinsman 
lUtd employer, and also save themselves from the 
proper consequences of the hoax, if such it should 
tnm out. 

Towards midnight, therefore. Sir Thomas Kny- 
vett, a gentleman of the King's bed*chamber, and^ 
who was nt'the same time one of the justices of 
Westipiaster, proceeded with a small party of soU 
df^ to the Pift'liament-House ; leaving the King- 
i^Ols band of councillon to await the rcisuhin 
tki"' privy giOlely of Wldtthalh Meanwhife» 

114 LIFE OF 

FawkeSf alirmed by the 'aAemocm ^h ol (be^ 
Chsmberluo, bat stUl feaolred U> ma ev^ry risk^ 
fifMUt the ^venipg ia tbe Faolti widdag (b« mece^r 
saiy arrangements for the explorioD* H^mng jaa| 
Qompleted tbete prepantioaBy he had qniUed bis 
den of ktent aalpbnr, and vvoe alanding ia front 
of the door, booted aa forajonxBey* vben Kny- 
inett came op with his pasty» and took him pnaoo* 
er« Then poBhwg fiorwaixl iote the Taolt^.and 
tormng erer a fenr of the faggote, the party <li»- 
oorered one of the gmaller bairrela of ponrder* and 
eventnajly the whole thirty^ux* Thm being 90 
longer any donbt as te the eoospvacy, a. gentlef' 
man was sent up to a cbambcor wfaere Favkes 
wiaa disposedy in carder to seareh aad bind bia per* 
sen. The monster made great resistance ; gr^ied 
the g«itleman*8 left band so violently aa to piao- 
▼oke him to draw his dagger^ which, howev^ery be. 
did not use, from the wish oT proeoring an organ 
of evidence; and when trip^Md up, vad thrown 
u^n the growidy where all the parapharoalia of 
matches, tinder-box, and dark^hmtem, were taken 
ftom bis person, he exclaimed in an ngooy of dia- 
appointed entbosiaam, that be wished be had had. 
time to ignite the train, and diereby spend upon, 
himself and his oapiora the engine oi destroction,. 
in tend ed for a mnch larger and more importfint 

luiyvett lost no time in eommnnicatdng* intelli* 
gence of bia discovery to the Chamber]ain» who 
iasmediately bnrst in a tcansperl of joy into the 
place where the King and bia conncillora were aa* 
sembled, excUuming that all waa found out-^^ 
WB8 safe. The amaaement of the company, whan 
thii contenta of the vaolt waa dewaSbeds it wooU 


^ dSBIetilt 16 hnngfiie; f iiwMib wst ib the 
tlttf4» lyrotight Qt> ^ * HeigM^dat^g' ft(«rtttieiit, to 
miot ftft «»tttildiitbB fe^fore th« King, who hod 
rtm\^drM td g!«^ fi0 iMfd tM h« nlMttld leant mm^ 
Uf t&e {»im. WMcr ifumditlg lh«i«, tfti oliject ^ 
btfiT6r beyottd «tt )ftit«lH mi«^ <ifn6 httd the dkri- 
d^jr to a^ faitti if 'h« i;^0V6 «ot soity ^ • hfe t^ 
f&nl and heidous tftittKm. ^ He stnswered, itt tike 
tei^ftge of Sc^vohh timt he was i^ony for nothing 
hnt tlmt it was tfot performed. Behig retiainded 
«ilM hid wotfM bitvo in ti^eit^ maify of Ms owft pifr* 
^Mlioti ki the »Md« deMtii($tion, be ifeptied, iMt i 
f^ ttright wetl p^sh to Ha^ the i«9t t^M aiWd)^. 
To one of tho Kitfg^s i;otmtr]rinei}, wlio a^k^d hiM 
whftt he had inteitdi^ with so ntaftf battels of guti^ 
p«pwder, ho answered, theft it Was to bl6# i^ 
Sttftdk be^gasm batik to theiir nath^e moontainB. H^ 
Wtts told thttt he ^hotdd sttfib a worse d^ath Aati 
the ssi^asda of the lato Ptinte of Oftifigd ; but ife 
i^oin^d, that he could b^ar it as well. Bv^i^ e%' 
pv^fiion indicated a CJharactet of singular eftorgjr, 
^dthat his puipcme Was still tt^tn apon his 
iMiid. He often r)ep«ated, when the hopeld»s« 
nesB of pafdbn was spoisen of to bkn, tnat he 
shMd h&¥^ tmmfSeA it if he had accomplished b^ 
d«dgti. Oh tonaro beittg in«n«iotidd, h« efa^, h« 
w^d stiffs t^n Adttsatid cteaths rather than ac^ 
<^ttse Ms master or afiy oth«fr; He had been the 
sole projoeitor of llie eflt^rprise, as he tras to have 
been its sold «!telitttdr; and for that, if such was 
his deiititiy,. he was wiliiiig tc^ tender his exiefteace. 
bis behai^ottr befo^ the PH^ Goniidi, vM^ 
wtMi Was immediateTy assembldd in cousid^nible 
nnmber, may be giV^ ia the Khig's own words. 
*^l9oit withstanding tbo Jborror of the ftMit, the guilt 

116 LIFE or 

of hii eonaaeiio^ hk middea nurpriiiagy. tlie4inttr 
which should hare been itrkken in him byeeoi- 
iog before so grare a conndly and the restless aod 
confused qnestums that .every man did ynoL ham 
withy. yet was his conntenance as tore. from bsoig 
dejected, as he often smiled in SGomfnl mannert net 
only aTowipg the fact, bnt repenting only his failing 
in the execution thereof,, whereof (he said) the de- 
idL and not God,, was the discoyereF-.; answering 
quickly to every man's objection, sco£5mg at any 
idle questions that were propounded unto him, and 
jesting with siich as he thought had no/anthority 
to examine him». AU that day could the Couneillget 
nothing out of him touching his complices, vsIds* 
ing toanswertoany sndi questions which heUmught 
might discover the plot, and laying all the blame 
upon himself ; whereunto he said he was moved 
only for religion and conscience sake ; denying 
the King to be his lawful soveceigne, or the An- 
oynted of God, in respect he was a faereticke, and 
giving himself no other name than John Johnston^ 
servant to Thomas Farcy* But the^ next morn- 
ing,' adds the Eling, ^ being carried to the Tower, 
hee did not there . remaine above two or tfane 
dayes, being twise or thrijro in that space xe<«c- 
amined, and the racke.only ofiered and shown md* 
to him, when the maske of his Roman fortitude did 
visibly begin to wear and slide off his face, and then 
he did begin to confesse part of the truth. * * .^ ' 

The amazement and agitation into whidi the 
pubUc was thrown by this extraordinary discovery, 
went beyond all precedent ; and long before day 
the streets were crowded with people, ail anxtr 
onsly inquiring for the circumstances. 

The behaviour of the conspiratorsi aftns their^ do* 


ygm wens discofeved,- wai diat ni mmtwhottth 
tlwv than be baulked ia a gmificatioii which tbef 
faftre kmg and aaxioaslf e^ipected, will anbmit ta 
•the moat desperate riaks, and hazard, death itself^ 
xalher than lose even the last relic of a once glor]»- 
ons prospect. Such of them as wcfre in London 
at the time, fled to the coantry, taking with tJiem 
a few horses, some of which thejr had stolen :diu> 
ing the night from a riding-master*. Having. reach- 
ed the rendez7oas at Dnnsmoory long befone .an7 
intelligence of the conspiracy, they there attempt- 
ed,, with their companions, to laise a Catholic- in- 
anrrection. Every effort,, however, was mayail- 
ii^. When they fonnd themselTes.nnsnccessfal 
. IB the first instance, they pvoceeded rB|>idly throogh 
Warwickshire and Worcestershire, calling upon 
every one whom they thonghl likely te join them. 
But the King s proclamations lowsed the sherifEs 
in pnrsoit, before they had raised two score of 
men ; ' and^ after a harasung journey, or rather 
.flieht of three days, they threw themselves into 
'll6U>each House, on the borders of Staffordshire! 
the seat of Stephen Littleton, . one of their adher- 
ents ; where they were scarcely housed, before the 
aheriff of Worcestershire appeared before them, 
and summoned them to surrender. They were at 
• first very confident ; told the officer that he would 
reqnire a greater company to take them ; and pre- 
pared with great coolaess to defend, themselves 
from the expected attack. But as they were dry- 
ing a small quantity of gunpowder before a fire 
in their chamber, a spark flew out and set fire to 
it ; by which the roof was blown off, and Catesby, 
with other conspirators, so much scorched as to be 
almost unable to fighu It was remarked as strange 

118 irittdor 

•ihBt tbef thus sidfaied fey tire mam iartna B mc 
liMsh «b0f dMimd to wm fir dM d wir nctida «f 
««li«n. *'. The hotHB w»^ lM^g;baiiii; to take ite, 
iAsy #«m dbUgodtOfeMlve upon nilymgfmeth 
-wnoBgllie theriflTB c^nspttiy, m their only remoitt- 
ng chtnee «f escapeb On tbiir opening the doer 
M do «o^ imleMl of their getting om, the elieriff'fl 
•mtefaehed ifty ml thut in mdba strong tidoiB 
40 pot eeoipe out of the qoestion^ They then iio- 
gan a.«lB^>apate fight in the eonr^yard. Cateehy, 
Penyy and Winter, pladng themielfes back to 
•hadc» Ateodfor tome time» atagnaanAOiiily cm- 
•teDdkig agirin^t a hmtof inferior foes. At kHi a 
ntaa of the naaie of Street, belongkig to Woitcea- 
'tea, kiaded lue pieee dettbloi and, hiying it didiber- 
ately ov6r a neigfaboorhig waii, Jdlled Gaia^ 
.arith one bidlat, andmertallytFanaded Pency wMi 
iha other. Wiatev, ptfefioifriy ivmaided in die 
belly with a |rike, wae at the satto momeiit tthea 
piiftonep by a niaa who eaaie behkid and throw ik 
*ann8 avonnd hnn.. As Rookwood, Grmt, and all 
the other prineipd ^onspbtttoi^ weie by tfaia tiaie 
•bfOoght down, the rest sttknitied witbnit kattkm 

All die smtmorB €i thk fkny, together with a 
Ibw othanif snckas Everai^ Digby and Garnet die 
: Jaent, who weio taken elsewhere, wita HOoa aAar 
brought to London to stttid trial. Cttlpriit motb 
odioos to their IsUow^ieoMirymen never perh^M 

* A tBnk^ lai^gsr qmnlx^ of powdii^ vhich kiy ia » 
bag near the other, was tOMod by it into the courtyard, 
wiuiout taking fire ; and the people further took notice, 
' thflt dtlly enoagh xnu ignited to scorch fh^m ; iHiertas, if 
the laitger qtuiDtity bod explode), none could bave survi?. 
ed to gi?e aa ateoimt of the flott 

KiiJG j;am£s:the first. 119 

Jirok«<ift|»preli«hded in Eogiaiick A« they iNOMd 
•along^ (the people' flocked • around tbem with on- 
•gier* onrioBit^r^ bot . shrank 'as qaickly bark firm 
•tike -sight' of. a set of ooantenances, whereon they 
<cmieeiFed,-ia tbeur horror, that the Almighty .had 
-•eta.-stanipincKcatiire of snpemacural gnilt. • The 
^King'at finst desired to see: them, onitbeir ezamiMi^ 
Jtion; -bat, :heariag^ that iheir visages were, as on^ of 
his conrtiers expresses it, the most terrible - evtf 
^look^d on, he said he /el( hioiself.soi;ely. appa\led 
lit the thought, and chose rather to be absent* ? 
■Whatever were James's son^ation^ upon the;B9h- 
jectin geperal, and we may easily conceive them 
to have been by no means of a tranquil nature, he 
Burprised the public very much by the moderation 
with which he talked of the plot, four days after 
its discovery, at the opening of parliament. While 
the whole country was ringing with execrations 
ei the Roman Catholics, James then made it his 
endeavour to show, that the whole profession ought 
ky no means to be blamed for the conspiracy, but 
only the few desperate individuals who were al- 
TetLdf detected as guilty in it. This strange conduct 
was partly owing, perhaps, to a candid and ration- 
el interpretation which he put upon the plot, but 
more, in all likelihood, to the fear in which he 
•tood all his life of incensing the Papists beyond 

It seems unnecessary to follow these unfortu- 
nate men through all the details of their trial and 
execution. Suffice it to say, that, during both, they 
generally conducted themselves with the same 
hardened spirit which had led them through the 

* Letter of Lord Harrington of Exton. 


.dretdfol enterprise itael^ The King^ who hmi 
-pBeTioaslf erdered die 5th of Angnst to he ob» 
eenred as a holiday an aeeoimt of the Gowry tiea^ 
floiiy added the aaore noted 5th of Noyenbcr to the 
list, where it has ever siiioe lemaiaed-^thoogh wm 
may be permitted to oheerve the time has euriy 
now acriyed, iriien all snob memonab <^liie atrife 
of pafty in the eady periods of omr Urtory shooM 
perish. * 

* 'Ilie Earl of Nortliumberlaiid being guspected^ and 
aftierwards found guilty^ of a certain d^ree of accesdon to 

lSb6 Qunpoiwder treaaon, tfafoa^ bk kinanan Ferey, 
Ibied in L.90^000, and confined for manir ymra in te 

KING TiiUMBfSa^ FlttlT. :12(| 

t m 


1606— 16ia 

Fob flome jean a£ter the discavery of the Gnor 
powder Plot, the tenor of Jamea'a life vaa marked 
if no iaddeat of great import^ce» wh3e the hie(- 
toqip of the conntry is almott equally barren i|L 
Baatleam of ktereat^ Hayings in I604» oondvded 
the war with Spain'^-ea poor terms for England, 
H waaaaid he and the country had now aetded 
diOwa into the foU enjoyment of his fevonrite 
iaa«iB» 'Beiad pacifici^ a peace little distnrhe^ 
during the remaining twenty years of his Ii£e. 
One of the charges against Janes is^ that hJ9 
campiomiaed the honour of hie country hy trucb- 
.Bag^te inSerioi? oontiaental statas, for the sake of 
praserviag the peace he loved so. mjich ; and 
.gflnaraliy comparad to the coward^ wbo» for £euI- 
Wg, to gjnre one good blow when it is needed^ sub- 
jects himself to am endless series of injuries and 
affit)ats* We should not fail to observe, however, 
aaudst.all the ridicule and censure thrown upon the 
King loff this reaa<m, the grand decisive factf whic^h 
-stai^ m boldly oat m, his fiaTOur^ that, during his 

122 UFE or 

whole reigiii ihe conntiy was in a condidon per- 
haps the most prosperous — ^the most tmlf happy it 
had ever known. Without forgetting how much of 
this was owing to the excellent re^[n of Elizabetb^ 
we should allow a proper proportion of merit to the 
benevolent and moderate government of Kii^ 
James ; and by no means forget that, without the 
peace which he seemed for .the Jiations he govern- 
ed, they never conld have enjoyed the benefits 
wrought :eut by his predecessor. In estiiniiting 
the character, moreover,. of a peaceful monarch, 
much may well be allowed for the poor figure 
which his doings make -on the pages of contempo- 
rary history, as conti^ted with those of more war- 
like sovereigns; for, while every stroke'strucE'l^ 
the military adventurer receives ample corame^n^ 
ration and praise, scarcely a sentenbe is ever, bjr 
any chance, aUowed to the widely-difibsed'doinee^ 
tic happiness, die advance of commerce^ and th^ 
:nrts, and the mcrease of tSi the elegancies- of lif^, 
'wbich have been secured by the man who hashaA 
the wisdom to abstain from war.^ 'It 'is- a very ob** 
servable circumstance in favour of James's govern^ 
ment, that, the only miseriee complmned df bydie 
people during the time it lasted, were of s m^tt- 
physictd kind* The non-confomist, for- iniUMDe, 
found himself a little distressed^ because hb '.was 
Qbliged to yield a verbal obedience tothe rtlles #f 
^a church he dissented from ; the Ptolihmitnt-fbtmd 
reason to i^monstrate against- the theoretiea! %nat- 
ims of arbitrary rule occasionrfTy spouted to theii 
by the King, and genendly grumbled a good deal 
— as all Englishmen, be they rich or fott/tM 
do, about taxes — ^when he addressed them ftvm 
subsidy ; the Catholic popuiatioa Mt tb# Weighft 


fif^the penal lavs aerereiy^ though il is endent 
that James would have remitted dbem hat for thi^ 
pK^d^ces of the country ; the modes resorted to 
for raising mpney to the Court, were also, in many 
instanees, , violent and irregular. Yet, in. spite of 
the complaints of Papist and Puritan, in spite of 
all the eviis' of. monopolies, patents, purveyance), 
and forced loftus*-the result rather of long esta* 
hUshed system, than of the King's personal tyranny 
r— the nation revelled, ahsolutely revelled, in aU. 
kinds of luxury and comfort, and was never, at any 
period of its history, hefore or since, more worthy 
of the epithet Merry England* One fact wiU 
apeak volumes in favour of this assertion : it waa 
in this reign that a taste for the^ne arts first begUA 
to creep into the puhlic mind. But, indeed, the 
absence of all complaints on the part of the com* 
mon people, and the existence of all kinds of luxu« 
ij among the upper ranks, are so evident ou the 
boe of the annals of this reign, that there is little 
need for any formal attempt to prove what haa 
been stated* Perhaps- the religious and political 
evils, which .formed the only subject of complaint 
^ the period, and which afterwards occasioned th9 
civil war, only add to the general testimony in fa- 
vour of their contentment as to temporal mattered 
lor, in an industrious community, it is only aftcar. 
^«m«n has placed himself at his ease in regard to 
the affairs of this world, that he becomes irritable* 
on account of matters merely spiritual* 
; One fact seems abundantly certain— -that JameSi 
^ith all his puerilities of character, and all his ex« 
^^d notions of the royal prerogative, was never- 
^beless very much beloved by bid people* - This 
waa testified in a very-remaricable mauler^ on the^ 

124 LIF£ OF 

fM of Majrcb'1666, wbcfn atepott aro«e in tto 
dty tiiftt be was assaBsinated'at Okingfaam in Kent, 
while bimtkig, the instrament used being a poi* 
eoned kaife, and tke assassiift a Papiflt. llie effect 
•f Mcih a nmioiir oa the pfublie taindf exdted as 
It bad been bf llie recent plot, m described in rerj 
■trong bagnage by Artfanr WMson. * The Court 
at Whitehall, the Parliament and City, toek iiie 
abtrm, mnstenng «p AeUr old ieare, every nun 
iitandmgvt gaze, as tf some new prodigy bad aeiz^ 
ed them. I^idi a terror bad this kite nonstroiiB 
intended niiscbief imprinted in the hearts of ihe 
peep]e,^fl(t'tliey took fire IrOm every little trtdn of 
foaronr, -and were ready to grapple with their own 
4estrticti<ni befote it caine. In the midst of this 
agony, there oa»e assnrance of the King's safety, 
iiriiidi he was enforced to divnlge by prodamation, 
to fe-estabtish the people. ' When James came to 
town next day, he was received 'by the inhalntantti 
whh transports of joy, and a welcome which mi^t 
be termed eathnsiastic Qnite touched by their 
^Kpressbns of siflteetion, he told litem, in his nbnal 
kindly manner, thttt a heUer king they might per- 
bajis b«v« got by bis deiUib, if it bad Islken place; 
bat be was sure ihey n^er conld have got one^ 
wbo Idved them better, or bad their interests niore 
eineerely at heart. 

' The smnmer of 1608 was distingaisbed by an' 
orent of some importonoe in James's domestic life* 
^-a visit from Ifis bMthet^in<law, Christiem IVv 
"Kitg of Denmark, fiver 'sinoe the Qoeen bad 
qnined her nufi^ oeatttry hi 1589, ebe bad seen' 
none of bet* rekitions. It toay therefore be sop*' 
]Nised tbat, at. this time, after having been seveiW 
^SBen yeaiH Ottt ^f ifatiir rfght^ and ti^ben Ae bMl 


of tbvee cMidimy and the queeiL 
ef many redmi, it most faava been with no ordi- 
BBBey feaimg^ that die ieo«ived this vkit from her 
brother. Christiern came in a huge and moat mag^ 
Qifieeiit dHfiy accompanied by some sosaller ones^ 
wd cast anchor at Oravesend on the l^h of 
inky* He is deaceibed aa hamng been a yonng 
meiiv '* of goodly personj of etatnre in no ex- 
trenea, in &ce ao like his sister, that he who hath 
Been the one may paint in his fancy the other. 
He was appareled in Uack, cat out on doth 
of silyer ; about his hat he wore a band of gold, 
nrrooght in form of a crown, and «et with pre- 
dons sumes. ' James was at Oatlands when lie 
heard of his brother-in-law's arrivel ; but he loal 
no time in sailing down the river to meet and give 
iiim welcome. The meeting took place under 
circumstances of Ibrmality and grandeur suited to 
ao august an occasion* Having (fined in the cabin 
tif Christieiii's vemd, and spent a night on board, 
James «ocompai|ied him nekt day up the river to 
Graeixwich, where the Queen lay at present, cott- 
oned to her chamber, in slow recovery fron a re- 
:oent jieceudiment, or bewaifing the misfortune of 
dmving lost her infimt on the second day of lie 
'rastenoe. It was remaiked, as the vessel was 
ipHMseediiig, that tlie river bid not before bomb 
!|ara sofvefeigns at once on Its bosom, since Henry 
"Vin. received the Emperor Charies V. James 
fioftUelyallowed pneoedenoe to the Danish king on 
«U oecsBsioas, and kept him in genetal at his rij^ 
4iaiid^ saying, when Christiern remonstrated agatnit 
Jbis deference, that he must be abeolutely i^yed 
in his own country. The nieeting of the royal 
. ^otbOT and aisteir waa of the tendexeet kind. All 

\2fi X1FB or r 

the evailinig of diii dtsy (FMmj}, tod all limm 
were spent ia repoee^ and in feastiog* .Oa.Saa** 
-day* they attended aermooi 'and derottonal-ezeiH 
fiises in the early part of the day» and feaaled. ia 
the afternoon on a diilinery whicK strange to aay^- 
was served np to the sound of drumsy tnuBpet% 
and other mtisic—-' the whieh mdved hk Higin 
ness to mneh delight.' This day having beea 
apent, as we are informed hy a contemporary wrift« 
.er, ' in God's praises and their comfort, ' the^ 
hunted on Monday . in Greenwich Park ; and- ia 
the afternoon, * their High Estates, ' says the aaDM 
writer, ^ went to Eltham, a honse of his Majestjpt^ 
some two miles distant from the coiu't, when^ lA 
the parkf they hunted with great leisure, «b4 
killed three bucks on horseback, being foUowcii 
with many companies of people, which, in tfaeit' 
love, eame to see them. ' Here a drcnmatasica 
occurred, which seems highly probative of th« 
.good esteem ia which Janies was held at this pep 
,riod. A great many of these people, says the 
aimple chronicler of the Danish king's visits t 
< not used to follow such j^easuves as huntivg^ 
especially on foot, thought not on their |iailies^ 
but in the joy of tbei? hearts (whieh no doubt, wii 
pleasing to them), they endeav^oured^ with all their 
power, to follow after their horses,* as never weaned 
ia so royall company, thinking themselves »as| 
happy (of many oihers) to behold so rare and ei^ 
ceUent a sight, two kings and a prince; and-saril* 
ly, in the opinion of many, their jroyal persoaa 
might take great care to heare thehr cenlinual firiei 
ito God for his blessings and lo preserve tbe% 


iMr ilates and dignitiet, from M ^malKce ami 
tmyton* pra^ices for e<rev. The son gotog neai9 
hiB. place of realty their ple^ui^ finished, aadtbey 
returned themselFes to the coim» all the way 
pacuig eadil^y that the people might better obtaia 
their deaires in beholdipg them*' 

■Ilk curious to obaerve, ia the minute acconnta 
given by contemporary writers of the visit of the 
King of Denmark, that,; for, curiosity in seeing 
eights of this kind, the ciUzens of London were 
nearly the same as in our day« The following 
description of the reception wluch th«y gave the 
two kings, on their. progress, from Grieenv^ich^to 
Theobald's, might almost be supposed a qn )tation 
from some recent number qf the Mornin Posl* 
regarding the advent of a potentate of our owjp 

Thursday, July 24, < the moming bc^g fieuce^ 
every man in his place gave his attendance* The 
tei^es waited for their Majesties^ whe, about 11 
e^doekf came idMiard them, accompanied with the 
prince (Henry), and were rowed to BlaokwiiDt 
nAieit^ their coaches with .their train attended their 
eeitiing, with such multitudes of people. as werei 
net to be numbered. At the landing of his High* 
nesft, ^e merchants' ships that an<^red in the 
road then discharged such a peal of ordnance aa 
ga«ie great contentmMit to that royal company. 
Thence they set forwards the way that leadeth t^ 
Stratford, and so to Theobald's, twelve utiles dia* 
ttint firom L«ondonk a famous and moat delightbd 
.heiuje of the Right Honourable Eari of SaUsbwf^ 
all the -way met with great company of people* 
which saluted them and prayed for th^rhappi* 
iMssi but most eiipecvdly .until they cme three q$ 

hnk tndes -from Lmidoii ; an wMdi^ Uraf wtm m6 
tepledbbed mth men «Bd wonseti 6f good eoit^ 
heme mi foot, some on horM^neky and some in 
teaches, tbalt there was hardly way left for iSbmr 
Inytl ^mpuiy to pass tbem ; sooh is tlie lore of 
thu nation to the King aad his loven and friaida^ 
tad in ^^r lore, their desires so great to 4ieliold 
their del^hts, that no paiae whaiter^ hat -they 
teteem * as pleasure to ei^ef it, espedally t6 b^ 
liold «o lionoarable and heareoly a eighty twa 
taoynted Idngs aad so royal a prinee, whom GM 
la las great mercy erersMife preserve and ka^ 
froai • all tndtorous ptacticeii and other erUa. 

' Bat lliere wasone di«»nstmee in this p ra g re aa ^ 
HAnidk coald seareely hare happened in the pra^ 
sent day. * Before these royal persons cameiiea^ 
die house of Theohald's, there was strewed in the 
fc^ways ahandanoe of leares eoloored greeii, eat 
like osfcen ka^es, on ereryone of whidi was wiil» 
lea, in large Roman letters of geld, ^ Wblcoiii^ 
*WsiK}OM& ; ** which bemg preseated to their Mar 
jeMies, iliey praised the deriee, aad fooad their 
Wbleome to l^ra and thirin as great as was apobea 

' ThiBy were entertained for foiv daysal; Tliaa^ 
Md'a, in a styie of esitimn^aaee wUoh gires a 
strange riew of the- manners of 1^ age ; the ia^ 
teUeotori pleasares vrisiag firam the hearing «tf 
aeeing of Ben Jonson'e olsssical deriees, -and* teai 
Ikie sarrey of the spteadid gardens and oliier 4th 
dbvtttire objedto winch snvoaaded > Ae house in tf 
^Kveetions, heiag mingled, it woidd appeal^ wiib 
aenanal d^ghts of tiie. groasest nature, «spaoial||y 
Ihrit/of linking to eaoesB.. Sir John Haniaigtam 


In ft letter initten frotn the itpoty hud given « iinmI 
picturesque and «miifiing Bccmuft of the ecoie. 

^ * In oompMioice' with your aalang, now ehall 
yon accept my poor aoconat of rieh doings. I 
eiune here li *day or two before tho Dani^ King 
eune; and from the day he did ceme, tiH Uik 
iMsur, I have heen wefl nigh orerwhehned with 
caronsal and sports of all Icinds. The sports be<» 
^an each day in "snch manner and sach sort^ as 
weH nigh pennaded me of Mahomet's paradise* 
We 'had women, and indeed wine too, of snch 
plenty as would have nstonished each beholder. 
Oar feasts were magnificent, and the two royal 
gnests did most lovingly embrace each other at 
iMe* I think iftie Dfuie hath strangely wronght 
oh onr good English nobles ; for those whom I 
eonld never get to taste good liqoor, now follow 
ib» fashion^ and wallow in beastly delights. I%e 
hdies abamhn &mi* tobriety^ and ($re aeen to reUe 
4ktna in iniaxicaihn. In food sool^, the pnMft« 
naent did kindiy to provide his Majesty so season- 
iMy with -money ; for ^ere have been no hkdce of 
good living; shews, sights, and banqnetinga from' 
Aufiii to eve. 

'''One day, n great feast was held, nnd, alter dm» 
ner, the rl^Tesent«tion of Solommi his temple, and 
iM^ tomiag of the Qneen of Sheba, was made, or 
(iB I way bitter say) was m^sant to have beMi^ 
fl^adi^'hefore' their Majeslaes^by device <>f the Earl 
^^SaKiAmry nnd t>theni. BiH alas, ns dl earthly 
Alngs ^ iedl tD p^r mortals in enjoyment, sodit 
l^tove* dnr presentment thereof. Ttte lady who 
dlA'flByilliei Q^ead% pam^ <M< eairry most pipecion» 


gifts to both their Majesties; bat, foigetting the 
steps arising to the canopy^ overset her caskets in- 
to his Danish Majestie*s lap, and fell at his feetp 
though I rather think it was in his face. Mneh 
wait the hany and confusion ; cloths and napkios 
were at hand, to make all clean. His Majesty- 
then got up, and would dance with the Queen of 
Sheba ; but he feU down, and hnn^bled himself be« 
fore her, and was carried to an inner chamber,.and 
laid on a bed of state, which was not a little defil- 
ed with the presents of the Queen, which had been 
bestowed upon his garments ; such as wine, creamy 
jelly, bei^erage, cakes, spices, and other good mat* 
ters. The entertainment and show went forwardt 
and most of the presenters went backward, or feU 
down ; wine did so occupy their upper chambera* 
Now did appear in rich dress, Hope, Faith, and 
Charity. Hope did assay to speak, but wine ren- 
dered her endeavours so feeble that she withdrewi^ 
and hoped the King would excuse her brevity^ 
Faith was then alone, for I am certain she was no^ 
joined to good works, and left the court in a stag- 
gering condition. Charity came to the King's feel» 
and seined to cover the multitude of sins her sis* 
ters had committed ; in some sort she. made obei- 
sauce and brought gifts, but said she would retun^ 
home, again, as there was no gift which heaven 
had not idready given his Majesty. She. then re-- 
turned to Hope and. Faith, who were both sicl^ 
and spewing in the lower halL . Next came. Ylo^t 
lory, in bright armour, and presented a rich swor^ 
to the King, who did not .accept it, but put it. by. 
with his baud ; and by a strange medley of rersK 
fication, did endeavour to make suit to the King.. 
But yiotory did not triumph long ; fori after mui^, 


Ismeiitkble uttsraace, she tvsbs led'avay liki^ t Mlj 
captive, and laid to rieep ih tba onter steps of tho 
antichamber. Now did Peace make edtry, aod 
atiiTB/to get foremoiBt to the King; bat I griere 
to tell how great wrath she did disGorer unto thoM 
oC.herjitteadants ; and, mach jcontrary to h^r seaiT 
Uance, mdely made war with lier branch, ai)d laid 
idaithe patea of those who did oppose ber coiQing* 
^ I haT0 mvch manrelled a^ those strange piiger 
aatriesy and they do- bring to my remembranisf 
.what passed of this sort in our Queen's days ; of 
which I was sometime an humble presenter and 
jnsistant : but I never did see such lack .of good 
'order, diseretiooy andsobriety, as J hi^ve now dope. 
Jhave passed much time in seeing tbQ royal sportf 
cf hunting and hawking, where the manners werjp 
•such as miademe derise the ^beasts were persuing 
^e sober creation, aiid not man. in quf^st of e^^r;: 
cise -and food. I will now ia good. sooth decli^ 
to you, who will not blab, that the.gunppwd<9r 
fright is got out of idl our heads, and we. are gqing 
oa hereabouts as if the devil was contriring every 
mau to. Mow up himself, by wild riot, excess, and 
devastation of time and temperance. The great 
ladies do go well masked ; and indeed it bjs the 
odly phow of their modesty^ to conceal their coun- 
'tenance. But alack I they meet with such cdun- 
teuance to uphold their strange doings, that I 
nnurvel not at ought that happens. The lord irf 
^ die . mansion is overwhelmed in preparations . at 
Thieobald*s, and doth marvellously please both Kings, 
with good mebt, good drink, and good speeches. 
I da often say (but not aloud), that the Danes 
^have again conquered* the Britons; for -I see no 
raan, or woman either, who can command ^erself* 


ekm$'' And I wiU befora PriM^ YmituMwt 

Wluiievar k reprehensible ki dne condocfty nn«| 
be pbieed te the accoant ef the King of.Dewuak 
ahiney end net to that of King James; for the 
httefi akbongh by no means a Mahometan m tot 
gard to wine, was not at all lemaricahle for this 
viee« The truth is, the hnmoor el the Danish 
ueaareh in Ihvovr of deep* potations, infected the 
ooitrty and became, for the time, the reigning feUp; 
James himsdf ^ving into it, with his nsoal geod 
nature^ alllioiigfa by principle abhorrent of hahitnsi 
dmnkenneM. There is something chssieal in the 
bacdbanaliau propensities ef the Kmg of Denniari^ 
Shakespeare is sapposed to have been iadiwed^ bf 
what he saw of them in EnghuMl, to write the fidh 
lowing well*knowii passage in Hamlet, and alsoita 
d es c ribe the nsnrperin thai oslebrated drsma ana 
dmnkard-— • 

< This heavy-headed rerel, east and west, 
Kikes 118 tradiicedaa[id taxed of otfaernatSsoB 9 ' 
Thej depe IIS druDkards, aad with swiaiflb pbr^ . 
Soil our addidon; and indeed it takes 
From our aduerenientSi though performed at hd(^h^ 
The pith and marrow of one attribute. * 

* * 

Seme of die facts recovded regarding his infti^yi- 
peaance, are calculated to astonnd the aeo8^.9f 
men in this comparatively sober ago* Howell* tl|s 
letter*writer, telk ns of a £sast which his Maj^^st^ 
encagavie to the English, amhsssadors at his own 
eomrt, which lasted from ele?en in the day till t|iS 
ereaing, and during which he drank tbirty-fiTB 
•heahhs in as many cups of good Rhenish ; yet| 

• Kugae AntSquo^ £d. 1804r, i. 916^ e/M^« 


dM^ it fast carrM mway k Ik Aifr, h# ira^ 
•at id the liuitii^, aexl mornngv i>y bmk of chy: 
On one occasidD, when graetly eferated by Iii)ii0i$ 
he IdU hk serranl to aik eny gift w the iwim e£ 
helf Itts kiagdooiy. aad it ahoeld be gif«D hilar Am 
maOf * fie^g fak eaaefeer to Veeetly ouliof vmrnj 
deaiaiided oiilf s gcead pek of etags' honn; foe 
wUcby bk adncation of bo flUoderato • Teqaeek,.tfa« 
Kin^hestDwed m him three thonttBd doikw.'^ 
While ia Eogknd^ by p«fe diat, k woald appe»{ 
of that vwwf whieh a aoiad iasfared; by» any Tiokai 
eaihasiaam abrays enefckesy moie or lesty mm 
tkoae aioiuid it» he ptevaiied npoa hk sebeiif 
famther-ia-lair to eater into conipetitioii with hki 
as • driaker; aad Aey had fireqnent triak ef 
stomigth k tibia ingiocioiis waiilBve. At Tlieebihifii) 
if we are to believe the somewhat questioiiabla 
aathdiity last qaoled» hk Brhanniir Sweety #aa 
flamed off from table k the arma of hk' itfm t i e i4 
and not without great difficulty depesitedrin bei; 
Aad to Bttch an exoem waa the prevailing' eviicap- 
ried among' the ooactien themselfea^ dwl^ aciBDcd^ 
ing t» the amae anthorityy. one waa fowid dead en 
the taUe after sapper^ the wine nmaing oat of hk 

On one of the eveningi of the royal enteitain- 
aieat at Theobald'jBy thk yonag^ BacchaaiaC bad 
nearly fallen into mortaL qaarral #itb dievSail ilf 
Notting^bamy the kmed ceaqneror of the $<»dkaid 
iminciUe armada. It had pleaaed this aamot 
nobl^inan^ aa already rekted^ to macryy fior hk 
t^d wifia^ the yoothfid and Uoomii^ Lady Ma^r 
gareti Stnart, danghter of ^atEatld^ Mimiqr ^ 

: « Ffeijtpa'ft IKyioe CAti|str<^b«i el <lie Hom^a ef . Stnaiit 

1S4 ja¥Ef>T' 

funed in. Scotland for his good looks and liir«ii<»- 
fiirtanate end, and wlio was, of conse, consia to 
the Kmgt, The addled bnim .of the King: of 
Denmark were: tickled at*, the idea of an old maa 
married to so young a wife ; and, eneonraged per* 
bapa^by.tfaecbaracter ofthe Eari-^fer faiB*Lord« 
abip;was an arrant 'coxeomb— 'he oonld. not help* 
in *tbe coarse of their caronsalsy mdcing eertaia 
alluaionsi which at^ onoe touched the honour of 
the wife, and oifiended the vanity of the husband. 
The wrath of the latter was appeased at the tiase^ 
Jwobably by the mediation of the King; but net 
to the 'indignation of the Countesfc • She, having 
learned what took place, Jost no 'time in writing 
the following - letter to * the ' • Danish ambassador ; - a 
iMmposition worthy of herself and her anceston. - 

( .* 6iR<— I am rery sorry. this occasion should 

have beoA oflfered me 'by the King your^ mastery 

.wUcL makes me troublesome to you for the' pre* 

eent. It is reported to me^by men of honour, the 

^reat wrong the. King of D^es- hath done aae; 

.when I was not by to answer fermysrif ; foc^ if I 

Aadbeen present^ I would bav^.letten him know 

how much I scorn to receive that wrong* at his 

•hirnids; - I need nht urge the particular oi^ it, ^for 

Ithe King himself knows it best. < I protest* to yo% 

'.Sir^ I £d; think as- honourably of the King yonr 

'jnaster, as I did of my own < prince ; but I now 

:persnade myself there is aamuch baseness in bin 

«as can he in any man : fw, although he be apriaoe 

-by birth, it seems not to me that he harbours ai^ 

cprincely thought in his breast; for, either in priaoe 

or subject, it is the basest that can be to wrong 

«ny woman of honouc. I deserve ar little (hat 


xfBmt Jh« gAv^ lDe,.'ai ta^im thm'malkm ol himMif 
or of Us chUdreft; tod i£ erer I ooue to knoir. 
l^hat maa hath in€»raied yovr niMter so wroiig«>' 
ftiUy of me, I shall do my best for pattittg him- 
Uom 'doing the like agidii to: any edher s but if it 
h«th come by the* tongae of aay womsQi I dare aa^ 
ahe would be glad to have oempaaioiiBb Se, lesF*^ 
mg^. to troaUfi. you aay lartbar, : I reat, your friend^' 

* M. Nottingham. * , 

Wlidy on readiog this letter, doth not imagine that 
he htee ih It the voice of the Mood of Murray ? 
I The vMt of the Xing of Denmark was extend- 
ed- above three weeks, in an" almost mifnterrapted 
rieriei 6f gntnd entertainments, one of which was 
afforded by thie city of London. On Sopday the 
lOth of August, James and the Queen, togethet' 
with the FHnce of Wales, conducted their guest 
to Rochester, where they dined on board one of 
like Danish vessels^ It would seem that his Ma- 
jesty of Denmark had one other extravagant taste, 
Nisides what m above specified — one for hearing 
^tischarges of cannon. > Being conducted on Stan- 
#qr ai^^oon to awind-naill hill near.Upnor, he 
was there regaled with one thousand 'and eight 
fleal^ el shot frbm* the vessels lying 'in the river ; 
^ wUch made such musick^ in his ears, * B9.jb^ af 
tetter of the day, * that he told the Kmg, if be 
had spent half his:kingdoAi in a banquet, he could 
not have contented him so well ; and further, ^t, 
la r^utal, he gwve hin»elf * and his heart to do 
ibe King^i so Ibng as he lived, all friendly offices 
\toik in wofd and deed. ^ If tlie King of Denmaik 
wte tendered thus semaniental by cannon-shot, he 
iaf Orecl BHtaiu tvaa rendered equally poBte by 


130 Lirs ov 

hia brother>ia-law'8 profemions. He- ' amwereif , 
that * neTor any man was sa welcome to \Am am 
the King of .Denmark, nor ever should any— tiU 
he. came again;*'' j 

" Next di^, the royal* party dined on board the 
Admtraly or principal ship of the King of Den- 
mark, a vessel of prodigions si^e, and great splen- 
donr of decoration ; its galleries, for instance, be* 
mg all gilded. Besides the royal family, only fifty 
persons were present, and those of the first dis« 
tinction. Here again hi» Danish Majesty's taste 
^or shot was gratified abundantly ; for ' at every 
health there were, from the ships of Denmark and 
the forts, some three or four score great shot dia« 
charged; and of these ^thundering voUies there 
were between forty and fifty. You would have 
thought, ' says this quaint old writer, ' that Jupi- 
ter had been of the party, ' About four in the af- 
ternoon, the King of Denmark presented to the 
King of Great Britain a beautiful and well-con- 
trived fire- work, ' • ♦ • which, * very methodi- 
cally, continued burning and cracking for the space 
of three quarters of an hour. Which being con- 
Qumed, the Kings, with tears in their eyes, Uh^ 
their leave. ' 

The visit of this northern mpnarch affords a 
dreadful instance of the profusion, or ra^er,{it 
may be called, the utter disregard of the jiroper 
vses of money, which, at this period of his Hfe, 
began to characterize King James, It is crediUy 
affirmed that he spent, on this month's debauch, 
in entertaining a personage who was not politically 
of the least account to him, the greater part of .A 
subsidy lately granted to him by P^liament, to 
this amount of four hundred an4 fifty*three thpn^ 


Band pounds, which he had obtained for the pro^ 
fessed purpose of oiling the wheels of goyem* 
liient, and for which, perhaps, he had bartered 
to the donors, some of the most yalaed priyi- 
leges of his crown. A sword, alone, which he pre- 
sented to King Christiem at parting, cost seven* 
teen thoasand pounds ! On the other hand, it 
ihust be allowed that all this was in conformity 
with the spirit and customs of the age. The Da- 
nish King was almost equally profuse with him- 
self. He bestowed thirty thousand dollars on the 
servants of bis brother-in-law's court ; fifteen thou- 
sand on those below stairs ; ten thousand to the 
officers above stairs ; and the remaining five thou-' 
sand to the equerry, or stabler. To every person of 
the King's and Queen's bed-chambers, he. gave 
jewels of value. On the Queen herself he bestowr 
ed his picture richly set with precious stones. To 
Prince Henry he gave his second-best ship, which, 
with all her furniture, was not worth less than 
twenty-five thousand pounds ; with a rapier, be- 
sides, worth two thousand marks. He also' distri- 
buted a great deal of money amongst the suitors. 
This was, indeed, the peculiar age, when the ab- 
surd customs of systematic present-ghring, and of 
vails to servants, were at their height — when bribes 
could be offered to judges under the accredited sem- 
blance of gifts, and the King himself reckoned up- 
on the new-year donations bestowed upon him by 
his courtiers, as a considerable a;nd indispensably 
pdrt of his revenue. 

For some years subsequent to this period, we 
find James engaged in a ceaseless round of amuse- 
tnents-^in hunting, in making solemn progresses 
ibrougb the eounlry, in witnessing the perform^ 

^8 XI^E OF 

aaceof 'Ben Jonaon's matqaeQ) and in attendiai^ 
the feasts of the city of London. The flowery joys 
of this part of life were not, however, without some 
distiirbance : the machinations of the Catholic semi* 
iiaristSy who were still active in the country^ form- 
^ a sort of girdle of spikes, to aoB<^ his flesh he- 
neatk all his external splendours. We find, with 
some Bnrpi:i8e, that he c<mld not r^atare to dine 
with the Lord Mayor of London* in theClothwork- 
eta' Hall, without previously sending officers to- 
ascertain that no Popish plot larked in the celksa 
helow. He was also obliged, occasionally, to ve» 
lax the penal laws against this unhappy body of 
Christians, purely that he might enjoy the sporta. 
ef the field without the foar of being assassinated* 
Soon after the detection of the Gunpowder Trear 
son, he had framed, what was then ffur the first' 
^e known in the country, an oath of allegiance, 
to be tendered to all classes of hb subjects, so thai 
be might distinguish those who were willing t» 
pay him obedience as their temporal prince, froaa 
such of the Catholics as believed him to be d^Kie* 
ed by the dictum of the Pope. The measure vnm 
attended with complete success in the first iiiw 
stance ; for most of the Catholic population aocqi^ 
'1^ ed the oath, including Black well their Hig^ Pri^l^ 
and it met with no resistance but from tbe^ Jesoiia 
and other machinatom. The Pope, however, sooq 
after directed a couple of brieves to his Enf^lsk 
adherents, earnestly calling upon them to aiiftf 
aU pains rather than sacrament their souls to dam- 
nation by complying with a heretic King. Jaipes 
then publiafaed an anonymous defence of the oatb, 
to which. Cardinal Bellarmine and others wrote 
replies ; and^ presently, a tremendous controvenj 


'took place beti^een the King ef Great Britain and 
the chief defenden of tiie Catholic fiuth alnroad. 
•He aftenraids extended h» work considerably^ 
acknowledged it ae his owo) and, prefaeing it with 
what he called < a premonitMm to all Christitti 
PirkiGeay ' eent a copy, splendidly hevind, to be pre- 
aented by his varioos anbassadora to each of the 
^ovoMigQ 0taaes. As might have been expected, 
'Spldn, Venice, and other states «nder the control 
<of the Pope, were obliged to mortify the royal 
author by reilVisiiig to accept this present-^^Jioweyer 
'earnestly it ad>vocated tbeiK independence of the 
Roman Bontiff. 

It would appear that James was iiow beginnisg 
to Isel the advance of i^, and to take less delight 
4baa formerly in Tiolent exercise* * The King, * 
Mffd a ootttt letter of date November 20, 1607, 
** k .indifferently well pleased with his hunting; 
and, wliich is ae great news ias ease, is not so ear^ 
nasty without aU intermission or respect of wea- 
ther, be it hot or cold, dry or moist, to go to hii 
Jmntbgand baulking. as' he was; for though hi 
he as earnest, being at it, as he was, yet is he 
ttore apt to take Md of a let ; and a reasonable 
wind udll blow him to, tmd keep him at mawe aH 
day« ' He thus seems to have folt, at forty-one, ^g^ 
the ittdifierence towards ou^Qf-door8 amusements^ 
wUeh a modem poet has placed at a 'somewhat 
latter period of life — 

*'Aad blessed the shower which gave me not to choose/^ 

In April, 1608, a great resolution was wrought 
fq his cabinet by the death of the Earl of Dorset^ 
who bad been Lord Treasurer since a late period in 

•• Crabbe— Tafo* o/^rtc ifflff. 

140 . . UFBOF r 

the reign of £Kzal>etb, and' the acccttSHnt of llv 
£arl of Saliftlraiy to the vacant place. To .the 
latter penonage-^wbom, partly on accoimt ^ 
bis being a amall crook-necked roan, and partly far 
his. acateness of scent in ascertaining all kinds of 
plots both at home and aboad, James entidedUs 
Meaffle-^vre soon after find bis Majesty writing 
the following amusing and most chawie to ii at io kse^ 
ter.from Bletsoe^ the seat of Lord St John, when 
he was upon a progress* The date is Angnst 5th| 
the anniyersary of the Gowry Conspiracy. 

^ My littill beagill ; Ye and yoor leUowis tiwiie 
are so proady now that ye have gottin the gyding 
againe of a feminine conrte in the olde fashion, as 
I know not how- to deal with yon; ye.aitte a(t 
yonre ease and direeds aU; the newis Urooa dl 
pairtis of the worlde ^M>nies to yffu. in yonse ^haoir 
ber; the Kingis resolation dependb upon .your 
posting diqiatcbes; and qnhen ye list ye ens 
(sitting. QXk yoor bedde-8yde»)y with one call <«r 
qnhisling in yonre fist, make bin to pqste nicte 
juod daye, till be come to yonre presence. W^ 
I know Snffokeis maned, and hath also biahanAs 
foil now in barbooring that great littill pvonda 
man that comes in his chaire ; but for yonr fm$$ 
master 10, f qnbo is wanton and. wyfeles, I eamot 
Imt be jealous of your greataea with nsy wykn 
but most -of all ame I suspicions of 3, qnho is ao 
kdtelie fallen in acquaintance .with -my wyf^ lof 
hesydes that the rerrie number of 3 is well lykad 
of by weomen, bis face is so amiabill as it is afaia 
to intyse, aiid his fortune hath ever bene 
great' with sbe*sainds-; but bis part is fonle ia tU% 

t Tifs figuTM iodiMle. words Dot 4e^plMr«d» 

• - * • 


%i nliTcr iatmg taken a wyfe to Umadf in blft 
^iith» he can: not now be content with his gn^ 
•luufes to forbeare aae other inannis w^fe. Bal^ 
lor expiation of this sinne^ I hoape that ye have 
mil threoi with the rest of yonre societie, taken 
lUfl daye aae «itcharistifee cappe of thankefidnei 
(m the occasion qnhiche feM out at a time qahen 
^OwdarBt not ania me. And heir hath beeae tbis 
jdaye kept the ' Feist of King James's deltverie at 
JSttini Jifknaionef in Sednt JiAn*s house. All other 
maitters. I referre to the okl knave the bearer's 
jvpevtOi ' And so fiure you welL 

. Dming the year 1610^ JaoMs experienced a 
great deal of annoyance from a parliament, whidi 
ha'oslled in February, for the purpose of plaeiag 
Ins reveoine on aosM settled plan. ' The necessity 
Muler which the Kings of England faaye always 
kin, cif begging anbeidies from tibe House of Com* 
flMms, 18 perhaps the chief reason- why the French 
af the kstagB behevad Le Eoi dAngieient^U^ be 
tbe same wbLs EoidMf^$ and there can bo 
no donbtthat, while this has been the mun pall 
iribsreby the people of England hate wronght oat 
iMr liberties fitmi the hands <tf thi) monarch, it 
Jmsalsot- given the monarch, -on many occsaiona, 
toe good reason to resort to violent measares a« 
gainat ttin sabjeete, for the purpose of heaping 
IdiMolf upon the throne, and sostaiaing his dignity 
iii:a style worthy, of Uie nation* The case of King 
vkmi9 Pifc-liament, in the time of King James^ 
r ^simply, this^ The King, felt it neceanry to 
»mble a parliament, for the parpoee of impos- 
iwM^tnmi; thapariiameoty when assembled 

l]4S XJFEOV • 

woiild otoly gi^e ralMidies, on cQvdttlaik ifattt ikt 
King shoidd resign in tbeir ^Euronr a praportionBte 
jptffX of hifl prerogative* Then, the Kii^, haag 
eendible t^at he coald not conduct the g^vemnieBl 
iwith less power than he bad, refnsed to make tho 
proposed bargain, dissohred the parliamenly sad 
was obliged^ for bis sabsistencoy to sell afimy tlM 
crown hmds, to impose fines on reonsaats in rail* 
gion, and, by his bare prodamatioii, inflict tiio 
levying of what were called benevokMOeg on Ina 
subjects ; all which measares^ of conrsey tendtsd 
to render him nnp<^nilary and to pave the way ^ 
the £hn\ war. 

Inspired, as we are persuaded, by the best of 
viotivesy' he attempted,,- in the present partiamen^ 
to barter agreat nomber of the mora odioas of his 
^▼ileges, for a settled income of L.200,000a 
year, which he believed weald have the eifect of 
settling the limits of the. respective powemof kii^ 
and parliament on jnst gronnds. The Earl ef 
Salisbary stated the proposal to the Hense of 
Commons, to whom he at the same lame oommv* 
aicaled the agreeable intelligence, that, sinGe his 
accession to the IVeasary, two years beft»e, he 
had paid off L.900,000 oat of LJ,300,00a of 
diBbt, which he then fonnd against his Majesty, 
part of which had been incnrr^ daring the seigii 
of Eliasbeth. The two g^reat powers of the aa^ 
tion than began to adjnat their bargain ; the Com-^ 
mons bringing up all possiUe grievances (some ol 
them q^aito fantastic) for redress, aad endeavour* 
lag all .they coold to cheapen down the King from 
the sum he had demanded ; while he, on the other 
hand, stood stiffly out in favoor of some of the 
llrivileges: which .they attempted .to kp off £rom. 


km ccown, sdsd adbered pertin&cion^ljr to ttie round 
«ani vrbioh they nvtshed to reduce. On their pnh> 
pMiog to give bim nine score thousand pounds; 
liB told them ' m pleasant language, ' — for iiia 
{pBod humour scarcely ever forsook him-^that be 
bad a great dislike to that sum, * as referring td 
^ number of the Mtises, whose followers wer6 
dbfays beggam ; eleven score thousand he wouM 
iMBt bare effected, that bebig the number of the 
Apostles (Judas being left out); yet, as a me-^ 
dium, be was contented with ten scorfe, that being 
tbe number el God's commandments, which tend 
to virtue and edification. ' Hume observes, that 
lliis {feasant conceit was, for its goodness, the best 
{wid wit that ever Was in tbe world ; for it tiCtuaU 
iy moved the Commons to Vote L^200,000, a^ 
die revenue to be settle on the crown. It wa^ 
not, faowevei^, till after many nionths of violent 
contention with their sovereign, tbnt they came td 
Aas agreement. The foll6wing eSctract from a 
latter written by bim to his PHvy Council, on thd 
?di of December, * will show that he at last com** 
fdetely lost his temper In the dispute, and fbrmed 
the wish of managing hi^ government withoikt 
their assistance, through the agency of his counciL 
• . < * ♦ ♦ We would have wished that orar coun-> 
dUors and servants, in «be JJow^r House, had ta-^ 
ken more heed to any speech that concerned mf 
heaour, than to keep, to the refusal of a subsidie t 
for soeb bold and villanowi speeches ought ever to 
be craved in tlie cradle ! And as for tbe fc^r^ 
they had, that that might have moved more bit^ 

♦ From HiachiDbroak, the seat of hh loyal Ikf end l^ff 

OUv^ Cromwell, Viiheije h« wm, vfp^f^ ft iMro|^r«(». ; . / 

144 UFE OF 

ternept fai the House, not only agiJnH thentelvei^ 
but. also to have made the Hoase deacend into 
BOine farther complaints, to; our great disliking ; 
we mast tp that point say thus faire, that we coidd 
not bat have wondered .greatly what more unjust 
complaint they could bav« found oat, than diey 
^ave already, since we, are sipre that no boose biit 
the House ^of HeU Qould have found so many m 
ihey ba^e already done 4 But 9s for my part, we 
should never have cared what they complained 
against us, so that lies apd CQunlerCute inventii»B 
be barred. Only we are sorry of our ill fortune 
in this countrye, that having lived so long as we 
did, in the kingdom where we were borne, we 
came out with an unstained reputation, without 
any grudge in the people's hearts, but for waatii^ 
of us. Wherein we have mishehaved here we 
know not, nor we can never yet learn ; bat sure 
we are, we may say with Bellarmine in his booki 
that in all the Lower Houses these seven years 
pest, especially these two last sessions, egopiungoft 
ego carpor. Our fame and actions have been toss- 
ed like tennis-balls among them, and all that spite 
and malice durst do to disgrace and infame 0% 
bath been used. To be short, this Lower Hoii8e« 
by their behaviour, have perilled and annoyed our 
healthy wounded our reputation, emboldened all 
ill*natured people, encroached upon many of our 
privileges, and plagued our purse with their de« 
lays ! It only resteth now, that you labour all 
you can to do that you thinke best to the repauiog 
uf our estate. ' • • • 

It must have certunly been at this period of Us 
reign, that James threatened to send a horse, 
wluch would not obey him, to the five hundred 



Idflgs vrho sat in tbe Lower House of Parliament 
^-^-telliBg the aDimal that they would be sure to 
hmg down his pride, and curb bis unruHneae* 
Such spurts as these, however, were merely things 
of a moment ; and, whatever was the real annoy* 
anoe which the monarch experienced from the col- 
Msion of his principles with the conduct of the 
House of Commons, he was too good-natured to 
^cherisb any permanent enmities against them. He 
could always revenge himself by a joke ; and that 
Irasy to him, revenge enough. 






It may now be proper to devote a chapter to such 
personal notices and anecdotes of the King, as are 
chiefly applicable to this period of his life> and 
cannot well be introduced elsewhere. 

To begin at the beginning. — The countenance 
of the King is described, by a foreigner, * as being, 
at this period of his life, ' of a fair and florid com- 
plexion, and lineaments very noble to behold.' 
His carriage was still undignified, on account of 
the weakness of his limbs ; and, in walking into a 
room, he was still under the necessity of sham- 
bling along the walls for support, or leaning on 
the shoulders of his courtiers. The increased ful- 
ness of his beard, and a certain degree of corpu- 
lence, had now filled up the outline of a fiEice and 
figure which originally appeared somewhat meagre 
and shabby ; so that, upon the whole, he looked 
a great deal better now than in youth ; — a feet 
proved by the series of his portraits. WilsoOy who 

* Cardinal Bentivoglio. — See Aiken^ Court of King 
Jamesy il. S3U 


AT' him at this perM of hii life, and was by n<^ 
meam dispoied to flatter bitn, says, that * ia the 
vhofe man he was not uncoraety. '-^* He was of 
amidille ttatare,' says Sir Anthony Weld<m, ' more 
dorpulent throngh his clolhes than in hk body ; ' 
for, to defend himself against the daggers ei the 
F^sts, wbicfa threatened htm all his lifey he cans*' 
ad his doublets to be * quilted for stiletto proofe/ 
aad his aether garments to be fashioned in great 
platta and fall stnfiPed. His hair, according to Wel- 
don, was of a light brown till towards the end of 
lis life, when it became l^ged widi wbhe. Sir 
Theodoie Mayeme, his phynlciatt, has recorded, with 
professional minateness, < that his head was strong, 
aad never afiBwted by the sea, by drinking wine, or 
nding in a chariot ; that in moist weather, and in 
winter, he had nsually a congh; that his skin was 
sofik and delicate, but irritable, and, when he roraited, 
\t was with snch an eft>rfe, that hb face would be 
sprinkled with red spots for a day or two ; that he 
aeTor ate breadi always fed on* roast meat, and 
seldom or nerer ate of boiled, unless it was b<^; 
that, he was very clumsy in riding aad bunting, 
aad frequently met with accidents ; that Jie slept 
iU,..aniked efteui in die night, and adled his cham- 
bedainsy nor coald sleep be again reacBly indueed, 
unless some one read to him ; that he was pas* 
siaaalie, but that his warmth quickly subsided; had naturally a geod appetite^ and a mo- 
derately hkt digestion; that he w$8 very of^a 
thirsty, drank frequently, and mixed his liquors, 
being very pffomiscuous ia^the use of wines, though 
gearaally prefittring those which are called siweet.* 
By Weldon we are informed, that James ^ was 
Tery temperate in his diet^ and not intemperate ia 

148 LIFE OF 

bis dfinking. It is Irae/ Sft3rs ibis writer^ 'fay 
ixmak reiy often ; bat it was ratber from a emtom 
than any delight ; and his drinks were of that kind 
for strength, as frontiniack, canary, high-coimtry 
wine» tent wine, and Scottish ale; so that, bad 
be not been of a very strong brain, he might faaTo 
daily been overtaken, although he seldom at any 
one time drank above fonr spoonfnls, many dmea 
not above one or two.*— »' The King,' aays aao> 
ther writer (Roger Coke *) * was exccssiTely ad* 
dieted to hunting and drinking, not ordinary French 
and Spanish wines, bat strong Greek wines ; and 
^oogh he would divide bis bunting from drinking 
these wines, yet be would compound his hunting 
with these wines, and to that purpose he waa at* 
tended by a special officer, who was, as much aa 
be could be, always at band to fill the King's cup 
in his bunting when he called for it. I have heard 
my father say, that, being bunting with the King, 
after the King bad drunk of the wine, he also 
drank of it ; and, though he was young, and of a 
healthful disposition, it so disordered his head, that 
it spoiled bis pleasure, and disordered him for 
three days after. Whether it were drinking these 
wines, or from some other cause, the King be- 
came so lazy and unwieldy, that he waa tmst 
^trussed] on horseback, and as be was set so he 
would ride, without poising himself in the saddle; 
nay, when his hat was set on his head, he would 
not take the pains to alter it, but it sate aa h was 
put on. ' 

Other particularsy as minutely personal, are g^en 
by various writers. He never washed himself—* 

♦ , 

, • Petition pf the Court and Sute oC England* 


iKrt even hk hands, probably from that irritability 
of skin mentioned by May erne : only, to avoid 
Htter uncleanliness, he used to rub the ends of his 
fingers in a wet napkin. His eyes, wlrieb were 
large, be was in the habit of rolling about, in » 
etrange manner, especially after any stranger bad 
entered the room ; the resuk, probably, of his con- 
gtan^ fear of assassination. * Many persons, as we 
ftre informed by Welcbn, were unable to endure 
the scrutiny of his eye, and left the room, * as 
being out of countenance. ' The largeness of hie 
tongue, or rather perhaps the narrowness of hie 
Jaws, which caused him to drink in an unseemly 
manner, imbibing the liquor as if he had been eat« 
i&g ity is a fact already alluded to. It is one of 
the most curious contradictions in his character, 
lull as it is of all kinds of cross-lights, like the 
daaqor-houses of his time, that, though delighting 
in fine dresses worn by others, he used to' wear 
very plain clothes himself, and often retained them' 
till they fell to rags. Above all, although fond of 
seeing new fashions of clothes upon his courtiers, 
be disliked having the fashion of hie own attire 
ehanged. Weldon tells us, that, a person bringing* 
bim one day a hat of a new Spanish block, he 
cast it from him, swearing he neither loved them 
nor their fashions. Another person, on another 
occasion, bringing hkn roses for his shoes, he ask- 
ed, * if they would make him a ruffe-footed dove, * 
aQd contented himself with a sixpenny ribbon. 
So constant, indeed, was he in all minor mattera 
of this kind — in diet, in exercise, and dress, that 
at courtier was wont to say, ' if he were asleep 
some years, and then awakened, be could teU 
where the King had been every day, what dishes 

Iflff LIFE OF 

he bad had at table^ and what cldtbeb lie had/ 

, It is a circumstance hy no ipeans inconsistent 
with James's general character, that be bad a great 
Qamber of aniipcUhiet, The three chief were» 
fwine's flesh,, ling, and tobacco. He is reported 
to have once sud, that, if he were to innte the 
devil to dinner, he would give him a pig, a pole 
of ling with mustard, and a pipe of tobacco for 
digastion. * It is very remarkable, that no men- 
^op iamade in any contemporary work, of the an* 
Apathy most notoriously ascribed to him by tradi- 
tion— -that which be cherished against the sight of 
a diawn swonL It is, indeed, clear that he never 
carried a sword himself (though no fashion of the 
age was more indispensable in a gentleman), and 
tbaty when about to confer the honour of knigbt- 
hoody he always borrowed ihe necessary weapon 
from a bystander. We can also remember having 
once seen an anecdote — though not in an authestio 
work— that he was i^o unable to handle a sword 
from excessive nervousness, as to have once run it 
into the eye, instead of laying it on the shoulder, 
of a candidate for eqiiestriaa honours. But etiU». 
aa such a peculiarity of eoastitation . is nowhaoa 
mentioned in a work of die day, and as an in* 
stance of his actually using a sword baa already 
been related in this work, from a <»edible soorce^f 
it must be held as at least uneertain*- Its unpnH 
bability is very strongly indicated by its not Wj^ 
pearing in an extensive and minute catalogue of 

* • * 

* ^tty ApopbthegQs delifersd hj King. Jsiiie% Ums^ 
f Volome i. p. 209. 


tbe monai^'s dislikes^ which Ben JoDsim has 
gi^en in his Masque of the Grypsies Metamor- 
phosed, an entertainment produced in the King's 
own presence at Burlejr Cattle, the seat of the Mar- 
quis (afterwards DnVe).of Buckingham, in 16^ 1« 

As that exceedingly curious — a per- 
fect nosology, indeed, of nervAus weaknesse s . . a nd 
«8 it is highly illustratiTO of James's character, it 
is here introduced. 

Clod. * Let us bless the sovereign and bis senses. 

Patbico. We'll take tbem in order, as they have bang. 

And first of Seeing. 
From a Gypsy in the morning, 
Or a pair of squint eyes turning ; 
From the goblin, and the spectre ; 
From, woman tru. to no man, 
Which is ugly besides common ; 
A smock rampant, and the itches 
To be putting on the breeches^ f 

Wheresoe'er they have their being, 

Chorus, Bless the sovereign and his 821m Kg. 

* This IV^asque was performed at Surley Casde, August 
1621, as part of the entertainments given to the Kipg ^y 
Buckingham, whose house it wasb James was particu- 
larly well pleased with his entertainments here, and * could 
pot foibear expressing his contentment, in certain verses 
he made to this effect, that ** the air and the weather, 
and eVery thing else, even the stags and bucks in their fall, 
seemed to smile ^-so that there was hopes of a smiling boy 
.withia A while ; " to which «nd, he concluded .with a wish 
6r votum for the felicity and fruitfulness of that blessed 
couple, ^""^hamberlain^s Letters, 

t An allusion to ladies who govern their husbandst 
J^es*shorror for such persons is often perceptible througb- 
eut his life. 


152 LIFE OF 

PAVBica From a ^1 aad lerious toys» 
From a lawyer three parts noiie^ 
FVom imperdnence, like a drum 
Beat at dinner in bis room, 

• FVom a tongue without a file, 
Heaps of phrases and no 8tyle» 
From a fiddle out of tone. 

As the cuckoo is in June^ ^ 

From the candlesticks of Lothbury^ f 

And the loud pure wives of Banbiuy, | 

Or a long pretended fit 

Meant for mirth, but is not it, 

Only time and ears out-wearing^ 

Chorus, Sless the sovereign and his BEAanro. 

Patkico. From a strolling tinker's sheet. 
Or a pair of carriers' feet, 
From the diet and the knowledge 
Of the students in Bears'-CoUege, § 
From tobacco, with the type 
Of the devil's ^lyster-pipe, 
Or a stink, all stinks excelling^ 

* The dissonant note of the cuckoo in this month is 
alluded to by Sbakspeare : 

' * So when he bad occasion to be seen. 
He was but as the cuckoo is in June, 
Heard, not regarded. ' 
f Lothbury, a street in London where brass candle- 
sticks were made ; the noise of which manufacture was 
very discordant. 

f Banbury was a great stronghold of Paritanism. * Ban- 
bury zeal, cheese, and cakes, ' is a proverb mentioned by 
Fuller in his Worthies. 

§ A jocular term for the Bear garden. The author 
has explaiqed his meaning in a passage of another poem, 
* The meat^boat of Bear's College, Paris garden^ 
Stunk not so ill. ' 


prom • fifihmoBgerli stale dwellin^^ 

Chorus. Bleu the sovereign and his smxiling, 
Pataico, From an oyster and fried fisby 

A 80w*s baby in a disb, 

From any portion of the swine, 

From bad Tenison and vane wine» 

Lingy what cook soe'er it broil» 

Though with mustard sauced and oi^ 

.Or what else would keep men fasting— 
Chorus* Bkss the sovereign and his xAsxuro* 
Pataico. Sotfa from bird-lime and from piteh, 

From a dozey and her itch. 

From the bristles of a hog^ 

Or the ringwworm in a dog^ 

From the courtship of a biiar» 

Or St Anthony's old fire. 

From a needle>. or a thorn « 

In the bed at e'en or mom. 

Or fi[«m any gout's least grutchtn^**- 
Chorus, Bless the sovereign and his soucHna. 
Pataico, Bless him too fjram all offences. 

In his sports, as in his senses ; 

From a boy to cross his way, 

From a Adl, or n foul day. * 

In speech, Jam^s was mach and justly adnkecV 
notwithBUmding that bis vdce waa a little thicken- 
ed by the pecoliarity of hia org^jm, and further 
rendered disagreeable to English ears by its Scotch 
accent, which| as we ara informed by Fuller, he 

* A foul day naturally happened frequently ; nor did 
the King, it is recorded, always bear it patiently. A fall 
from bis horse was also by no means an unfrequent oc« 
isvrrence) as afaready m^tioncdt— IficgoLfc .. j 

151. urs or 

KSther affected than declined* * The 
worth of hie set oratione, ' eays this writer, * com- 
manded re^ereneot if not.admiratioD, in aH jadi- 
ctous hearere.' After one of bis speeches in the 
Hoase of Peers, Bacon, whose doty it partly was, as 
Lord Keeper, to eke oat the King's meaning with 
something of his own, rose, and could only say, 
** Ne post divinnm et imniortale fectum, iJiqaid 
mortale faceret." It wiis, however, in what is 
called table-talk, that James most excelled. ' He 
was very witty,' says Weldon, .' and had. as. many 
leady witty jests as any man living, at which he 
would not smile himself, but deliver them in a 
grave and serious manner. ' Nor was James's wit» 
as many suppose, mere punning or quibbling on 
language. He possessed that property of mmd» 
whieh constitutes at once poetry and wit — the 
power of readily discerning the Eesemblances of 
remote ideas, and of bringing the one to contraal 
with and illnstnite the odien In graver conver- 
sation, he was perhaps even . superior .to what he 
was in light talk. He loved speculative discaurse 
upon moral and political subjects ; and his talent 
for conducting such discus^ons. is a frequent theme 
of admiration, not only among his courtiers, but 
in the unsubomed writings of the foreigners who 
visited him* 

One unfortunate fiault greatly deformed the con« 
versation of King James— his notorious habit of 
profane swearing. ^ Nay« he would not only 
^wear^ ' says a quaint writer of .th^ day, * but he 
would curse;' and, as we are informed by Wel- 
don, he would even go ' one strain higher, veig- 
ing on blasphemy. ' Of course^ it was only when 
excited by some extiaordinary feeling, that he ut« 


fered Ifttignage of this reprebeniible Rttnre; and 
fan had hfmeieif the grace, in hm calmer momeate^ 
^ to say, that he hoped God would not inpnte 
these expressions to bnn as sins, seeing they pro^ 
ceeded frdm passion. ' * It was also, in a great 
neasdre, a fault common to the i^. Yet, after 
every allowance, we fear he must be held as greatly 
find unusually taintidd' by this vice; for it seems 
to hare been sufficiently notorious to be the sub* 
ject of talk in fbreign countries. Lord Herbert 
of Cherbury informs us, f that the Prince of 
-Coad6, in conversation one day, allowed that the 
King was gifted with much learning, knowledge, 
lind clemency ; but he (the Prince) had heard that 
fais MyeBtf was much ghen to ewrsinff* Her* 
foert's apology was good enough for a joke, but 
not good enough, we* fear, for an excuse. * I an- 
swered, that it was out of his gentleness. ' The 
Prince demanding how xsursing could be a gentle* 
ness, I replied, " Yes ; for, though he could punish 
men himself, yet he leaves them to God to punish ;" 
which defence of the King, my master, was after* 
wards niuch eelebrated in the French court. ' Per* 
haps something shocdd be allowed to a circumstance 
mentioned by Fuller : * In common speaking, as in 
hunting, he stood not in the clearest but nearest way. 
He would never go about to make expressions. * % 

• Weldon. 

f Memoin^ pr ope finem* 
t King James once went out of his way to hear a nou 
ed preacher. The cler^man, seeing the King enter, left 
his text, to declaim against swearing. At the conclusion 
^ the discourse^ James thanked him for his sermon, but 
inked him what connexion swearing had with the texL 
'* .Wtfy,*' answered the divine, ** since your Majesty cagio 

156 MFE OF 

Sfreanng' m thb yiee of a htisty mind. It is aiso 
found oftenett in whal is called a hearty charac* 
ler, aad least frequently in men of cold tempera'* 
ment, and artificial mimners. 

The wit of King James hte reeeired nearly the 
iiigliest commendation from a late writer, * who 
makes the remark, that, * in some of his facetious 
sallies, as when he said to the shabby candidate 
for knighthood, who knelt down with atoo-evideat 
sense of his own nnworthiness, ** Look np, man ! 
I have more reason to be ashamed than then, " 
e^en Charles the Second conld not have ontdona 
his grandfather. ' As anodier of the like sort, may 
be instanced what he said to a fellow*coantrymaa 
who complained^ soon after he came to his sonth* 
em kingdom, that the English called the Scots 
by the epithet of beggarly : << Wait a little, man,*' 
said the King, " and I will soon make them as 
beggarly as the Scots ! " In general, however, the 
faamonr of James's sayings arises rather from the 
grotesque and fentastic monlds in which he east 
his thoughts, than from what is now called pointf 
ed wit'. It is somewhat surprising to find Bacon, 
in his Apophthegms, recording that, * as James was 
a prince of great judgment^ so was he also a prince 

out .of your WAy, I thought I could not do less than go out 
of mine to meet you." — Bennefs Treasury of Wii, ii. 

In a MS. written by Robert Traill, minister of Lon- 
don, it is stated, in rererence to the earlier part of Jama's 
life^ that he stood much under awe of the celebrated 
Welch, the preacher ; and when he happened to be swear* 
ing in a public place, would turn round, and ask if Welch 
was near. The King might do so, by way of a joke ; it 
is ridiculous to suppose that he did St from fear. 
^ * Quarterly Review, XLL 74^ 


Of E murredi^ws^ pleasant hamoiir/ and then in7 
•tmcivg) as proofi ihat, as the King was going 
tbriMigh Ltasen» near Grb^inelb he asked whal 
town it wasi and was Einwered Lusen ; askings 
aottie time tfteib ** What town is this we are now 
iir? '' and being told it was still Lusen, he 8ud| 
** I will' be Kitig of Lvaen I " Soph a saying af 
this ib not wit; it is onl^ an eiEpression which 
tickles the mind of « hearer, from its being chsr 
raiClKiristic ei a man trhose cbainifMw is amosipg^ 
it 18 wit hy assooation en the .part of the hearer* 
Of the sane nature is a jest recorded by Mr Pbir 
iieaa Pett, the King's ship-builder. Pett haying 
been accused, by some mali^paant person^ of pror 
ducing insufficient work, his Majesty condescendr 
ed to pireside otet an examination of such of the 
wooden, walls of Old EngUmd as tUs person ha4 
had any thing to do with. Part of the wood wi^ 
aaid to be cross-giained ; but| being triedy.and 
filnnd perfectly good, '* Why, " sud the Kifigy 
^* the cross*graiB» methink% is ia Pett*s acci|ser% 
not in his work." 

Walton, in hia Lile of Dr Ponne, relates a der 
lighlful anecdote of James* Dr Donne was S9 
imkd of London, on account of its having bepn th^ 
8c6ne of his birth and education, and from the de- 
light he experienced in the society of an old^eatar 
blished cirde of friends, that he refosed a number 
of country benefices that were offered to him. At 
last, the Deanery of St PauFs falling vacant, Janj^p 
lottnd an opportunity of givmg him his heart's con- 
tent*. Having ordered the Doctor to attend sfi 
dinner, ^ When his. Majesty had sat down, before 
be had eat any meaW be said, (^^ his pleawa^ 
iMmet «- *^ Dr Donne,! li$v(0 invited you to dil^* 

15l9 %t1tt0t 

mr» tndy thengfa you mi aot doim with mcs far I 
irill carre to yon of a dish that I kaovr yea lovts 
well ; for, knowing yon love London, I dp tbew* 
fore make yon Dean of St Paul's ; and, wImd I 
hare dined, then do you take yonr helofed dish 
home to yoor study, say giaoe there to yonraAy 
and mnch good may it do to yon I "' 

In oilier of his sayings, if no* wit, there is evU 
dence of a mind attTO to obsermition, and oapsMe 
ofnsmgit. Of this sort is the apophthegm whidi 
he made nse of, in 'recommending a country file- 
to his gentry, in preference to dwelling at London t 
" Gentlemen, •"' each is said to hare been hie ad* 
dress, *' at London yon are like ships at sea, wUth 
show like nothing ; l>nt in year conntry vfllages^ 
yon are like ships in a rirer, whkh showHkegreel 
things. " The ilhistnition here is eaoellent* Theie 
was something better still in the saying he mttev^ 
ed, in the Bodleian Library, at Oxford; wheiei as 
a yisit in 1606, he took his degree as Doetor in 
all focnltfes« Eemarking the little cbafaM wMl 
which all the books were bound to their "sfadyeil 
lie said, ^ I would wish, if ever it he my lot to be 
carried captire, to be shut up in this prison, to be 
bound mih these ehains, and ta spend my Hi 
with these lellow-capti««s whick stsad here chain* 
ed ! '' Here we find the native propensity of the 
monareb, which was to learning, not to sovereign* 
ty, bi^eaking resistlessly throtigh the artifidal cha* 
meter he wore, and idBTordiiig us a delightful peep 
into the innM* recesses ci the man. The saying 
looks like a Pythagorean recoUeetkm of a foitesr 
state $ as if he had all at <Hice foigot thift he wa* 
now a King, and, as the Samilm sage remembered 
hanng been a soldier in tiie Trejao- war, BnddeiHy.. 

KINO JABf£S r&S f IR8T. 159 

#iilEfln«iltotkBidB0ikiit lie had few w ri y beea % 
doctor of diTinity, aooaBlODied» in dim ooUeg^ li« 
biftfiei, to bead da3y ofer aolemn folios, deeply 
ribbed in the back, and breathing the dost of tlgob 
horn evsery motfahwonn poie* 

In a coriotts ooUection of jests, printed in the 
3^ear 1640, and to which the name <rf Archy Ann* 
atvong * is prefixed as a deeoy, them occnrs an 
anecdote which shows that James was not nni* 
fonnly accessible to the flattery of his conrtien. 
Two gentlemen, noted for agility, trying to oat-* 
jump each other in his presence, he said to the in* 
difidnal who jumped farthest, *^ And is this yonr 
best ? Why, man, when I was a yonng man, I 
would have 6at*leaped this m3r8elf»r An old prac* 
deed eonrtier, who stood by, thongfat this a good 
opportunity of ingratiating himself with his master, 
and. stmek in with, ** That you would, Sht; I ha?e 
seen yomr Majesty leap much further myself. "^ 
* '< O' my seuir' qnpUi the King, as his usual 
pfantte was, << thou lyest; I vHnUdy indeed, haf« 
leapt much farther, but I never eoidd leap so Aff 
by. two or three feet« " ' 

This anecdote naturally snggests a few. remarics 
up<m what was a very diwgr^Bable feature of the 
age^ the custom of plying the King, and indeed ail 
men of station, with gross flattery. Just in pro* 

. • 

* < King James, About, to knigbt a Scottish gentlemao^ 
asked his namef who made answer, his name was Edward 
Rudry Hudrinblas TrippUn HippUis. ** How, how?** 
qufiOi'the King. Replies the gentlemad as before, << Bdi 
ward Rudry Hudrinblas Tripptia HH»plas. " The Kini^ 
not able to retain in memory such a long, and witbal^so 
confusedly heaped up nvne, '* Prithee, " said he, *■ rise 
up, and call thyself, Sir, what thou .wilt | ** and io dia* 
tm9MAbim.*^Mmquei of Jetiif KMO. 

iflO MPS OF 

por(i4li> it wottid fl^peiiri as diM hhs beima (tety 
iti Englaiid who depreciated and opposed the King, 
ab has there always been on<9 which endeavonred 
to exalt him by this base expedient. In James's 
time, when a democratic party was beginning to 
b^ formed, there also arose this detestable habit 
amotag the coartien; as if it oofcild have been 
hoped that humble expressions, nsed towards the 
sovereign by his friends, were to infect his enemies 
with the same reverence for him* When histonam 
sum np James's character, they never allow any 
thing for the effect which the inordinate flatteries 
of the people were calculated to have upon the 
mind of the monarch ; nor consider how much of 
his disposition to arbitrary rule might be owing to 
their profession of a willingness to be mled arbt** 
trarily. Yet it is evident that, though he mi^t 
occasionally resist th» impressions thus attempted 
to be made upon him^ he must have been, upon 
the whole, spoilt not a little by appliances so re> 
peatedly presented, and. which appealed so strongs 
ly to his aelf-love* It is linpleAsaiit to observe 
how much of this mischief is to. be charged upon 
literary meii, and especially the poeta; whose flat- 
teries, as more public, must of course have been 
most hurtftil. What expression of contempt, for 
instance, could be appropriate to the epithet ho* 
stowed by the Earl of Stirling on the King ? — 
* God of Poets, and king; of men ! ' How morti- 
fying is it to find the pure and classic genius df 
Jonson l>ent to the composidon of the following 
\ epignun, ' as it ia called-^ 

< How, best of Kings, dost tfaou a sceptre bear ! 
How, best of poets, dost thou the laurel wear 


' Bat two tkings nur^ the Fates had in tfaeir store, 
And gave thee both, to show they had no more. 
For such a poet, while thy days were green. 
Thou Wert, as chief of them are said t* have been* 
And such a prince thou art, we daily see. 
As chief of those still promise they will be. 
Whom should my muse then fly to but the best 
Of Kings for grace— of poetsy for. my text ? ' 

* The dependent circumstances of such persons 
inay perhaps be admitted as a slight palliation of 
their offences ; for, at this period, and for a long 
time after, literary men were lupt by the magnates 
of the land, very mach upon the same principle as 
that by which the Irish and Highland chieftains of 
fhe same age retained their sennachies. But what 
^lalliatton shall be presented for the adulation of 
the court sermons? which generally fulfilled James's 
idea of his divine right, by actually making him a 
p9it of religion, and bestowing upon him a share 
of that worship which they gave to the Supreme 

Something remains to be explained in regard td 
Ihe religion of King James, which, as already in- 
fetred, was that of the Church of England. Jameii 
ivas perhaps too mtich of a theologian to be a de^ 
Votee. He partook more of Le SorbOnne than of 
l<a Trappe. He was deeply read in scripture ; 
tbvld quote its texts with great facility ; knew it 
even with philological exactness ; accomplishnfients 
which enabled him to be of great service, it is al* 
low^d, in superintending the translation ^hich wa^ 
executed at his commaiid. It cannot be clearly 
Aiscemed, however, that he was what vr6vL\d now 
be considered a pious, or even a serious man. Hii 

LIFE or- • • 

colloqnial lahja^ttage, b^slcfee itt e«ii8imble^ admix* 
tnre of nide oaths, was e^sentrally tinged with a 
certain degree of irrefeiiekioe ; and bis pereonal 
behttviour was of the same cast. In chimsby for 
instance, be could nevercondact himself decently. 
Daring the whole time of the sermon, he waaever 
and Anon directing ordiiAty discoiirse to his cour- 
tiers ; sometimes even laughing oatright at their 
sallies or bis own. Wilson tells us that, when- 
ever any preacher of uncommon piety held foith 
before bim, Bishop Neale of Lincoln busied him- 
selfi with laudable ingenuity, to divert bis atten- 
tion from the discourse, by telling him * merrie 
tales f ' at which the King, says Wilson, * would 
kngb, and tell those near him that be could not 
hear the preacher for the old satjrr bishop ! ' In 
hid secret mind, nevertheless, James perhaps che- 
rished a good deal of pure devotional sentiment. 
Both at the time when his life was despaired of in 
1619, and when upon his real deathbed in 1625» 
his conduct was every thing that could be expect* 
ed of a good Christian. 

With regard to the forms of rel^on, James was 
a sseaJons advocate of those styled Epi8copalian> as 
well as for that mode of church-government. He 
detested the Puritans, for their mean bald charao- 
ter, and perpetual nibbling at the established 
church. The Catholics he regarded with aversion 
and fear, as the subjects of an aUen power, and 
because they sported a doctrine that heretic princes 
forfeited their titles. He has himself given an ac- 
count of his sentiments on all these su^fscts, in ie- 
butting a charge which Cardinal Bellarmine had 
brooght against him, to. the e&ct that he was an 
apostate. Some parts of the passage are wofth 


qaotingf for Tarions. reasons, * How cm I be an 
aipostate, ' says he^ * not onely baling tdYtt been 
bcQUght up in that religion which I presently .pro<» 
fees, but eved my father and grandfather on that 
side * professing the same ? As for the.Queen iny 
mother, of worthy memorie ; although she ^onti* 
nued in that religion wherein she was nonrishedi 
yet was she so far from being superstitious or je- 
anited therein, that at my baptisme (althopgb I 
was baptised by a Popish Archbishop) she se^.t 
him worde to forbeare to nse the spettle in my 
baptisme; which was obeyed, being indeed a filthy 
and apish tricke, rather in scorn thaq imitation of 
jChrist* And her own very words were, " TTuxt 
die wouM, not/u$v€ a poekie priest to spit in h^ 
thUis mouth* '* As also the Font wherein I was 
cbristened, was sent from tho late Queen here of 
&mott8 memoiy, who was my god-mother;, and 
what her religion . was, Pius V, was not ignoraiit. 
And for further proof, that that renowned Queeaa 
my inother was not superstitions ; in all her let- 
ters, whereof I received many, she never made 
jnention of rdigion, nor laboured to persuade me 
in it ; so at her last words, she cpmmanded, her 
.Master-bousebold, a Scottish gentleman, mysei^- 
vant, and yet alive, to tell me, ** That, although 
she was of another religion than that wherein I 
Iras brought up» yet she would not press me to 
:diange, except my own conscience forced me to 
It ; for so. that I led a good life, and wisre care- 
ful to do justice and govern well, she doubted 
not but I would be in a good case with the pro- 
fession of my own religion." 4* • • . • I believe in 

* "Lotd Darnley, and hb father Matthew Earl of JLen- 
f Works, p. 301.— These anecfdotea of Queen Itaiy are 

364 LIFE OF 

the three creeds ; (hat of the Apostles, that of the 
Council of Nice, and that of Athanasias. . . • • 
I reverence and admit the four first general conn* 
cils 88 Catholiqae and orthodoxe. * • . • As for 
the blessed Virgin Mary, I yield her that which 
the angel Gabriel pronounced of her, and which, 
in her canticle, she prophesied of hersi^lf — that she 
is blessed amongst women» and that all generations 
shall call her blessed. I reverence her as the mother 
of Christ ; bnt I dare not mock her, and blaspheme 
against God, by praying her to command and con- 
troule her sonne, who^ is her God and her Saviour. 
Nor yet do I think that she hath no other thing to 
doe in heaven, than to hear every idle man's suite, 
and busy herself in their errands ; whiles request- 
ing, whiles commanding her sonne ; wbilea ooming 
down to kisse and love with priests, and whiles 
brawling and disputing with devils. ' But perhaps 
enough has been sud, to show the ftith and pne- 
tice of the royal theologue. 
* James's okiracter is described in lively, and, upi- 
on l^e whole, correct colonrs, in the same masque 
^f Ben Jonson which has been already quoted isr 
bis antipathies. A captain of gypsies comes fos* 
ward* pitches up<m his Majesty in the crowd of 
'spectatOTs, and, inspecting his hand, thqs addtessss 
him:^ — 

< Bless my masters, the old and the ybung, - 

From the gall cf the heart and the stroke of the tongue ! 

With you, lucky bird, I begin, let me see ; 

I aim at the best, and 1 trow you are he. 

There's some luck already, if I understand 

The grbunds'of mine art ; here's a gentleman's hand^ 

. . ' ... 

very recherchi, and say a great deal for her liberal and 


' I'll kiss it for luck-sake ; jrou sbsU* by. this liw, . 

Liove a horse and a hound, but no part of a swiAe* 
. To hunt the brave stag» not so much for your food* 

As the weal of your body> and the health o' your blood« 
' Tou*re a man of good means, and have territories store 

Both by sea and land ; and were born» Suv to more, 
- 'Which you, like a lord, and the prinoe of your peace, 

Content with your havings, despise to inqrease. 

You live chaste and single, and have buried your wifie^ ^ 

And mean not to marry, by the line of your Ufa. . 

Whence be that conjectures your ^^lity, learns, 

You're an honest good man, and take care of your bairns* 

• Your Mercurie's hill, too, a wit doth betoken, 

' Some book-craft you have, and are pretty well spoken* 
But, stay, in your Jupiter's mount, what's here ?. 
A king, a monarch ! what wonders appear ! 
High, bountiftil, just; a Jove for your parts, .^^ 

A master of men, and that reign in their hearts. * 

One passage in this address deserves to be com-» 
mented on ; 


* You are an honest good man, and take care of yoiir bauf^ j* 

^ichf as it does not yield the praise that is apt to 
enter into a set paneg3n*ic, but seems to be a plaiA 
nawnished account of what James really was^ 
mttst be held as saying a great deal in faronr of 
the homely worth, and good domestic character, 
of the .King. James has often been stigmatised 
aa a bad husband and father* It has even been in- 
sinuated against him, that he was instrumental in 
the death of his eldest son, from jealousy of his 
rising, popularity. We leatni, on the contmry, 
from Sir Theodore Mayeme^ his phyncian, that 

. 4 This was writteatwo years ato Queen Ax^na's ^ealU 


bis health was considantbly affected by grief for 
the deaths of Prinee Heniy and Queen Amie. 
1%at he was sincerely -attached to his consort, and 
rtgarded her wonianl3r foibles with that gentlenew 
of constmction which marks the truly good htfs- 
band» is, we think, pretty well evidenced by the 
letter which he wrote to her in consequence of the 
fracas about Prince Henry before she leii Scot- 
land. It is further proved by a delightful anec- 
dote, which is thus recorded in a private letter, of 
date July 1613 :— < At their last being at Theo- 
bald's, the Queen, shooting a deer, mistook her 
mark, and killed Jewel, the King's most special 
and &vonrite hound, at which he sUwmed ey^ceed- 
ingly a while ; but* after he knew who ,did it, he 
was soon pacified, and, with much kindness, wi4i- 
ed her not to be. troubled with it, for he should 
love her never the worse ; and the nact day sent 
her a diamond worth two thousand pounds, as a 
legacy from his dead dog.* Love and kindness in- 
crease daily between them ; and it is thought they 
were never on better terms. ' f 

* However gdod-haiuteidly the feing forgave this acci- 
dent, be appears to hSve loDg remembered it In l€ltl| 
when Archbishop Abbot, by an unfortooate acddeat, ktlU 
e4 t|ie keeper of a park in hunting, and .sent to.inform the 
Sjog, his Majesty returned this gracious answer :^< That 
such an accident might befall any man ; himself had oAce 
the ili-luck to kill the keeper's hone under hito} fab 
Queen in like sort killed him the bcst.hroche be ever had| 
he therefore willed the Archbishop not to discomfort him- 
self. * Perhaps iio man but James would have attempted 
to comfort a tnah fbr killing a fellow-creature, by bring- 
ing up nmilar instances of horse and dog-slangfater. 

t. Letter Ihim Mr Chambeiiain— Winwood:s Meaaoask 
«--* Queen Anne, ' says the writer in the Quarterly Be* 
view just ^oted, * though by |io ntesna findttese in tvu- 


^. .; Perhaps,, after tbe exertions lately made hj a 
distinguished literary antiqnary, j: to prove the mpm 
^inesQ of James's domestic relations, it is almost 
Buperflaons to hring forward further evidence. Yet 
I cannot help quoting two letters from the Queen 
to the King, written in a style of easy familiar hu- 
mour, and which hear strongly upon the fact. The 
originals are in the Advocates' Library. 

* Sir — ^Your letter was welcome to me. I 
have hin as glad of the faire weather as yourself. 
The last parte. of your letter — yow have guessed 
right that I wold laugh. Who* wold not laugh, 
both at the persons and the subject, but more so 
Ait so well a chosen Mercuric betweane Man and 
Venus ? Yow knowe that women can hardly keepe 
counsell. I humbly desire your M. to tell me how 
it is possible that I should keepe this secret that 
have alreadie tolde it, and shall tell it to as manie 

per, or eminent in understanding, appears to have had 
qualities which attracted general regard ; and the people 
watched her last illness with an affectionate concern. In 
the early part of the reign, her supposed disposition to in- 
terfere in politics excited a jealousy far greater, apparent- 
ly, than circumstances really warrant^. In the secret 
eorr^spondence' maintained by Cecil with James before 
the death of Elisabeth, Anne is mentioned with anxiety, 
as liable, fW>m facility of disposition, to be acted upon by 
nnbter influences. But the evil never became very for- 
midable. Her manners w^re extremely popular. Coke, 
ia his Detection, boldly panegyrises her piety, prudence, 
temperance, and chastity. Even Weldon confesses that 
she was a very brave Queen ; and Osborne, while he 
censures her uncovered shoulders, yet condescends to ob- 
serve, thai her skin was <* amiable, " and her diqpoBitioa 
*< debennair.**^^Quafieriu Revievf, zli. 77* 

t Mr D'Israell 


188 t^iiB ov 

•8 I speake wiih* If I were a poete, I weld wkke 
m Mog of it, and sisg it to the tone of ** Three 
feobs well mett." So IdJwiDg your hands, I veaC» 
yours* * Akma, R. ' 

< My Heart — I desyre yoar Majestie to pardon 
that I hare mot answered your Miyestie sooner up- 
on your letters, because I would know the trath 
of the park of Oatlands, as I understand there is 
fieere forty grossi beastiani of divirs kindefly that 
devours my deere, as I will tell your Majestie at 
meeting. Whereas your Majestie wolde hare me 
to meete you at Withall, I am coatent, bat I fear 
some incoareaiens in my leggs, which I haFe not 
felt hier. So kissin your Majestie s hands, I rest, 
yours, * Ansa, R. * 

With regard to James's character as a &tfaer, it 
seems, so far as he was permitted by his duties to 
indulge in intercourse with his children, to hare 
been equally good. His eldest son Henry, from 
an early period, lived in a house of his own, aad 
followed pursuits different from those in which the 
King was engaged ; the younger children were 
placed out at board in the houses of different per- 
sons. He therefore saw little of them. £very 
now and then, however, he seems to have sent 
them letters and presents, to testify his affection 
towards them ; to which they were as constantly 
jnetnming him answers, couched in the same en- 
dearing terms. A great number of the letters of 
these interesting children are preserved, and, when 
;:ead in proper chronological series, serve to show 
the progress of their minds from the merest infiuscy, 
when they began their correspondence, up to the 


yean of eiarly numliood* Somie are written is La^ 
tin, some in French, and some in English ; for in 
all those languages were hoth Henry and Charlea 
accomplished at a wonderfully early age. To aa* 
sure as against the suspicion of their receiring aa<* 
aktance from their preceptors, we find James ear* 
neatly commanding them to write from l^ir ovm 
mtudt. * 

The Latin letters are always addressed ' Amantis- 
sime pater, * and the whole correspondence afforda 
the strongest evidence both of the fatherly care 
and the fatherly affection of James towards his off* 
spring. It is at the same time, as Mr Disraeli 
remains, a strong presumption in favour of the 
worth and intellect of the King, that his children 
were all so well educated, and turned out so much 
superior to the generality of young men ; for, what- 
ever Henry might have been, and whatever Charles 
turned out to be, in other respects, both of them 
were by no means ordinary in native or acquired 
power of mind. 

But, indeed, James seems to have been a kind 
of enthusiast about domestic happiness, and the 
concord of families, in general ; and it was, per- 
haps, just in these fEuniliar matters tha( his cha- 
racter was most unexceptionably amiable. The 
great delight which he took in match-making, his 

* The following is one of the earliest letters of the boy, 
afterwards Charles I. 

< Sweete, sweete father ; I learn to Recline substantives 
and adjectives. Give me your blessing. I thank you for 
my best man. Your loving son, York. 

Superscribed, ^ To my father, the King. * * 

' From the original in (be Balfour Collection?, Advocates* 

170 XIFE O]? • 

frequent prending over weddings and diristenings,* 
and even bis political fancf of being a kind of ge** 
oeral father to bis wbole people, are all traits of a 
•pint alive to tbe relations of domestic life. Start*^ 
Kog as the assertion may appear, we are also con- 
Yinced, that his fondness for tbe society of young 
men, which displayed itself so violently in his suc- 
cessive attachments to Car and Villiers, and which, 
has never been rationally explained any other way, 
was owing in a great measure to this peculiarity 
of his mind ; though perhaps, in an inferior degree, 
to -the repose which their puerile conversation af- 

* On the 95fh of June 1618, the King visited Halsted 
in Kent, where a little child of the name of Pope, grand- 
daughter of his host, was presented to him, holding in her 
hand the following paper of verses : 

* Sir, this my little mistris here. 
Did neere ascend to Peter*s chaire 
Nor anye triple crown did weare. 
And yet she is a Port. 

Noe benefice she ever solde. 
Nor pardon e*er dispenst for gold ; 
She scarcely is a quarter olde, 
And yet she is a Pofk. 

Koe king her feete did ever kiss. 

Nor had worse look from her than this ; 

Nor doth she hope. 

To saint men with a rope. 

And yet she is a Pon. 

A female Pops you'll say, a second Joane^ 
But sore this is Pope Ihnockkt, or none ! ' 

When we find the king engaged in little amiable frolics 
of this kind, we are apt to question that his character*was 
obscured by any shade of cruelty or churlishness, such 
as is sometimes ascribed to it. 


forded to his thongblB after stady, or ' to a certain 
spark of bo3d8h wUdness, which hang about him 
to the end of his life, and often broke forth strange- 
ly from amidst his grayer qualities. ' * That he 
really did possess a heart capable of paternal feel- 
log in this extreme degree, is amply proved by 
bis interference in a very extraordinary case, whidi 
occurred in 1607 ; where the Earl of Lincoln pre- 
tended to take offence at his son's marriage, and 
cast him off, for the mean purpose of sparing his 
maintenance. The son being in the King's service, 
we find his Majesty writing the following letter to 
the ftktber. 
* James Rex : Right trusty and well-beloved cosen, 
it aeems Strang to us to be forced to write to a fa- 
ther for a Sonne : but when parents will breake tbos 
bondes of nature, and leave that care of thars that 
they ought to have, we that are common parents 
to all must putt those affections upon us ; which 
shall serve to discharge us in our places, and teach 
them the duty of thayrs. . Your sonne and my ser« 
vant, fiir Henry Fynta, as 1 am given credibly to 
understand, reseaves dayle hard measure from you, 
both in that you keep from him a great part of his 
present mantenance ; and also make spoyle of such 
wods as he, with his Own mony, hath . purchased 
from others ; and detain such evidences from him 
of land given to his mother for a joyntar, and after 
to himself in reversion ; and, as if all this was not 
enofe, you wage la we with bihi,. as if he were not 
your Sonne, but some adversary to be utterly undon 
by yon* We ar so sensible of the duty of a child 
tp a ftither, as we would not give any xespecte to> 

• Qfjarterly Eeview^, ili. 74. 

172 LIFE OF 

an imdiitifiill chiM agoiiii* bifei nf^wml fitliw; iMtf 
tince yoar aaaat hath gives jwx no jtiiite mm^ of 
efience, lett me tell you, tf f on will forgett foa 
are his father, I will remember that I am bw naft- 
ter, and will neither see nor nttSet ftm unjmtljr to 
oppress him ; vad doe therefore dnurge yov, either 
to show me just cause why yoa ^ns deale with him, 
or else command yoa to right him in these and 
such like wrongs as ar mftde known to tts ; wittsdi 
if yon shall not doe, we wilt lake that covce tiat 
in onr r^;all jostis we thinke fitt. And eo we 
commit yon to God. ' * It is ddigfatftil to find 
power exerted, even in this arbitrary manner, in 
&roar of the oppressed. 

Perhaps itsfaonld be addnced, as snochor proof 
of James's disposition to venefiie the deoencies of 
private life, that he disconntenanoed every atlemptat 
libertinism, bodi in his court and in literatnro, con- 
stantly studying, by the bkmelesB pmity of his own 
life, to ezempl&y to his snbjects this oondnet whkh 
he wished them to follow. 

After so much has been said to vindicate JaiMs 
from the contempt in which bis diaivcter hm been 
held, it may naturally be asked, how a man of so 
nmch nbility and worth has come to be so much 
depredated. The answer is a very simple one : 
James's intellect, though originally of the best 
order, wns imperfectly organiaed. He did not 
possess a mind of a certain degree of power, mod 
good of its degree. It was a very great drind, pftr- 
tially unwed and enfeebled-^a giant, as it wem,beni 
in the seventh month. Of his character, or pkysical 
constittttion, nearly the same thing pay b^ said. 

* Fiom FynesT own Memoiti, apud firydges' Peeiage. 


II WM a rlMWclcr aoited to the lofty profiortMQt 
of tho misd accovpADyuig it» bi^ la tftie bum de* 
gfM> imperfectly orga»sed. It was a cbaraetor 
f not vnoMnely/ but witii kMOck-kneeB. Thn% the 
best efforts of bia miady wb^lier ia hm cbancter 
of king, or anthory bad evor a tabtt of puerility, 
wfakb caiaeed tbe admiratioa of the pubttc to be 
kat m langbter or eootempt. Thu8« abo, aknoet 
every miRor actioa of life^ bovover aaeritoriouay 
ma Mnderedy to a oertain extent, nuiirerthy or 
fiMilishy by tbe meanuon of stylie ia wUdi be exe* 
GUted itt The writeie of bis ova. i»f tell us, ia 
tbeir quaint way, that his veason wovM baTo been 
of a high-towering aad laastarful aor^ but for the 
dioler and fear whidi aikyed it ; * for he was 
ooDtroUed in the most extsoBTe political schemes 
by the terrcnr of assaaHiiatioBy aad nerer permitted 
bia regal duty to staad ia the way of his hnmomr. 
Than is the same idea la other words. Hence 
arise the charges brought agaiast him, that he was 
a pedant in literature, and a diBsembler in king- 
ship. He was a cunning, because a timid man, f 
and pedantic, because bis mind, with all its good 

* It is amusing to observe bis own unconciousness of 
this part of his character. He tells us in one of his works, 
that[his dicton or allegorical epithet, when in Scotland, was 
* the LyoHf as expressing^ortifvde / ' I have shown some 
reasons, however, for doubting the popular theory of his 
antipathy to the sight of cold iron. And it is certain that, 
at various periods of his life, he displayed considerable 
nerve in facing danger. His leading armies against Both- 
well and the Catholic Iiords ; his conduct when die former 
tamitor met him in his closet; his presence of mind un- 
der the dagger of Alexander Buthven ; are all good in- 

t See Wilson's in particular, 289. 

qnalitiesy conld not reflist the ooeasioiial intnuioB 
of groteaqne ideas. To these causes, also, we may 
trace his high theoretical notion of bis own dignity 
and prerogatire, and the humble line of action upon 
which he was always, at the same time, proceed- 
ing—his assoiance that he was a kind of inferior 
deity, and his inability all the while to act the part 
of an ordinary man. And thus was he, altogetlier, 
a bundle of contradictions and paradoxes ; the 
most extraordinary specimen of human nature, per* 
haps, presented in his time. It really was not 
without some reason that Sully termed him ^ the 
wisest fool in Christendom. ' 

But perhaps the best scdntion, after all, of the 
puszle in James's reputation, is, that his merits are 
of a kind which do not make great impression upon 
mankind ; while his faults, though in reality trivial, 
are those which men least easily pardon. We are 
but too apt, in the perversity of our nature, to excuse 
the faults of men as wealuiesses, and to condemn, 
their weaknesses as faults. 








It is supposed to hare been during the year 1606, 
that James first adopted into his foyonr Robert 
Car, afterwards Earl of Somerset. Car was the 
third son of Sir Thomas Ker of Femiefairst, chief- 
tain of a sept of one of the best families on the 
Scottish Border, and who had been a faithful friend 
to the King when in Scotland. He was thus, 
whatever the English pamphleteers have said of 
him, a youth of good birth. When a boy, he be- 
came one of twelve pages who waited upon the 
King towards the close of his Scottish reign ; a 
situation then, and for many years after, deemed, 
even where a peer was to be served instead of a 
king, advantageous for the education and fortune 
of a gentleman. When James removed to Eng- 
land, he changed his pages for footmen, that he 
might make his personal attendance resemble that 
of Elizabeth ; and Car went to France in quest of 
other employment. Returning afterwards, when 
grown tpi manhood, he condescended to a{^ear as 

176 LIFE OF 

squire to a Scottish nobleman, at a court tilting- 
match ; when, being employed to present bis prin- 
cipal's ensign to the King, bis borse happened to 
rear, and threw bim, with a broken leg, at James's 
feet. The good-natnred King, interested in the mis- 
fortune, and also in the good looks of the squire, 
thought proper to get him deposited in the palace, 
and afterwards visited him in bis confinement. 
This gave him an opportunity of ascertaining that 
Car had formerly been in his own sendee^ and 
also to observe the handsome features and gende 
innocent demeanour of the youth ; all which causes 
combined, caused him to conceive a fondness for 
him, of that anomalous kind which has already 
been alluded to. During the progress of Car's 
oanvalescence, James applied himself to the task 
of cultivating his mind ; acting personally, it would 
appear, as his instructor in the Latin tongaal 
When once ftdly iagratisted with the King, it re* 
quired only a moderate share of tact to preserve 
his £ftvonr« Car^ though possessed of nothbig like 
talent, had at least enough of pcBietration to ob- 
verve the King's foibles ; having also enough of 
servility to accommodate himself to them, be 
might be considered as fuUy accomplisbed for his 
sitnatioa. Knowing that James liked to see men 
well dressed^ and in new lashions, he took cure to 
appear every day in attire at once novel and beau« 
tifuL la every particular as to peisoS) he studied 
the royal taste. Above all things, be took care 
never to appear disgusted by the unseemly fond* 
Ung which James was in the habit of bestowing 
upoa all whom ha loved. But the royal foiblsB 
l£rongh wlttch this finronrite rose^ and odier peen* 
Karities of the King's characleri are so spiritedly 


ittd anitisbgly delineftted In a private letter <»f the 
time, that we canniot resist the temptation of pre- 
denting H to the reader, instead of any farther ob- 
serrations of onr own. It is addressed to Sir John 
Harrington of Kelston, the witty gentleman whose 
obeeryations have been already so often quoted in 
^is work, and who, some years before, had had 
an hiternew with James, ihe cirenmstances of 
which are noted below. * 

* < II beb^yeth me now to recite fiiy joamal, respect* 
lag mf gracioai comiMiid of m j soTercign to come to fail 
elcMt. Wben I oame to the presence cimmber, mud had 
gotten good place to tee the lordly attendants, and bowed 
my -knee to the prince, I was ordered by a special messen* 
ger-*-that is, an secret sort— to wait a while in an oatward 
chamber, whence, in near an hourwMting, the same knwre 
led me up a passage, and so to a small room^ where was 
good order <^ paper, ink, and pens, put on a board for 
the prince's use. Soon upon this, the prince his highness 

" 1, If I 

did enter, and in much good humour asked, 
cousin to Lord Harrington of Exton? I humbly we* 
plied. His Mtgesty did me some bon<^ in inquiring my 
kin to one whan he bad so late hodOured and mi^e a 
baion ; and, moreover, did add. We were both branches 
<^the same tree. Then he inquired nmch of leanaog, 
and showed me his own in such sort as made me remera* 
ber my examiner at Cambridge aforetime^ He sought 
nttch to know my adTances in philosophy, and uttmd 
profound sentences of Aristotle, and sudi like writers, 
which I bad never read, and whidi some are bold enough 
to say, others do not undentand ; but this I must pasb by^ 
The prince did now press my reading to him a canto in 
Ariosto I prldsed my utterance, and said be had been of 
many as to my learning, in the time of the queen. He 
asked me what I thought pure wit was made of; tod 
whom it did best become? Whether the king should not 
be the best clerk in his own country ; and if this land did 
BOt entertain good opiraon of his learniug and good wia- 
dom ? Hb majesty did much press ior my opinion tettdu 
ing the ^wer <iC Sataa ia ibstter of witchetaft $ and msk 

178 LIFE OF 

, * My good and trusty knight ; If you have good 
will and good health to perforin what I shall cooi- 
mendy yon may set forward for court, wbeneTei: 
it soiteth your own conveniency* The King hath 
often enquired after you, and would readily see 
and converse with the '* meriy blade," as he hatb 
oft called you since you was here. I will new- 
premise certain things to be obserred by you Uh 

ed me, with much gravity, why the devil did work more 
with ancient women than with others ? * * His Majes- 
ty, moreover, was pk>ased to say much,* and fovba'redly, ^of 
my good report for mirth and good conceit ; to which I 
did courtly answer, as not willing a subject should be 
wiser than bis prince, nor even appear so. 

< More serious discourse did ensue, wherein T wanted 
room to continue, and sometimes room to escape ; for the 
queen his mother was not forgotten, nor Davison neither.- 
His highness told me, her death was visible in Scotiaod 
before it did really happen, being, he said^ spoken of in 
secret, by those whose power of sight [second sight] pre- 
sented to them a bloody head dancing in the air. He 
then did remark much on this gift, and said he had 
sought out of certMTit books a sure way to attain know^ 
ledge of future cb<3laces. Hereat he named many books, 
which I did not know, nor by whom written ; but advised 
me not to consult some authors, which would lead me to 
evil consultations. I told his Majesty the fear of Satan, 
I much feared, damaged my bodily frame ; but I had not 
further will to court his friendship for my soul's hurt. We 
next discoursed somewhat on religion, when at length be 
said, ** Now, Sir, you have seen my wisdom In some sor^ 
and I have pried into yours. I pray you, do me justice in? 
your report, and, in good season, I .will not fail to a^d to 
your understanding in such points as I may find you lack 
amendment.'* I made curtsey hereat, and withdrew down 
the passage, and out at the gate, amidst the many Tarletr 
and lordly servants who stood around. I did jrac forget tei 
tell that his majesty asked much my opinion of the new 
weed tobacco, and said it would, by Us use, infuse ill qua* 
Uties on the brain,, and that- no learned man ought to taste 
it» sad wished it forbidden. '^Parir> Nitga *4fU^0>i^ 


i^srds well gaining onr prince's good affeceion : he 
d»th wondrously covet learned discourse, of ^bicb 
he can famish yon* oat ample means ; he doth ad- 
mire good fashion in clothes — I pray yon give 
heed hereunto. Strange ' devices oft come into 
man's conceit ; some regardeth the endowments of 
the inward sort, wit, valour, or virtue ; another 
hath, perchance, special affection towards outward 
things, clothes, deportment, and good countenance* 
I would wish you to be well trimmed ; get a new 
jerkin well bordered, and not too short ; the King 
saith he liketh a flowing garment ; be sure it be 
not all of one sort, but diversely coloured, the col- 
lar fieJling somewhat down, and your ruff well stif* 
fened and bushy. We have lately had many gal- 
lants who failed in their suits for want of the ob- 
servance of these matters. The King is nicely 
heedful of such points, and dwelleth on good looks 
and handsome accoutrements. Eighteen servants 
were lately discharged, and many more will be 
discarded, who are not to his liking in these mat- 
ters^ I wish you to follow my directions, as I 
wish you to gain all you desire. Robert Car is 
kiow most likely to win the prince's affection, and 
doth it wondrously in a little time. The prince 
leaHeth on his arm, pinches his cheek, and, while 
he looketh at Car, directeth his speech to divei!S 
others. This young man doth much study all art 
and device ; he hath changed his tailors and tire- 
men many times, and all to please the prince, who 
laugheth at the long grown fashion of our young 
conrtiers, and wisheth for change every day. You 
jnint see Car before you go to the King, as he 
was with him when a boy in Scotland, and know- 
eth bis taste and what pleaseth. In your discourse 

180 hiriR OF 

yoa miut not dwdl too loig on any cme mkjttt, 
and touch bnt lightly on religioD* Do not, of 
yonrselfy say^ *^ This is good or had ;" bat, ^ II 
k were your Mi^ty's good ophuony I myaetf 
abonld tiwik so and so*'' Ask no auwe ^tnestioBs 
than what may sorre to know the prinea's thongfat 
In priTata disooiine, the Kmg aeldooi speaketh of 
any man's temper^ discretion, or good virtnes ; so 
meddle not at all, hot find out a ehte to guide yon 
to the heart and most de%htfnl subject of his 
Blind. I adrise one thing — the roan jennet, whera- 
OB the King rideth erery day, must not be loigot* 
ten to be praised ; and the good foniture abofe 
all, which lost a great man much nodoe the ocher 
day. A noble did come in suit at a place, and 
saw the King mounting the roan ; deliFered fan 
petition, which was heeded and r^Ml, bnt no an* 
swer was given. The noble departed, and canM 
to court the next day, and got no answer again. 
The Lord Treasurer was then pressed to move the 
King s pleasure touching the petition. When the 
King was asked for answer thereto, he sud, k 
some wrath, " Shall a King give heed to a dirty 
paper, when a beggar noteth not his gilt stirrups?" 
Now it fell out, that the King had new furniture 
when the noble saw him in the court-yard ; but be 
was overcharged with confosion, and passed by 
admiring the dressing of the horse. Thus, good 
knight, our noble failed in his suit. I could re* 
late and offer some other remarks on these mattevs, 
but Silence and Discretion should be linked toge* 
ther, like dog and bitch, for of them is gendend 
Secnrity*— I am certain it provetfe so at this pkoe. 
You have lived to see the trim of old times, and 
what passed in the Queen's days* These 


^re »o more the eemai Your Qneea did talk of 
her subjects* love and good a£fection9» and in good 
truth she aimed well ; our King talketh of his sub* 
jects* foar and subjection, and herein I think he 
doth well too, as long as it holds good. Car hath 
all favours, as I told you before ; the King teaeb* 
eth him Latin every morning, and I think somo 
•ne should teach him English too ; lor, as be is a 
Scottish lad, he hath much need of better kn* 
guage. The King doth court much his presence s 
the ladies are not behind hand in their admiration ; 
for I tell you, good knight, this fellow is straight- 
limbed, strong-shouldered, and smootlh-liioed, with 
some sort of cunning and show of modesty ; tho', 
God wot, be well knoweth wh«n to show his im- 
pndence. You are not young, you are not band* 
some^ you are not finely ; and yet will you come 
to court, and think to be well-favourod I Wby» 
I say again, good knight, that your learning may 
somewhat prove worthy hereunto ; your Latin and 
your Greek, your Italian, your Spanish tongueSf 
your wit and discretion may be well looked unto 
for a while, as strangers at such a place ; but 
these are not the things men live by now-andays. 
Will you say the moon shineth all this summer ? 
That the stars are bright jewels fit for Car s ears ? 
That the roan jennet surpasseth Bucephalus, and 
is worthy to be ridden by Alexander ? That his 
eyes are fire, his tail is Berenice's locks, and a few 
more such fancies worthy your noticing ? If any 
mischance be to be wished, 'tis breaking a leg in 
the King's presence, for this fellow owes all his 
fiavour to that bout ; I think he hath better rea- 
son to speak well of his own horse, than of the 
KLing s roan jennet. We are almost worn out ia 

182 XiFEdv:. < 

ear efidc^av^imra to keep' paee with tl]i»fell«v 4a 
bis dnty, and labour to gain far^ar, but all iir 
vain. Where it endethi cannot guete; but ho- 
nours are talked of speedily for him. I tnttt dds 
hy my own son, that no danger may happen from 
om- freedoms. If yon come bere^ God speed 
yonr ploughing at the Conrt : I know ytm do it 
rarely at home. So adieti, my good Knight^ and 
I will always writo me your truly loving- old 

« T. HOWARB. • 

• It is no more than justice to James, to remind 
the reader, that this letter gives a burleflque, and 
therefore a someivhat untrue, account of the rise of 
Car. Some of the circumstances which appear 
most ridiculous, can, to a certain extent, be ex* 
plained away. For instance, the fact of James 
condescending to become the tutor of his fitvowr* 
ite, though apparently indica^g only the mean* 
ness of his taste, proceeded, in r^ity, from a nil 
which he entertained to frushion and inform a good 
mind, hitherto uncultivated, to his own pleasnie^ 
that it might serve afterwards, both teagmeable 
companionship, and for a medium between him 
and his people ; for James was one of thoae sovo' 
reigns who think it necessary to retain a pesBoa 
near them, to bring them idl the gossip of the 
day, learn for them among the people the general 
feeling in regard to the course of goTemment, and 
procure them information about the capabilhics ef 
men suing for places about the oonrt» la tUi 
point of view, James, by patronising Car, eaiy 
^d, in his own eccentric way, what the moat ti 
hav^a done ; and the only fimlt he can be 


charged with is, his having givcm the minion a 
place beside his throne, instead of keeping bim 
bdiind a cnrtain. He had also this respectable, 
and; it may be, valid, reason for preferring a man 
fliicfa as Car, without great connections, to any 
fldon of the nobility, that, in case of the neces- 
sity of dismissing him, his faH could not excite 
vob resentment of a party* 

The rise of the favourite was not so rapid as is 
generally represented. He was fully in possession 
ik the King's fovour in February 1609 ; during 
which year James gave him a grant of the forfeited 
estate of Sir Walter Raleigh, replying to all the 
remonstrances of that person's friends, * I maun 
hae the land — ^I maun haeH for Car. ' But it was 
not till upwards of two years after, nameiy, m 
March 161 1, that he conferred upon his favourite 
the title of Viscount Rochester. Neither can the 
King be said to have bestowed money upon him 
with needless or extraordinary profusion. The 
first free yift we find to have been given to him, 
was one of 500/., in the early part of the yeat 
1611; the second, one of 50001., towards the 
end of the. sanie year; and a third of 15,000/. ap- 
pears in the roll for 1612 ; but after that there is 
DO other. Car's chief emoluments arose from 
sums which were given to him by applicants for 
the royal favour; and by that oblique method, he 
is said to have nosed a great deal of money. It 
riiould be told, however, in his favour, that, on a 
particular occasion, when the managers of the royal 
Exchequer were driven almost to desperation for 
Want of supplies. Car gave them the key of his 
strcmg box^ and told them to take from it what 


184 LIFE OF 

tbey plefuBed. It wa« found to oontaiji twenty- 
fi?e thousand pounds, all of which they took. 

An amusing anecdote is related by those writers 
who represent the King as having been too bene- 
ficent to his favourite. He had once, according 
to those authorities, given Car a precept upon the 
Treasury for the round sum of tweniy t^iouaand 
pounds ; which the bearer, of course, lost no time 
in presenting to the Earl of Salisbury^ Cecil, 
who always suspected, it is said, that the King 
MtaH calculated sums according to the Scoltisby and 
not the Sterling mode, paused before ejcecndng an 
x>rder which, at that crisis^ was aimoat sufficient 
to beggar the Exchequer. For the purpose of 
making his master aware of the red amount of the 
aum he had accorded to the favourite, be invited 
his Majesty to dine at his bouse, nnd took oaie to 
lay down, in a gallery through which the King bad 
to pass, a glittering heap of goU, cimtaining osly 
a fractional part of the amount. Jamee atood in 
amazement at the sight ; for the troth is, he ww 
comparatively unacquainted with money in ii^ tan- 
gible shape ; and he hastily inquired of the Tnar 
surer to whom it belonged. ^ Please your Ma- 
jesty, ' said Cecily < it was yours this momiiig be- 
fore you gave it away* ' The King then * CbU 
into a passion, protesting be was abused^ nam 
intending any such gift; and, casting himself iqnm 
the heap, scrabbled out the quantity of two or 
three hundred pounds, and awore he should hwe 
no more. ' * But the minister, continues Ae aame 
authority, was too much .airaid of the growing 
pow^ of the favourite, to diminish the aum mm 
-tbaa one baiL 

* Oaborne. 


On« of Jmnw's besetting tinsy was a want of. 
firmness in condemning great criminals. Bat« in 
1'612, be perticMined an act of jastiee^ which Bacon, 
in consideration of the title -of the calpric, did not 
scruple to praise as <me of the most remarkable 
in the histor3r of any age or country. A young 
Scotch nobleman, Ltord Crichton of Sanquhar, had 
the misfortune, some years before, to lose an eye, 
in a trial of skill, with one Turner, a fencifig«>mas^ 
ler. It is said, that he had no thought of re^eng-* 
mg what was a mere accident on the pmt of Tur- 
ner, until, at Paris, Henry IV., understanding he 
had. lost his eye in a rraoontre, asked him empha^ 
tieaUy, ' If the man yet lived who bad done Um 
each an injury?' litis question Lord Sanquhar 
nnfortunatdy understood as a hint that his honour 
ceold not subsist with the life of Turner ; and ac- 
cordingly, be had .the poor man shot in his own 
school, sev«B years after the offence for which he 
took so bkMMly a reyenge. James caused him, as 
well as the servants who had done the deed, to 
be apprehended ; and as, in addition to all abstract 
ideas of justice, the English were at that time in- 
flamed to a great degree against tbo Scotcbt for 
various instances of unruly behaviour, he ordered 
die whole, en saatence being pronounced against 
Ihem, to be executed. It was a eiroumstanee 
worth relating, that, thov^ Lord Sanqidiar bad 
been divoreed from his wife only three or four 
days before his apprehension, she no sooner leant- 
ed his -unfortunate cinmmstaaces, and understood 
thsl he wished to see her, than> with that love 
wihioh seatcely avy thing can destroy in wonum's 
breast after it has been once implanted, she came 

186 LiFfi OF 

to oflbr him her consolations in hU prison. • Al 
his execution, hb firm, yet composed demeanour, 
with the high character he had enjoyed for con- 
rage, talents, and accomplishments, greatly moTed 
the compassion of the spectators ; which, however, 
abated, when they saw that he died a Roman Ca- 

The collisions of the Scotch and English allnded 
to, and to which this nobleman in part fell a sacri- 
fice, occasioned at this time no small sensation ; 
more especiaUy as they all happened within a short 
KpBce of time. A Scot of the name of Murray, 
with the assistance of his men* killed a sergeant 
who arrested him at Lndgate for a debt ; for which, 
' more to satisfy the sheriflb of London than jns- 
dce, (if we are to beliere the satirist Osborne,) 
the servants were hanged. What proved a more 
inflammatory instance — Maswell, the King's con- 
fidential servant, thought proper, one court day, 
to lead Mr Hawley, a member of Gray's Inn, ont 
of the presence-chamber, by a black ribbon, whidi, 
according to the fashion then prevalent, the lawyer 
wore at his ear. For this insult, which the whole 
of the benchers in London took to themselves, 
Hawley was nrged to demand satisfaction; and 
Maxwell was informed, that, if he refused to fight, 
the man he had injured would kill him, whenever 
he met with an opportunity* It cost the padfie 
King, and also Lord Bacon, no small pains to get 
this matter accommodated, by a proper apology 
on the part of Maxwell. While the public mind 
was in full excitation from these circumstances^ a 
Scottish gentleman of the name of Ramsay re- 

♦ See Nichols. ' ' 


sented some inaalt which he conceited the Earl of 
Montgomery had offered to him, by smiting that 
nobleman across the face with his switch. This 
occorred on the race-ground of Croydon-field, 
where great numbers of both countries were pre- 
sent ; and the English immediately rose in a tu- 
multuous fashion, threatening to make general 
cause with their countryman against the Scotch. 
The picturesque feature of the scene which en- 
sued, was, according to Osborne, Mr ' John Pinch- 
back, though a maimed man, haying but the per- 
fect use of two of his fingers, riding about with 
his dagger in his hand, crying, " Let us break our 
&8t with them here, and dine with the rest at 
London ! *' ' Montgomery, however, tamely sub- 
mitted to the affront; and the English becama 
quiet, without shedding any blood. Yet such was 
the alarm which this riot communicated to tbe 
Scotch at London, that it is said three hundred 
were counted, in one day, going through Ware, 
on the road to their native country. Perhaps the 
King's predilection for Car, a native of Scotland, 
tended to aggravate this bitter feeling, on the part 
of the EngUsh; towards the adventurers of that 
nation ; and it is not impossible that his Majesty 
might be the more willing to sacrifice Sanquhar^ 
to whom he is suspected of having borne personal 
antipathy, that his death tended to soften the ran- 
cour with which his favourite was regarded. 

The close of the year 1612 was distingmshed 
by an event, which added to the natural gloom of 
November all the sadness which can darken thie 
public mind under' thd infliction of a great na^onai 
calamity. On the 6th of this month, Prince Henry 
died of a popular sickness or fevery when he bat* 

1 88 i.ivt ot 

nearly completed his nitieteenth year, and procured' 
the reputation of poMessing almost every manly 
▼iftae. ' Talent, accomplnhment in learning and 
in bodily exercised, vigoroos character, public spi- 
rit, pm*ity of life and conversation, are among the 
qnalities ascribed to this distinguished prince, 
whose short life has proved sufficient to supply 
materials for one of the most pleasing volumes, of 
an antiquarian character, in the language. * The 
King was so poignantly afflicted by the death of 
his son, that he adopted the affecting, though cha- 
racteristically eccentHe resolution, of neither wela*- 
ing mourning himself, nor permitting any one to 
approach him in sable attire, in order to spare him* 
self the pain of having the idea of his son's loss 
repeatedly awakened in his nind. t The people 
at large mourned the loss of so promising a prince, 
with the deepest feelings of regret ; and it is said 
to have been long after customary, to console those 
who lost the eldest hopes of their families, by re* 
minding them that even the good Prince Henry 
had died, wheli equally endeared to his parents and 
the nation. 

For some years before the FHnce's deatb> James^ 
natandly anxious about the marriage of hie chQ- 

* Dr Birch's life of Prince Hemy. 

t It ba« been already mentioned, that the King bad an 
illness, frooi grief, in consequence of the death of Prince 
Henry. That the Queen was equally afflicted by this f»>' 
niily calamity, is proved by a touching circumstance-— 
that she could not present herself at the creation of her 
secon^son Chairles u Prince of Wales, in 1616, lest the 
siffht should renew her grief for the death of her first 8on» 
who had undergone the same ceremony, in the same splen- 
did style, only a short time before his death.— CAam6er- 
iaMi Leturt, WimooodCs Memorialt. 


drM, had enrtenained tt«Bt»M mtk Sj^iitttfid Fraiice, 
for yoottg priticeiided of tboM eourto to be united to 
hit torn ; and afi amuigoaaent had been completed 
lor the union of the Piiiiceaa Blizabeth «ftd Fre» 
[y Count Palatine of the Rhine. Frederick 
in England at the time of the Prince « demise ; 
and it wns found necessary, in m'dcr to permit his 
return to his dominions, and to sare expense, to 
hate his nuptials performed little more than three 
months after that melancholy event. The mar* 
riftge took place on the 1 3th of February ; and the 
youthful couple soon after left England. This mar- 
riage was most unfortunate, so far as the pvrtiee 
themselves were concerned; for Frederick, by im- 
prudently accepting the kingdom of Bohemia, to 
which he was called by a body of insurgents in 
that country, became involved in an unequal war 
with his superior the Emperor of Geitnany, and 
kMt not only the sovereignty, to which he had no 
u^ but also his paternal dominions. James has 
been greatly blamed for not interfering with ut 
active force to protect his Bon»in«>law, whose cause 
was endeared to all the Protestant part of Chris- 
tendom ; but it is difficult, in candour, to see the 
propriety of his involving his dominions in war, to 
prevent the proper effects of a piece of imprudence 
on the part of a mere relation of his own. It is 
time that the merits of historical person^es should 
he estbnated without a regard to the form of fait^ 
]& behalf of which they acted. This union, how- 
ever, has been esteemed fortunate for the country 
of the Princess ; since it was through her daugq- 
tor, Sophia, ^t Britain derived the line of sove- 
reigns, who, for a century past, have filled the 

190 LIFE OF » 

llie BntiA amuds aie BfaKMd, «k dits pidMt 
Hith die infaiiKMis storv of the IkTOurile Roclmk 
ler and the Covntess of Emez. The former per* 
eoQi who, 1^ to this period, had steadfly advuioad 
'in the fo^our of his raaater, noir reeeired grett 
promotion from the death of the Earl of SidiBhiif]^ 
irhom he was appoinited to eneeeed as Secvetaiy 
of State. He was also hy no means nabeloved 
by the people ; for his manners were hitherto of a 
winning and gentle descriptieny and he was aa yal 
mq>ollated by any great yices. Criminal love, to 
which the best natures are sometimes found equal* 
ly subject with the worsts was destined to be the 
rain ci Rochester. 

. One of the principal figurantes in the court ef 
Queen Anne, was Frances^ Countess of Essex, a 
young noblewoman of the most exquisite beaiuy^ 
hot, as it aftervmrds appeared, the nearest diing 
possible to what is caUed a fiend in human shape* 
She was daughter to the Earl of Suffolk, hatA 
Chamberlain, and grand-danghter to the unforta* 
nate Duke of Norfolk^ whose comiexion with ibo 
history .of Mary has given so tender an interest to 
all of his name. When oalf thirte^ years of ago 
— «too young to consider, as a historian of the^hr^ 
expresses it, but old enough to consent she hod 
been married, for reasons of- mere policy, to Ro-^ 
bert, 'second Earl of Essex, a nobleman bat one 
year older than herself, the son and heir of tfao 
celebmted &yoarite of Elkabeth. Ben JonaQ* 
exerted his matchless genius to grace this noiiii. 
with a masque ; and, at the time it took plaee» u^ 
pfospeet could appear faitor than that whicS^ e^-^ 
tended over the future life of thi^.iqterestiog yon^ 
pair. What fair scenOi however^ may not hSi 


lliglitod by yke, w ewen bjr indueretioii ? As it 
was thon^t proper that tbe Eari and Counter 
ahonkl noi live together till a certain agey tbe for* 
ma: went abroad to complete bis education^ and 
the lady remained at home to gnce the court of 
the Qaeen. Before die Earl's retum, she con^ 
ceived at once a) passion for the person of the 
Viscoont Rochestery and an ambitioiiB wish to be- 
come connected wiUi hb rising fortunes. Inspired 
by both feelingSy but diiefly by the latter — for she 
naturally loved to sbine high in a court *— she de* 
termined, by whatever means, to shake herself free 
of a husband who proposed to bury her in the 
country, and marry the man who could secure to 
ker the most glittering place in tbe court. The 
force of this passion will be better understood, 
when the reader is reminded of the efforts made 
by Janles to cause noblemen, not connected essen-' 
tially with tbe court, to live at their country seats; 
a fiuhiMi which, as may be easily supposed, bore 
peouKariy hard upon the female part of the peer- 
age..- On the return of Essex, Uierefore, she be- 
gan a series of machinations of the most atrocious 
description, with conjurors and other neiarioqe 
persons ; by which she hoped to establish a cause 
of divorce from the Earl. 

Almost from the beginning of his career as a fa* 
^ourite, Rochester had retained about his person, 
argendeman of the naioe of Overbui^y, who, beings 
aeoomplished and amlnttoaB, but destitute of pa- 
UMBage, was gkd to serve in the capacity of ad- 
viser and secretary to the minion, and simply him, 

* We have bepome convinced, from a.careAil perusal of % 
nmnber of documents, that this, and not mere love, W9i& 
the mUng patiioo of Uw Gouate^. 

192 LIFE OF 

as it; w«re» at ttecond-banclv wkK the talent be 
waa^edy for tha aake of aeqairtng a fboting at 
court. This pereoa, concemad far his own in- 
terest, which depended upon that of Rochester,- 
was shocked to obserre the unlawful passion with* 
which Lady Essex aeon snoeeeded in inspiring hia 
patron ; and be made erery eflbrt in his power to 
rescue him from her blandishments^ and conviacc 
him of the fatal effect they were ealeukled ta have 
upon his fortunes^ Bat Rochealer was too deeply 
invoked in the meshes which the Counted had 
spread for huii> to be accessible to this Warning ; 
hiiodad by a passion which knew no discretion* 
he was even so- impmdent as to denounce hia 
friend to her, as one vHio endeavoiired to obatmct 
their loves. 

It was now attempted to move the King, to fiip 
vour a project of nuUifying the prematnre marriage 
of the Earl and Comitest. By the assistance of 
the Earl of Northampton, gnuid-nncle to the lady, 
and a mast confideatial minister, Rodbester anc^ 
ceedad in convincing ik% easy manarchy that such 
an arrangement would be alike gratifying to all 
parties concerned ; and James lost no time in or- 
dering the Bishops to take the necessary steps. 
A more abominable, more nnjastifiable case, never, 
perhi^My came before that venerable body. Yet, 
such was the inflnence of the ooar^ that little di^ 
ficulty was experienced in carrying it throni^ ; 
Abbot, the puritanical Ardibiafaop of Canterbury, 
being almost the only judge who expressed any 
reluctance. The whole proceedings were of a na* 
tnre too horrible to be touched upon, even in the 
slightest manner, in a publication of the nineteenth 
century ; but they may be found related in the 


[Mriiits of tha vime, witih a minuteiieas^ which eonn 
manicAt^ a moftt painM inprMMioii of tfie inek'' 
giaoe of p«iblic tasto durng tb« reign of James. 

Before this was efiksted, Rochester had so far 
git^eii way to the vindictine feeliags of bis paranloiir, 
as to e:fieite the King's resentraen* against Overbnry,* 
and caase him to be thrown imo the Tower* Not 
content with that revenge, which did not -ensure 
the guilty p&ir against the danger which was to be 
dreaded from his disclosing any of their secrets, 
they conspired to have him cat off by poison. For 
this purpose, they changed the Lieatenant of the 
Towner for one of their own €reatin«s, and appoint- 
ed a nnmber of infamous wretches to ati«iid bt 
subordmate capacities apon their victim, and cans*- 
ing the unhappy man to be dented mterconrse 
with Ofery other person. When things were in 
proper train, they proceeded to a(fcninieter to him 
all kinds of slow poisons, and other appliances 
calculated to leave no exserMi marie npon the 
body : his food, his linen^ aknosc the air whicb 
he breathed, were tainted with these horrid stais ; 
even hie sak, as we are told by Wilsim, beihg 
mingled with white mercury. For se^fal months, 
natttre resisted every effort with more or less sac« 
cess ; and the unfortunate prisoner, though ahnosi 
borne to the earth with the horrors of his siMtation, 
and with the pain he saflfered, continued to mock 
the wretched pair with continued life. But they 
at length became tired of feeble applicotions, and 
eaxised an eflfectual dose to be administered to him. 
His body, ulcerated to a degree which made il 
horrible to be looked on, Was then thrown in a 
loose sheet into a coffin, and hastily buried in the 

194 LIFE OF 

Tower, to prereat the public, if ponible, from 
raising any ramoiirB about the mystery of hb 
death. It is drefuifal to think that, besides the 
two lovers, who had at least the imperfect excuse 
of an oyerpowering passion for this act, the Earl 
of Northampton, a cool aged statesman, with no 
other cause for antipathy to Overbury than a sym- 
pathy with his kinswoman, or a wish to her exalta- 
tion, was also concerned in it* When we find persons 
in this rank guilty of such crimes, we are tempted 
to characterize the age when they occurred as be- 
ing one of extraordinary vice ; but we should bear 
in mind, that the generality of the public, instead 
ol assentuig to the commission of snph barbarities, 
visited them, when they came to light, with the 
loudest reprobation. 

The death of Overbury took place on the 15th 
of September, 1613 ; and, on the 26th of the sub- 
sequent December, Rochester and his mistiess 
performed their nuptiab und^ circnmstancea of 
splendour, and apparent felicity, beyond all par- 
allel ( the city of London vying with the King and 
his court, which should ocmtribute most effe^niUy 
to flatter the lovets with their sympathy and ap- 
plause. That the Countess might experience no 
dedension of dtie by her new alliance, James cre- 
ated her husband Earl of Somerset ; the title by 
which he is best remembered in history. It is re- 
cmrded of her, as a notable instance of impudence^ 
that at her maniage she appeared with her kur 
hangmg loose overawhite dress; by which device, 
as it was usually displayed by women married for 
the first time, she thought to out-brasen or confound 
(he popular rumours. 


BucixxKo— «ro&r or tbx ladt AftABXiXA— fall or 



If James's ratgn was nndistingiUBhed by foreign 
war, it was aot without the evU, probably a natu- 
ral conseqaence of snch a state of things, an ex- 
tcaordinary propensity to pri?ate contentions. Sir 
Richard Steele remarked, in the reign of Queen 
Anne, one hundred years after the period under 
reTiew, that he never saw the young men wear 
sach long swords, or assume such a swaggering 
air, as for some years after the peace of Utrechu 
Just 80 it was in the reign of the peaceful James, 
when the streets of the metropolis were infested, 
by diBiy and night, with gallants calling themselves 
•Roaring Boys, Boneventors, Biavadoes, Qnartore, 
and sudi epithets ; who, being always in the way 
of provoking quarrcfls, and never, going without 
weapons, were perpetually falling into bloody ren-. 
counters, often of fatal termination ; for which 
James's feeble government could provide neither 
remedy nor punishment. * It was remarked, that 

« Narradve History of tlie First Fourteen .Tears of 
King James, adinitium. 

196 LIFE OF 

these collisions were now the oftener fatal, that 
the native weapons of broadsword and buckler, 
used in the reign of Elizabeth, were exchanged by 
the pretty fellows of this more giddy-paced age, 
for ^e comparatively mischievons rapier, which 
bad recently been imported from France. 

This unfortunate disposition of the age was not 
exemplified by street brawls alone ; nor was it 
confined to the mere youth of the metropolis. 
Fomented by that ridiculously nice system of ho- 
nour which Touchstone hits pff so neatly, it dis- 
played itself in a number of set duels, which gene- 
rally ended with an amount of bloodshed, fearfully 
disproportioned to the original cause of quarrel. 
It would almost appear that the Kings subjects 
bad conspired to atone, in the eyes of foreigii na- 
tions, for the timorous character of their soirereign ; 
or, as othefs might interpret it, that they were so 
much disgusted with his pusillanimity, as to fly, 
for their own satisfaction, to the extreme of the 
^posite fault. Thus, we find Lord Herbert of 
Cherbary, when in attendance on a French em- 
bassy, rush into mortal quarrel with a gentleman 
of that nation, for refiu^ to rertore a top-knot 
which he bad plucked in sport from the head-^dresi 
of a young lady : afterwards, he dtaHenged die 
governor of a eonlanental town, for some slight in- 
cmlity in the way of his duty, and expressed great 
regret when the dignitary pleaded exemption firom 
the du^um on account of his office. In another 
port of the self-written memoirs of the same per- 
son, we find him rise up in the midst of a kife 
party of Dutcbmen, among whom he bi^ened to 
sit in a public room, and dare the whole, one after 


Miother, to deadly fight, for aiiiiply talking a fow 
Hgbt words of the King of Grreat Briiida. 

Sir Hatton Cheek, second in cooiBifmd of the 
English who assisted the Netherlands ia recover* 
ing the town of Juliers from the ^laniards (1909), 
having said something in a testy manner to Sir 
Thomas Ditton, one of his .ci^Hains, the* kUer 
took it up hotly, and retoraed 9» hold an answer 
as his circamataacea wonld permit ; telling Cheek, 
nsoreover, that he should soon break the bond 
which, for the present, compelled him to obe* 
dience, and vindicate himself in another plane. 
Having then quitted the army, Ditton letvnied 
home, and proceeded, in the approved style of 
that age, to lash up the fury of has aati^goniat, by 
talking despitefully of him in public* When this 
came to the ears of Cheek, he happened to be 
aick from the effects of the siege ; but he was no 
sooner able to walk than he wrote to Ditton^ de- 
siring a meeting with him, that he might give aa* 
tisfaction for the calumnies he had propagated. 
Aa duelling was a dangerous proeeedii^ in En^and, 
on account of the King's displeasure^ the two met, 
with their seconds, on the sands of Calais ; where 
they were no sooner stripped, than> without mak- 
ing the least attempt at sword-play, they ruilied 
blindly on each other s weapons, with which thof 
were in an mstant mutually transfixed. Aa a eon- 
temporary historian remarks, they did not, in this 
eaoount^, seem to wish to kill each other, ao 
much ae they appeared u> * strive who ahovld fiiab 
die, * * Their awords being fuitenad in eadi 
other'a bodieiy they atabbad eadh othar in the^back 

• Wnsoa. 


198 LIFE 07 

widi iheir daggers, * locking tbemseUes ikp/ to 
nse the phniBe of the same writer, * as it were 
with four bloody keys ; which the seconds Tidrly 
opened, and would fain have closed np the bleed- 
ing difference : bat Cheek's wounds were deadly, 
which he finding, grew the yiolenter against his 
enemy; and Ditton, seeing him b^n to stagger, 
went back from his prey* only defending himself 
till the other, his nige being weakened by loss of 
blood, withoat any more hurt, fell at his feel. 
Ditton,' continues the same anthority, ' with nknch 
difficulty reooTered from his womids ; bnt Cheek; 
by his servants, had a sad fanend, which is the 
bitter fmit of fiery passions* * 

Regarding the following other instance, a mo<^ 
dem writer has remarked : * Slogs and a saw-pit 
hare been often mentioned ; but I believe this is 
the only instance in which the latter has been 
really chosen as a scene of combat. Sir Thomas 
Compton, yonnger brbther of Lord Compton, was 
a gentleman of so little irritability of teflnper, or 
rather perhaps of such a timid nature, as to avoid 
every occasion of quarrel which his contempo- 
raries were in general so glad to seize. This, be> 
coming known, was soon attended with the ef* 
fQCts which might have been expected from it m, 
Qocfa a society ;' and Compton was triumphed over 
^d insnlted by every Boabadil and Colepepper 
who faannted the comt. * Among the rest, <me 
Bird, a roaring captain, gave him provocataoM so 
great, that some of Compton's friends taking no- 
tice of him, told him it were better to die nobly 
once, than .live infomonsly ev^ ; which wronglil 
so npon his cold temper, that, the next afiront 
this bold Bird put upon him, he was heartened 


i«ko'^*C(»iWgj9 to^«eQd< him a thsXki^t: *. BM« 
• gOHKb miasy fellow, confident of hia own streBgtb 
(dudaiaipg Gonipton, hemg le8$ both in sta|Uir9 
and in coac«ge)i told the teepnd that brought th^ 
tifaallengey in a.v^ponring mannec, that he would 
aoi stir a foot to encounter Compton, unless he 
would meet him in a sawi-pit, where he might be 
sore. Compton would not mn away fix^m- fain^. 
The.second^ that,. looked, upon this as a ihoder 
oMmtade fancy» told him, that if he Would appoint 
the place, Compton should not £edl to meet him» 
Birdi making choice both of the place and wejBr 
pan ;(whicb inl the ▼ain formality of fightem wav 
ia the election of the ohallenged), he chose a saw- 
pit and'a single sword ; wherei according to the 
lima Jikppmnteid, they met. Being togeth^ in the 
pit| with awords dniwo^ and stript. ready for the 
eacouiiter, <' Now, Compton, " said 3ird, " tkon^ 
sbdtaol asoape from me;" and, holering his swor4 
Qifser his head in a disdwnM maimer, said, ^ Com^ 
Con^ton, let's see what you can 4o now/'. Comp- 
ton^ iittending his business with .a Wtttchful eyft> 
aaeiag Bird's sword hotmngjoterhim, xm und^ 
It, in upon him, aad inu ni^mentran himfdiro^gb 
the-faod^s ao that his .pridd did fisJl np<m the 
gnmady and there sprawl out its last Tanity' ; whidbt 
should teach us; that strobg ^itesi^timi is the 
psalest weakness, and it's far fr6m wi£»dom in the 
nirat air6gant strength to> edight aiid disdma the 
tteaaest advemary.' * 

But by far the most r«Mu4iable instance of 
duelling which took ^Isfceki dii^feigki, wHs tln^ 
of Lotd Bruce of K!nk)ss and Sir Edward Sedcj* 


800 LIFE OF 

vUle, which has been commemorated in the Guar' 
dian by Steele, and is perhaps the most interestiDg 
dael OR fecord. Lord Bruce was a y oimg Scottish 
nobleman, the son and heir of the sagacious states- 
man of the same title, whose servicea were of such 
avail in securing James his EngUsh-inheiitaaoe. 
Sir Edward Sacknlle was youager brother of the 
•Earl of Doriet, grandson of the first Earl, so dis- 
tinguished as a poet and as a statesman, and grand- 
liather to the late poetical Earl, who shone in the 
court of Charles II. The cause of quarrel is sup- 
posed to haye been the dishonour which Sackyille 
brought upon Lord Bruce'a aster, in consequence 
of an illicit amour« What gives greater interest 
to the circumstances, the two young men had for- 
merly been remarked aa attached fnends* In Ja- 
nuary 1613, we find King Jamea taking notice of 
^heir quarrel, and endearouring to restore amity, 
but in Tain* After having several times met and 
insulted each other, they had a rencontre at Can" 
terbury, in May, wh«i attending the Elector Pa- 
latine on his departure from ^e country; and 
SackviUe^ who had surr^idered his wei^^on imme- 
diately before to the Elector, gave-'Bruce several 
blows on the face^ but waa immediately after in* 
duced, by the noblemen present, to profess a le* 
conciliation with his adversary. Bruce is said by 
one authority to have then gone abroad to learn 
the use of the small- sword ; *■ from whence he 
soon after, according to another anthority» wrote 
a challenge to Sackville, desiring him to come and 
4ake death from his hand ; ' for ^ such killing ciri- 
lities, *■ remarka Wilson, ^ did this age produoel * 

* Letter of Mr Chamberlain, in 'Wuiwood's Mcnumak. 


Zbe real letter, bowe?er, which follows, does 
|iOt contain any each phrase^: 


■ * I that am in FVance hear how much yon at- 
trihnte to yourself in this time, that 1 have given 
the world leave to ring- yonr praises. • * • » 
If you call to memory, whereas I gave you my 
hand last, I told yon I reserved the heart for a truer 
reconciliation. Now be that noble gentleman my 
Fove once spoke you, and come and do him right 
that could recite the trials you owe your birth and 
country, were I not confident your honour gives 
you the same courage to do me right, that it did 
to do me wrong. Be master of your own wea-' 
pons and time ; the place wheresoever I will wait 
on you. By doing this you will shorten revenge, 
and clear the idle opinion the world hath of both 
OUT worths. *Edw. Bruck. * 

The second article in this correspondence, which, 
aa the writer in the Guardian has remarked, is 
characterised by singular spirit and greatness of 
mind, is as follows ^— 


* Aft it shall be always far from me to seek a 
parrel, so vrill I always be ready to meet with 
any that desire to make trial of my valour by so 
fair a course as yon require. A witness whereof 
yourself shall be, who, within a month, shall re* 
ceive a strict account of time, place, and weapon ; 
where you shall find me ready disposed to give 
you honourable satisfaction by him that shali con* 

302 ' 'XIVE OF 

duct' yon Aither. bi the tteaa'thnev beasKcrei 
of the appeiotmeiKty 9B- it seeuM youttre deairoiiii 
of it. * Ed* Sackvxli^b. ' 

Acooidiiiglyy SadLville som. after wxitet. this te* 
oond letter to Bnu^ ; — 

^ I am leadf at Teigoea, a town in Zealand, to 
give yon that satia&ction which your sword can 
render yon, accompanied with a worthy gentleman 
for my secmidy in degree a knight ; and for yoor 
coming -I will not limit you to a peremptory' day, 
birt. desire you to make a definite and speedy re« 
pair for your own* honoory and fear of prevsention, 
until which time yon shall find me there* 

* Ed. Sacktilub. ' 


To this Lord Bmce returned the foUawing kt 
conic answer &— 


' M • have receiTed your, letter hy yom:. aoan, and 
acknowledge you havis dealt nobly». and 
DOW I come with all possible haste to meet yon. 

The combat, with aU its sanguinary .horraiB.aDd 
fatal eonckision,.may he. best related in the wonk 
of Sackville, &e survivor ; as given, in a lettw to 
a courtier, soon after :the event. 

. * Wonby Sir; As I am not.ignorant, so I ought 
to be sensible of the false aspersions some.nnihor> 
less tongues have hfid upon me, in the seport ol 


At mfortanata paisage lately' hapfm ied betivMn 
dw Lerd Braoe and myaetf, whicli ■• thef an 
apread here, so may. I jnstly fear they leign alto 
whefe yon are. There are bnt two ways to re* 
wAwB doubts of this oature; by oath, or by sword. 
The first is doe to magistrates, and eommmucablo 
to friends ; the other to such as malicionsly slan* 
der and impudently defend their aspenion. Yoor 
lore, not my merit, assures me yon hold me yonr 
friend, which esteem I am mnch desirous to r^ 
tain. . Do me, therefore, the light to uttdentaad 
thetnith of that ; and in my behalf infiMrm othen^ 
wlio either are or may be infected with sinister m<* 
moms, nmch prejudicial to that £ur opinion I de^ 
sire* to. hold amongst all w4>Fthy parsons. And en 
the ^th of' a gentleman, the relation I shall give 
is neither more- nor less than the bare truth. The 
enclosed contains the first dtation, sent me from 
Paris. by a Scotch gientleraan, who delivered it to 
me in Derb3rshire, at my father-in-law's houses 
After it follows my then answer, returned him by 
the same bearer. The next is my accompliahment 
of my. first premise, being a particular assignation 
of plaoe.and.weaponsy which I sent by a senrant 
of mine; by post from Rotterdam, as soon as I 
landed there. • The receipt of which, joined wiUi 
an acknowledgment of my too fur carriage to liie 
deseased lard, is testified by the last, which pe- 
riods the 'bonness till we met at. Tergoea in Zea« 
land,, it being the place, allotted §n rendezvous « 
where he, accompanied with one Mr Crawford) 
an English gentleman, for hn second, a surgeon, 
-and uma^ arrived ^with all speed he eonUL And 
thare having rendered himself, I addressed. my se^ 
eond^ Sir John., ^e]don|. ta let him undorstand^ 

204 LIFE 09 

that now all following 6boald be done by conaenl^ 
as concerniDg the tenns whereon we should fight; 
as also the place. To our seconds we gare power 
for their appointments, who agreed we shoald go 
to Antwerp, from thence to Bergen- op-Zoom, 
where, in the midway, but a village divides the 
States^ territories from the Archduke's. And there 
was the destined stage, to the end that, having 
ended, he that could, might presently exempt him* 
■elf from the justice of the country, by retiring in* 
to the dominion not offended. It was farther con* 
eluded, that, in case any should fall or slip, that 
then the combat should cease, and he whose Ul 
fortune had so subjected him, was to acknowlec^ 
bis life to have been in the other's bands. But, in 
case one party's sword should break, because that 
could only chance by hazard, it was agreed that 
the other should take no advantage, but either then 
be made friends, or else upon even terms go to it 
again. Thus, these conclusions being each of tbem 
related to his party, was by us both approved, and 
assented to. Accordingly, we embarked for Ant- 
werp. And by reason, as I conceive, he could not 
handsomely without danger of discovery, he had not 
paired the sword I- sent him to Paris ; bringing 
one of the same length, but twice as broad ; my 
second excepted against it, and advised me to 
match my own, and send him the choice, which I 
obeyed ; it being, you know, the challenger's pri- 
vilege to elect bis weapon. At the delivery of the 
swords, which was performed by Sir John Hei- 
don, it pleased the Lord Bruce to choose my own, 
and then, past expectation, he told him that he 
found himself so far behind-hand, as a little of ray 
blood Would . not serve hi^ turn ; and therefore be 


waa now refaolred to have me alon^ b^canse hd 
knew (for I will aae his own words) *' that so wor- 
thy a gentleman^ and my friend, could not endure 
t^ stand by and see him do that which he must» 
to satisfy himself and his honour.*' Hereupon^ 
Sir John Heidon replied, that such intentions were 
Uoody and butcherly, far unfitting so noble a per- 
sonage^ who should desire to bleed for reputation, 
not for life ; withal adding, he thought himself in- 
jured, being come thus for, now to be prohibited 
from executing those honourable offices he cam& 
{or. The Lord, for answer, only re-iterated his 
former resolutions ; whereupon, Sir John leaving 
bim the sword he had elected, delivered me the 
other, with his determinations. The which, not 
lor matter but manner, so moved me, as though 
to. my remembrance I had not for a long while 
eaten more liberally than at dinner, and therefore 
vnfit for such an action, (seeing the surgeons hold 
a wound upon a full stomach more dangerous than 
otherwise), I requested my second to certify him, 
I would presently decide the difiference, ^d there- 
fore he should presently meet me on horseback, on- 
ly waited on by our surgeons, they being unarmed. 
Together we rode, but one before the other some 
twelve score, about some two English miles ; and 
then, passion having so weak an enemy to assail 
as my discretion, easily became yictor, and using, 
his powjBr made me obedient to his commands. I 
being verily mad with anger, that the Lord Bruce 
should thirst after my life with a kind of assuredness, 
eiBeiog I had come so far imd needlessly, to give him 
leave to regain his lost reputation. I bade him. 
aUgbt, wbi<^ with all willingness he quickly grant- 
ed} .and there in a meadow> ande-deep in water at 

206- I'IFB OV 

llie kaitrbiddii^ fonrelltoi our dedbktoy in mm 
diirtt began to cbaige each (Aber; baving-afoveoeBi^ 
raanded our anrgeene to witbdnw themaeivee.* 
pretty diataaoe from na, coajnruig. Uiem b ea idp% 
aa^ tbsy respected our fiaTonni or thw ownaafe* 
tiee, not to atw, bnt anffer as to esecote oar plea* 
sore; we being Inlly resolved (God f^^igive. na I) 
to dkpatch each other by what means wo could*; 
I made a thmst at my enemy, bnt waa short r aad^ 
in drawing back my arm^ I received a great w^ond. 
thereon, which I interpreted aa a reward for -nay 
shortshooting ; bnt in rereage I pressed in to him^ 
though I then missed, him also, and reoched % 
wound in my right pap, whiah passed lefol tfaropgh 
my body, and almost- to my- back. And there wm 
wrestled for the two greatest and dearsst ptiaea w» 
conld erer expeet trial* for, hoaonr and life. Ift 
which stmggliog, my hand, having bnt an ofdinaiy 
glove upon it, lost one of her servants, thons^ the 
meanest, which hang by a skm, and to sight fe« 
maineth as before, and I am pat in hope one- day 
to recover the use of it again. Bntat las^ breath* 
less, yet keeping oar holds, there passed on both 
sides prepositions of qnitting each others' awonL 
Bat when amity was dead, eoDfidence could not 
live; and who should quit first was the qneatMrn? 
which on neither part either would perform*; and 
restriviflg again afredi, with s kick and a w^snA 
I freed my long captive -weapon. Which ineantH 
nently levying at bis throat, being master stil^el 
his, I demanded if he would ask bis lifo,-or yield 
his sword ; bpth which, though in that imminfmt 
danger, he bravely denied to do. Myself • being' 
wounded, and foeling loss of Mood, having d»aa> 
oondait» mailing on tfe^ whiah began to Bonke-mo* 


faiai; waA Im o^onigeondy penistiiig not to accord 
to otohor of my propoeitioiis ; through lemem* 
bnuBCQ of hi» fomaer bloody denroy and feeling of 
my preaent esiale^ I stnick at his heart, bat widi 
ills avoiding miesed my aim, yet paaejed through 
the body, and drawing oat my $word repassed it 
again, through another place, when he cried, ** Oh I 
I am slain ! " seconding his speech with all the 
foree he had to cast me* Bat being too weak» 
after I had defended his assault, I easily became 
master of him, laying him on his back ; when be- 
ing upon him, I re-demanded if he would request 
his life ; but it seemed he prised it not at so dear 
a rate to be beholden for it ; brarely replying, ^* hef 
scorned it." Which answer of his was so noUe 
and worthy, as I protest I could not find in ' my 
heart to offer him any more violenee^ only keep^ 
ing hhn down until at length his surgeon afar off, 
died, **- he would immediately die if his wounds 
were not stopped. " Whereupon, I asked if bo 
desired his surgefm should come, which he accept^ 
ed oft and so being drawn away, I never offered 
to take his sword, accounting it inhuman to rob a 
dead man, for so I held him to be. This thus end^ 
ed, I retired to my smgeon, in whose arms after B 
had remained a while, for want of blood I lost myt 
sights and withal, as I then thought, my life alsoU 
Bat strong water and his diKgence quickly recdi«r^' 
ed me ; when I escaped a great danger. For my» 
Lord's surgeon, when nobody dreamt of it, caSMV 
full at me with his Lord's sword.; and- had not> 
mino, with my sword, interposed hims^f, I bad 
been "slain by those base hands ; although my Lord) 
Broee^ weltcning in his blood, and- past lall e^pee^ 
tatiott of 4]fe,*eonfonMble to all his former oaAiag^ 

208 liFfi ot- 

which was unilouhtedly noble, cried out, *^ RaslsiJ^ 
hold thy hand I " So may I prosper aa I have dealt 
sincerely wHb you in this relation ; which I pray 
yon, with the enclosed letter, deliver to my \otd 
chamberlain. And so, &c. 

* Yours, 

^ Edward SackviLle. * 

, * Louvaifh theBthof Sept. 1613* ' 

Such was the duel of Edward Lord Bruce and 
Sir Edward Sackville, an incident which, for a 
ttme, created a sensation throughout the better 
part of Europe, and of which the relation can 
hardly yet be read without exciting feelings of the 
most painful nature. ' The dignity of wrath» ' re- 
marks the Guardian, ' and the cool and deliberate 
preparation which they made» by passing different 
climes and waiting convenient seasons for murder- 
ing each ether, must raise in the reader as mucli 
compassion as horror; ' while ' the gallant behaviour 
of the combatants may excite in our minds a yet 
higher detestation of that false honour which robs 
our country of men so fitted to support and adorn 
it. ' Whatever impression Lord Brace's conduct 
aad death might make upon Sackville for the time, 
it woidd appear to have soon worn off; for with- 
in three months of the date of the conflict, we find 
him at home, mingling in the festivities of the 
court— not> however, with the countenance of the 
sovereign. A private letter informs us, that in 
November subsequent to the duel) he offered him> 
self to perform in a court masque ; which was won- 
dered at) * considering how little giadona he is, 
and that he hath been assaulted once or twice 


vince Ina ratnra*' He had actually caused Utf 
Mane to be put down in the list of performers ; bat 
i% was erased, probably by command of the King* 
The remains of the nnfortanate Brace were inter- 
red in the chm'ch of Bergen*op-Zoom, except hie 
heart* That membrane, which had beat with such 
fierce and lofty sentiments, was embalmed and sent 
home, to be deposited in the family borial-vanlt at 
Cnlross Abbey in Scotland, where it was disco- 
yered abont twenty years ago, in the silver case of 
its own shape in which it had been placed, and 
still in a state of preservation. 

The progress of events at this period of English 
history, instead of resembling, as it sometimes 
does, the hurrying march of mists which passes 
athwart a wintry sky, may rather be likened to the 
infrequent and slow transit of a few light clouds, 
which enter the peaceful amphitheatre of the sum- 
mer heavens, individually and at different places, 
and, after wandering idly here and there, as if un- 
connected with all surrounding objects^ at last de*** 
cliiie notelessly once more beneath the horizon* 
Passing over a number of such unimportant inci- 
dents, mention may be made of the unhappy story 
of the personage noted in James's history under 
the name of the Lady Arabella. This was the 
only child of Charles, Earl of Lennox, a younger 
brother of Ijord Damley ; of course, cousin-ger- 
matt to King James. She had been depressed^ 
and prevented from marrying, by Elizabeth, from 
a fear on the part of that princess, that her off- 
sprit^g might produce some disturbances, by pre- 
tending to the crown. James, who had the same 
reason for dreading any connection she might form 
(steing that| in t^e eyes of many, his Scottish 


birtb WM » drmnmttiiee (bit pdetpoogd Us ckiiii 
•I bipod to Aftt o£ Arabeiloy » sialifio of Eoglmd,) 
treated ber .with bag^ place and bononr ia bis 
oewti bat let ber lan&w tbat sbe ebevld ne^er 
manywitboataLcittoglasfaigbBatdiapleaeare. Sbe 
waa at leagth so impnident aa to fonn a elandes- 
tuia< nnkai aritb a -yooag aeum of tbe nobility; 
Mr WilluUB SeymoBfy younger son to Loid Beaa- 
cbaaaft mb of tbe Earl o£ Hertford* Tbe «ob«* 
aeqauBco was, tbat JaaMs oomaiitted ^be kdy to 
confineoimit ia a private bonae^ and Seymour ta 
tbe Tower ; wbere bo was addceesed whli tbe fol- 
lovmg panning diaticbt by Aadraw* Meivflle, the 
eelebrated SoottiBbpoleniicy who waa oonfinod in 
tbia prison for soma torbnleoyl prooeedinga in his 
natiTe conntry. 

• Commuois tecum mihi causa est carceiis ; An* 
Bella tibi causa est, Araque sacra miliL * 

After, a tweWenonth's eonfinament, the- two 
loveia found means to make their escape, bntwera 
re^taken and placed in the Tower^ • thongb not till 
tbey bad gone tbrongb a Fariety of atvaogeadimH 
tnre«» What, is remarkabley Prince Heniy waa aa 
anxiona to restrain and separate .this nnlorfennala 
covple as the J^ing, believing tbat Abttr having 
legitimate offspring conid only be- tbe maana «C 
distm4>ing fatnre successions. Tbe , I^y . Aiar< 
beUa, after endnrwg for four yearn a oonfijiemant 
whidi might p^erhaps be justifiable on 
state pplicyt but which certainly waa«a flagnat 
violation of the privileges common , to moa in all 
conditions of life» and und«r all govecnments^ died 
ia the Tower, September 1615» and- waa » buried 
ia a private pifumerf Her hnslw4.|Aen|aids.k^ 


'^HuNfm «f Hertfoidf and ^iMtngnisfaed Mm^ 
■ell*ia9di on AeCftvalier^aids in the Civil War. - 
The pleaaiig task now oceura, of reoordiiig. die 
ML of Somanel. and Us guilty male. For toHie 
nieBth8.afier their ■larnage) which, at will be le* 
membeaedt .took place in Decemher 1613^ tiie 
di^^ snapieisma of the pvUic regarding Chrerbnry \i 
murder were anccesafUly rapreaeed by the'cai^ of 
the Earl and hia cnetarB8» and he oontiiived etiU 
to iseigli pterleaa in the royal ftivoar. In July 
1614> when the Earl of Suffolk was pnwioted 
ham the office of Lord Ghaaiberlttn to th^t of 
Lord IVeaaniwry. the vacant pkce was filled by ln» 
acm-ia-law ; Jamea Buying to hiin» as he eonfersed 
tfae4Btaffy * Lo here^ friend SomurMt, * and imme-^ 
diately after telling the conrtierB that he hadgtren- 
it to the man * whom» of all men living, he meat 
cherished.' A month, howoYer, had scarcely 
el apse d after this elevation, when' James saw, at 
Apthorp, Geoige Villiera, a younger son of a 
Iiuieeriteiithire gentleman, with ^hese ingenious 
and heautifnl fiice he was much etrack* A' party* 
of uouitian aeem to hare conceived ^ fr^m this, the 
idearof ousting So m ers et - by means of a rival iu* 
theiKing's affectionii^— one naU, a^ Aey said, to 
dme akkt another ; and they forthwith began to 
jtotMnse^a yoti^ng mab, die supenofity of whose- 
eodtevnal appearance promiied to- be so effectual' io 
seuuriag that object. According to the tatiric 
^^Idon, '^ oaegsr<9 him- hiaf place of cup-bearer, 
that he might be in theXuig's eye; anothei'eent 
tOfhialuMWObr and tailor to put good ckithes upon 
him; u^tldrd to/his semitetreaa forxurioUB>liaen^ 
audailasiacomes to obtain pionkoticB upon his 
fufpo 9iaer '^Mu ooheni took npoti ^m to hO;hia 

21S LIFE07 

braroesy to nndertake hk ^piwre^ upon fffimits 
put upon him by Somereet's fectioB : ae all haads 
helped to the pieceing op of this new fovoorile. ' 
At the head of the party was the same pmitaiMcal 
aivhbisbop who had resisted the proeess of.divoree 
in favour of Lady Essex : he gave, at a later pe- 
riod of life» some canons particnkms regaidiog 
Yilliers* rise, wfaieh prove highly ilinstratiTe of the 
notley character of King James.* 

His Majesty < bad a fashion/ says Abbot, < that 
he would neyer admit any to nearness about him« 
self, bat such a one as the Queen should commeiid 
to him, and make some suit on his behalf ; that if 
the Queen afterwards, being ill treated, migfat 
complain of this dear one, he might make Ak 
answer, <^ It is all along of yourself, for you were 
the party that commended him unto me. " Oar 
old master took delight in things of this nature* 

' That noble Queen, who now resteUi in heafoi, 
knew her husband well, and, having been bittea 
with favourites both in Scotland and England, was 
very shy to adventure upon this request. Kmg 
James, in the mean time, more and more kmlfaed 
Somerset, and did not much conceal that hia af- 
fection increased towards the other. But the Queen 
would not come to it, albeit divers lords did ear- 
nestly solicit her Majesty thereto. ' She replied 
to all their entreaties, that» 'supposing Villiers to- 
be fully ingratiated with the King, hia first object 
would be to destroy the individuals who bad aa* 
sisted- in his advancement. 

The persons chiefly concerned in tfaia aebeme, 
were of the families of Herbert, Hertford* and 
Bedford ; and they are said to have arranged their 
plans at a great but private entertajament at Bay* 


fMtrd's Caalle. In going to the place of nCieetiogy 
one of the party is reported to haye caused his 
servant to throw a handfol of dirt at a picture of 
Somerset^ which was hung out at a stall ; a sort 
of public defiuice of the favourite. * Although 
the Queen was at first unwilling to be concerned 
in their project, she afterwards condescended to 
lend her assistance ; and, accordingly, it was in 
her bed-chamber, and with the sword of her ia* 
Tourite son Charles, that Jan^es, on the 23d of 
April 16 Id, knighted the new favourite, with a 
pension of 1000/. a year ; making him next day 
a gentleman of his own bed-ch^ber, although 
Somerset used every entreaty to have him only 
made a groom. At this early period of his his* 
tory, ViUiers displayed nearly the same amiable 
qualities which had characterized Somerset before 
his connection with the Countess of Essex, ao4 
was in every respect equally worthy of the King's 
regard* It is curious to see how he was congra- 
tulated by the peers and great officers of state on 
Jhs good fortune-^how even the King himsdf de- 
sired him to be thankful to God for having made 
him so acceptable to his affections. He was a 
young man. of still greater beauty of exterior than 
Somerset The good looks of that personage were 
of rather too robust a description. Those of Vil- 
liers were soft and angelic* James conferred upon 
him the familiar nick-name of StemWy firom an 
idea that his gentle regular features resembled 
those usually given, by Roman Catholic painters, 
to St Stephen, the proto-martyr^ 

When Somerset saw that he was nearly on tha 

* H.eylin*s Aulicus Co^uioariiQi 

2li ' Ittfi or 

^oitit ot Seittg {Hsgrac^, be resolved 16 tnake icre 
of whiit yet remained tohiiii cif tbe KmgV tiflbc^ 
tloh, 10 |)roclire' a fall pftrdon of tXt past tfSsat^ ; 
the same device which the Burl of Morton Imd 
tried, thirty-^re years before, in Scotland; James 
far said to have' been so wedc as «etttaily to 8%n 
inkck a pardon ; wbidi, if this seal bad been at- 
niched to it, most have disconcerted aO tbe efforts 
ilow mAking by bis enemies to pnnisb bim for 
Overbnry's mm'der. Fortunately, hovre^rer, ihef 
succeeded in intercepting the docometit before it 
jiassed the seal. 

'His^ans are pnsszled by tbe Virioiiis ways in 
#hich tbe disooi^ry Of Somerset's gnih iA de«l»ib- 
ed by difibrent writers of ' the time. But the )dm^ 
)fie faM seems to be, that his enemiee'were for i 
long' time ioi possies^On of snffident evidence a- 
Mkist him, and only waited till tbey CMceited 
themselves to be suffidentlypbwerfitl to denounce 
Mm to die King. This wsbb not tiU Angnst 1615, 
a fikll twelvemonth after James bad first seen Vil- 
Hers : so long was he in stqiplanting' tbe 'Old love 
«iRBetaally with the ne# I 
• It may be teadily siip^osod, k<m the Unfid cfaa- 
»aei{er df the mottareb; that h^ would not,' with k 
*w^ty good grace, slirrend^r to public Justice, a 
man who bad acquired so eomplete*att ascitedant 
ti^f him tiB 'Somerset.* AcooMlingly We find, in 
the'behavkmr aiicribed to him On the odcaaion by 
luntorians, a strango conffict 'betwilt bis babitual 
'ftove of jttstiGe, or, as it maybe called, abstract 
humanity, and that peculiar impotence, under 
'which he lay all his life^ of denouiidng vice as it 
ought to be denounced, when found in those he 
lov«d. He was on a hun^ng excursion at Roy- 


aton^ at the time when the enemies of Somerset 
fonad it prudent to make his crimes known. The 
Earl was in .company with the King, it being their 
intention to part nekt day, the former for Xoadon, 
the second for Newmarket. On Sir Ralph Win« 
wood disclosing to James the story of Somerset's 
guilt, be was sincerely and greatly surprised, but 
felt at the same time so proper an indignation at 
the offence, as to imrite off immediately to Sir 
Edward Coke, Chief Justice, for a warrant to ap- 
prehend the criminal. A more decisiFe monarch 
would hare at once ordered the minion to be put 
under arrest ; but James, whose mind proceeded 
in almost aU matters in the swae circular and 
shambling fashion with his body, preferred having 
the ends of justice accomplisbed by a sort of am- 
buscade. He is even said to have been found 
next day, when the warrant arrived, lolling upon 
Somerset's shoulders as usual, and talking to him 
in his customary tender style ; being, at the mo- 
m^it in the act of bidding him farewell, preparatory 
*to his departure for London. When the warrant 
was presented to the Earl, he exclaimed, that 
never was ^uch an affront offered to a peer of Eng- 
lan4 in the presence of the King, and he boldly 
clumed his royal master's protection. '* Nay, man," 
said the King, *K if Coke were to send for me, I 
must needs go too ; " and, as soon as the unhappy 
inan had turned his back, he added, with a smile, 
** Now, the devil go with thee ; I shall never see 
thy face more 1 " * 

* It can only be said, in favour of the King at this 
point of his history, that there is no authentic account' of 
his b^aviour on the arrest of Somerset, andUhe above it 
by no meant likely to b« very correct. Another story, 


216 LIFE OF 

To preveBt any of the Earl's accomplices finmi- 
takkig «larm at bis own apprehension, tbey were 
all seized nearly about the same time with bioi* 
self. On bis reaching London, he found the Cooii- 
tess already under arrest. * No time was lost in 
bringing ^e inferior agents to trial. Weston, a 
wretch who had been keeper of the unfortunate 
Overbury's prison, and superintended his murder^ 
was the first ; he was tried, found guitoy, and imme- 
diately executed at Tybursy though not till be had 


different in particulars, is given by Sir Anthony WeldoB, 
nvho represents the King as parting with Somerset before 
the arrest, and as sustaining, throughout the scene of 
leave-taking, all his usual kindness of manner md ex- 
pression. * Nor must I forget, ' says this writer, * to let 
you know how perfect the King was in the art of dini- 
mulation, or, to give it his own phrase, kin^'Craft* The 
Earl of Somerset never parted from him with more seem- 
ing affection than at this ume, when he knew Sometset 
should nevor see him more ; and bad you seen that sbcub* 
iog affection (as the author himself did), you would ra- 
ther have believed he was in his risine than setting. 
When the Earl kissed hb hand, the Song hung about 
his neck, slabbering his cheeks, saying, ** For God's 
sake, when shall I see thee again? On my sooly i AsH 
neither eat nor sleep until you come again. *' The Earl 
told him on Monday (this being Friday). •' For God*s 
sake, let me,** said the King— «< Shall I ? ShaU I?'*— 
then lolled about his neck. •< Then, for God's sake, ^ve 
thy lady this kiss for me. " In the same QuuBuer at ike 
stairs head, at the middle of t(ie stairs, and at Uie slain 
foot. The Earl was not in hb coach, when the King 
used these very words (in the hearing of four servants, of 
whom one was Somerset's great creature* of the bed- 
chamber, and reported it instandy \o tibe author eC this 
hbtory), " I shall never see his face more. '^'^—Court of 
King James, 

• October 18, 1615. The Earl of Northampton bad 
escaped the consequences of Yasi acoessiou to the ^sime^ 
by dying fbe jjear before. . ^ 


eoofetsed enoagh to criitimate his BMOciatefi. The- 
n«zt that suffered was Mre Tarner, a beaQtiM but' 
unprincipled young widow, who had eondescended, 
for ^. sake of subsistence to herself and children, 
to become the counsellor and assistant of the Coun- 
tess, through the whole story of her complicated'* 
guilt. A tMrd sufferer was Sir Jerris Elwes, lieii-> 
tenant of the Tower, who was found guilty of 
fore-knowing the murder ; and the list was closed^ 
by Franklin, the apothecary who supplied the va- 
rious poisons. As all these culprits were eze* 
cuted within six weeks of the date of Somerset's 
arrest, we may suppose the King to have been at 
first inspired with a sincere wish to satisfy public 
jtMtice for Orerbury's death. 

Ittiat he was so, is rendered the more likely by 
an anecdote told of him by Weldon, and which is 
not greatly discountenanced by writers of better 
authority. As soon as he knew the circumstances 
of Overbnry's case, of which he had hitherto, of 
course, been kept entirely ignorant by Somerset, 
he summoned the judges to Royston, and there,' 
kneeling down, with his courtiers and sernrnta 
around him, [a favourite fiB»hion of his, since be 
did the same thing after he was delivered from 
the Gowry conspirators], ' he used,' says Wei-' 
doB, * these very words : ' *^ My lordis, the judges, 
it is lately come to my hearing, that yon have now 
in examination a business of poisoning. Lord, in 
what a most nuserable condition dull this king- 
dom be, (the onlyfiemious nation for hoqpitali*' 
ty in the world), if our tables shall become such 
a snare, as none could ciat without danger of 111% 
and that Italian costom should be interodnced a^ 
mongst UB ! Therefore, my lords, I diarge yon, 

ai8 LIFE OF 

as y<m will saiwer it, at that great aod dieadfnl 
^Y of jndgmapt, that yan examine it strictly^ 
without favour, affection, or partiality ; and if yon 
flhall spare any gnilty of this ciime, God'a curse 
light on you and your posterity ; and if I spare 
any that are found guilty, God*s curse light on me 
and my posterity for ever I *' This solemn, impre- 
cation he observed carefully, in so far as all the 
subordinate instruments were concerned : we are 
now to see how he attended to it, when doom 
was called for against the principals. 
; The Earl and Countess of Somerset were con- 
fined in private houses all winter ; and it was not 
till spring was far advanced, that they were com- 
mitted to the Tower. . When the lady was con- 
ducted thither, (March 27, 1616,) ' she did pas- 
sionately deprecate and entreat the lieutenant, that 
she might not be lodged in Sir Thomas Overbury s 
lodging ; so that he was fain to .remove himself 
out of. his own chamber for. three nights, till Sir 
falter Raleigh's lodging ' (just vacated, in conse- 
quence of that knight's release) * mi^t be furnish- 
ed and made fit for him. ' * At her armgnment, 
which took place about two months after, and at 
which, strange to say, her first husband Essex 
chose to be present, were displayed all her letters 
to the pretended magician whom she employed to 
bewitch Car to love. her, as alsoanumber.of waxen 
and. leaden images, likie^ puppets, which that artist 
had used in.her servic;^, the most <^ them too in- 
decent to be described. Such ciremasiaiipes'give 
a strange view of the superstitions, and of sbeTode 
taste of the age ; but tbey are surpassed iii dnrio- 

• Winwood. , . . 


sity; by the consequences of a simple incident 
which took place in th6 court; — ^While the letters 
and puppets were passing' about, for the entertain* 
ment of the audience, a loud crack was heard from 
one of the scaffolds, ' which caused great fear, tn* 
multy and confusion among the spectators, and 
throughout the hall ; erery one fearing' hurt, as if 
the devil had' been present, and grown angry to 
have his workmanship shdwn by such as were not 
his ^holars. ' '^ The trial of the Countess took 
place on the 23d of May ; when * she wonc pity, ' 
says a narrator of passitig events, < by her demean* 
our, which, in my opinion, was more curioiis and 
confid^t than was fit for her, a lady in such dis- 
tress ; and yet she shed, or made show of, some 
tears, divers times/ It was a circumstance so sin- 
gular as to excite remark, that no uncivil language 
was used by the court in conducting the proceed- 
ings against her; such having been the express 
command of the King.f She was also faroured 
by not having the axe carried before her. • She 
pleaded guilty to a fore-knowledge and participa- 
tion of the horrid crime laid to her chai^; which, 
with her interesting appearance, and a considera- 
tion of the dignity of her family, induced the lords 
and judges to promise that they should intercede 
with the King for mercy. 

* Somerset was tried next day, and, pleading not 
guilty, made every effort to baffle the evidence 

* Nomtive ICstoiy of the first Fourteen Yesn of King 

t Xt was. usual, in this age, for the judges to browbeat 
and vilify the prisoners during trial, as aissutning that they 
were guilty. Coke*s language to Sir Walter Raleigh is a 
noted tnstaneek 

220 . LIFE OF 

In'oaghtagtinRt huH. After a trial, howevtar^ of 
wraeaiil duration, lie was found guilty and eaii- 
demned. The interest of- the public on this oe- 
qasion was iuiooiiimo«1]r greiit;- inseonich that tea 
shiiliogs were given for a seat in the court, to wit- 
ifess the proceedings* What must have been astraage 
future in the scene» the injured Earl, of Essei: 
stood over against the culprit^ during the whole 
day, looking him full la the face. 

The time was now arrived for the redemptm 
df thlit promise, which Ji^mes had in a manner gvwea 
to the people of England, to have justice executed 
Upon the criminals. From day to day, however, 
that justice was delayed. By and by, the Eari 
and Countess were allowed the liberty of occasion- 
ally meeting each othen Afterwards, they obtain* 
ed what was called the freedom of the Tower ; that 
is, permission to walk in certain courts within the 
fortress. Thus, in the course of a few months, the 
edge of the public appetite for vengeance against 
them, wore off. Finally, when other public mat- 
ters bad in a great measure taken attentton ^m 
the guilty pair, they were pardoned, under the sim- 
ple reslaiction of living ever after in close ret]it»» 
ment. There is scarcely any way of palliating the 
misconduct of the King in this affair. Somerset 
imd the Countess had only been led into crime by 
passions which do not in general assume a very 
dark complexion, Jove and ambition. It is dso in 
some measure true, perhaps, that the death of Over- 
bury hy Som^set was only the accidental destnus* 
tion of one bad man by another, a quarrel between 
accomplices. Yet something of the same kind may 
be said in fieivonr of aloiost all criminals ; and if we 
were always to set off the bad qualities wfaidi kd 


,to crime agaioBt the good qoalities which may cq- 
esBt in the man who committed it, justice would 
Jbe completely puzzled, and might never get a single 
victim. There seems to be no doubt that James, 
by the faTour he showed to such atrocious crimi- 
nalsy before and after their guilt was discovered, 
.degraded bis court in the eyes of all the virtuous 
people of Engkmd, and fixed the darkest^ though 
most unfounded suspicions^ upon his owa personal 
^character. It may really be allowed that there 
waa some occasion for the promise which Ben Jon- 
eon gave out in the Masque of the Golden Age 
Restored, performed at this time ; where, after hint- 
ing allegorically at the horrid cuxnmstances of the 
tale of Somerset, which might have been said to 
mark the age as one of corrosive subUmtUe^ he 

* Jore therefore means to settle 
Astrsa in her seat again. 
And let down, in her golden chain. 

An age ^better metaL * 

Somerset and his Countess afterwards dragged 
ont a life more infamous and painful than the death 
which they ought to have suffered. The greater 
part of his estates were forfeited and bestowed upon 
tiie new favourite Villiers ; although it is recorded, 
to the credit of that young man, that, when offered 
the manor of Sherborne, the best of all those pieces 
•f jMPoperty, he prayed the King not to build up 
his fortunes upon the ruin of another. The life of 
the miserable pair was, if possible, rendered more 
miserable by mutual nphnddings ; for all real pas- 
sion had sunk at the moment when neither could 
be adtnaittaged by the other in matters of worldly 
iojVm^ After having lived for many years in the 

&S2 LII'E 5P 

■ame house, without even seeing or speaking to each 
other, the Conntew died of a disease so lingering 
and loathsome, that its nature seemed a retribation 
for the death of Orerbmy, as well as a commentary 
on the infamous passion which had exercised so 
strong an influence over her conduct in youth. 
The Earl surnred, an object of universal detesta- 
tion, till July 1645; before which period, his 
daughter Anne, who was bom while her mother 
was confined in the Tower, was married to William 
Lord Rnssel, son of the Eari of Bedford. 





tBB Knra's tisit to iootlavow 

The present chapter is deroted to a more pleasant 
subject than the last— the yisity to wit, which James 
BOW paid» after an absence of fourteen years, to 
his native dominions. Before leaving that conn- 
tryi it will be recollected that he promised to re- 
visit it once every three years-^there being no sea» 
as he remarkedi nor so mmch as a ferry, to make 
the journey either dangerous or difficult. On his 
reaching London, however, he soon found that the 
terraqueous nature of the 'way would be but an in« 
adeqiuite inducement to the performance of his 
promise. In the first place, there was no urgent 
necessity for the journey, because, as he himself 
used to boast, Scotland waisi now so quiet, that he 
could govern it with^his pen. In the second place, 
the visit was likely to prove very expensive, ,botb 
to himself, and to the people whom he went to 
see. His court was not now so easily moved a- 
bout, as it had been during his Scottish reign ; nor 
would his dignity permit him to appear without 
the full load of magnificence which he had beeii 
accnstomed to bear since he came to England. 

g24 LIFE OF 

The secret cause which urged him, at this par- 
ticular period, to visit Scotland, was a wbh which 
he earnestly entertained, to complete that modifi- 
cation of ecclesiastical masters in the country, 
which he had commenced before he left it, and 
which seemed necessary to the production of wliat 
he called < a grave, settled, well-ordered church, 
in obedience of God and the. King. ' In other 
words, having already restored consecrated bishops, 
he now proposed to introduce a moderate episco- 
pacy into the worship and government of the Sco- 
tican church, and establish his supremacy over it, 
as it was in England. He had encountered great 
^fficulties, ever. since bisaccessiou' to the English 
tthroae, in makipg the first moves towards thia atate 
of things in Scotland. But it seemed likely, that, 
if he went personally among, the people, and with 
hip own kingly countenance entreated them to 
jield to what he desired, they would sink, like 
.Semele» beneath the splendours in which they saw 
.tbeijr native and beloved sovereign appear, aad 
^traken, after he retired, a peaceful and cont^ited 
.parallel to the obedient 'church of England* 

, Xhe. Scots, as if aware ^f their inability to stand 
out against the experiment he was about to make 
upon them, are siud to have entreated him to de- 
fer hie visit ; stating that they had not beenallow- 
,ed si^fficient time to prepare for his reception, but 
being in reality afraid of the , effect which his pze- 
eence in Scotland would hsm upon their chqrcb* 
It is certain that they openly expressed themseives 
awar^ of the real object oi lus journey ; for be 
.thought it necessary to pnblisb a proclamation, as- 
.fluring them that, his visit waa d»e^y oceaftionefi 
hy .what he w^s plei^sed to call * a aalnum-lyke ia- 


^tiiHSt— a great and iiaUiTal longing to see our na- 
tive soyle and place of oar birth and breeding. ' 
Fetiiaps,' there was alsd some truth in what is re- 
ported of them by Mr Chamberlain, that, though 
disposed to do their ultimo forzo for his entertain* 
ment, .they dreaded the magnitude of the expense, 
and would have been quite as well content to re- 
oiain Jtnblessed by * the rays of his presence. ' 
They might have heard of the haneful effects which 
bis briefer trips through England generally prgda- 
eed ;-^a gentry retiring from their seats as he ap- 
proached, to avoid the necessity of. ruining- them- 
selves by hi«r entertainment, while the commonality 
every where bewailed the low prices, and no prices, 
at which they were obliged to supply the court 
with provisions. * 

- James ^ began his journey,' says Wilson, * with 
the spring, warming the country, as he went, with 
tiie glories of: the court ; taking such recreations 
by the way, as might best beguile the days, and 
cut them shorter, but lengthen the nights (contra- 
ry to the seasons) ; for what with hawking, hunt^ 
lag, and horse-racing, the days quickly ran away, 
and the nights, with feasting, masquetng, and dan- 
<cing, were the more extended. And the King 
4iad fit instruments for these sports about his per- 
iBon ; as Sir George Goring, Sir Edward Touch, 
JShr John Finett, and others, that could fit and ob- 
ftemperate the King's humour ; for he loved such 
tiejpreseDtations and disguises in their masquerades, 

> * Tl^e King was at considerable diffieulty in raising a, 
jEom of. iDon«j sufficient for his expenses on this journey.. 
'But for -100,00d/., which was lent'to him by the citizens 
of London, he could nQt haye accoipplished it. 

226 LIFE OP 

as were witty and sadden— tbe more ridicnloitty 
the more pleaaant. 

And his new fitronrite, being an excellent dan* 
cer, brought that pastime into the greater request. 
* * * In this glory be visited Scotland wi^ the 
King, and is made FHry Counsellor there* He 
now reigns sole in the monarch's affection ; every 
thing be doth is admired for the doer's sake. - No 
man dances better ; no man rans or jampe bet- 
ter; and, indeed, be jumps higher than eret 
Englishman did in so short a time^-from a pri* 
▼ate gentleman to a dukedom. But the King is 
not well without him, bis company is bis sokiiee ; 
and the Court Grandees cannot be well but by 
him ; so that all addresses are made to bim, either 
for place or office, in court or commonweal^ ' 
Besides Mlliers, who was now Earl of Bncldng- 
bam, the King was attended by a small but select 
party of his favourite coortiers, amoi^ vthooL 
were three bishops. 

He left London on the 15th of March, and pio* 
eeeding by Theobald's, Roystoun, HuntbdgdODi 
and Grantham, reached Lincoln on the 27lk 
Here he was received in great state, and magnifi- 
eently entertained for four days. ' On Wednesiday, 
the second of April,' says an old manuscript his- 
tory of Lincoln, * * bis Majesty did come in bis 
caroch to the sign of the George by the Stenbowe^ 
(the Stone Bow,) to see a cocking thear, where 
he appointed four cocks to be put oo the pit tO' 
gether; tchich made his MqfesHe very merrit, 
Kom thence he went to the Spread Eagle, to see 
a prise plaicid tbear, by a fensor of the city^ and a 

• Quoted in Nicbolfl. 


servant to some attendant on the court, who made 
the challenge ; where the fensor and the scholars 
of the city had the better ; on which his Majestie 
called for his porter, who called for the sword and 
buckler, and gare and received a broken paite^ 
and other bad hnrts. ' James expressed himself 
highly delighted with the country about Lincoln, 
and told the Mayor and Aldermen, when they kis^ 
sed his hand at parting, ' that if God lent him life 
be would see them oftener. ' 
* . He spent the whole of April and the early part 
of May in a deliberate progress through the north 
ef England ; which we have the authonty of Buck- 
ingham for stating that he enjoyed very highly. 
*, His Majesty, ' says that person in a letter to 
Bacon, ' though he were a little troubled with a 
Uttle pain in his back, which hindered his huntings 
is now, God be thanked, very well, and as merry 
as ever he was ; and we have all held out welL' 
In another letter, written, at the end of April, be 
tells, the Lord Chancellor, that * his Majesty, God 
be thanked, is in very good health, and so well 
pleased with his journey, that I never saw him 
better, nor merrier. ' It seems to have made lit« 
tie impression on the good-humoured monarch, 
bahitually unregardful of sums, that, according ta 
the report of a different attendant on the court, he 
was in great distress for want of money. 
«. He arrived at Berwick about the tenth of May, 
and left it on the 13th. His first resting-place 
in. Scotland was at- Dunglass, the seat of his 
-ancient and trusty counsellor the Earl of Home ; 
where he was saluted with a long Latin speech, 
panegyrizing his ancestors and himself. He lodg- 
ed on the evening of the 15th at Seaton, the seat 

828: LIFE Of. ' 

of George third Earl- of Wintoan, where he war 
preeented with two long poems ; the second ofi 
which was * Forth Feasting, * hj William Dntm- 
mond of Hawthomden, justly styled by Lord* 
Woodhonselee, * one of the most elegant pane* 
gyries ever addressed by a poet to a prince. ' 

Long before James had thus approached within 
one stage of Edinbui^h, the authorities there had: 
done everything in their power to prepare the ctqr 
for his reception ; and, aasoredly, the characterie- 
tie anxiety of the Scottish nation to make ihem^ 
selves and their oomtry bear a good appearance 
in the eyes of strangers, was now most abondant^ 
ly and most ladicromly ezem[dified. So far back 
as the 22d of May, 1616, the Privy Coondl had* 
issued a warrant to the Master of his -Majesty^ 
Works, to revise the palaces of Holjrroodhonse, 
Stuiiog, and Falkland; ^ to tak doun the haill 
rooffe and thak of the lodgeing above the otter 
yea^t, [of Holsrroodhonse] called the ChaneeUaraa 
lodgeing, with sae meikle of the stane waike aa Is 
requisite, and cans the same be bnildit np and pei^ 
fyte of new ; to tak doun to the grund the chal« 
mer within the Fallace, callit the Stewartis Chal« 
mer, and on nawayes to bnild up the same 
agayne» in respect of the.deformitie and dtspro* 
portion Uiat it has to the rest of the bmlding Mttt 
to tak doun the chalmer and galrie in Halinid* 
hons callit Sir Roger Asfatons's chdmer, and to 
bnild up the same of new ; to tak doun the kitch* 
ing calUt Chaneellar Maitlanda's Kitchingi it the 
end of the transe called the Dukia Tnmsey bethe 
in the rooffe, joists, and walls, as is necessary and 
to bnild np the same of new; and to tak dovn the 
toofaUet IprqfeOkms} in ibe Baikiahoos Yaiide ef 


I, and the haB dykb of the Baikhootf 
Yairde, and not to big up the same agane« %nm 
that of the yairde ana perfyte cloiae may he maid ;^ 
with many similar reparationa upon the two pro- 
Tincial, palaces mentioned in the warrant. On 
the 24Ah of December, this same dignified body 
directed an order to the Magistrates of Edin- 
burgh, commanding that, as * the strangearis and 
othens that ar to accompanay his Majestic heir^ 
will be earefnU narrowlie to remark npon and es-' 
py the carriage and conversation of the inhabit- 
aatis of the said tonn, forme of their interteynment 
and ladgeing, and gif thair booses, and hedding, 
and na[H:ie be neate and clene, and according as they 
saU find, wiU mak reporte outher to the credit, op 
the reproche and scandall of this burgh ; ' there* 
fore they must see that the bosses deroted to the 
accommodation of the strangera, be * fmrnisht with 
hotaest and dem bedding^ and weile washen and 
wmle smellit naprie and otheris linningis, and with 
a aaffident number and qnantitie of good FesseUs^ 
deane and deare, and of sufficient lairgenes.' 
Una precept orders that accommodation for five 
thousand persons be provided, that * all staiblairls 
be temsbt with sufficiencie of come, strae, and hay,' 
that the * Magistratis haif a cair and gtf directions 
for keying of their streittis cleene, and that no 
SMaenBt middingis * be seen upon the same, and 
that no beggaris be seen within thair boundis.' ' 
The last matter touclied upon in this edicts was 
too tender a subject, and one of too monstrous 
and dreadful a kind, to be thus lightly attended to« 

* it tmy be as well not to furnish our Eogliah resder^ 
vtli a kcf to ibis mystsrioivi language. * 

230 LIFE OF 

Ob the same day with the edict, appeased an ^ act 
aganist BeggariBy * composed in language winch at 
once displays the horrid nature of the nuisance^ 
and the anxiety of the Piiry Council to havB it 
huddled out of -sight before ' the strangearb ' 9hoidd 
arrive. ' Forasmeikle, ' says this act, * as grete 
nomberis of strong, sturdy, and idUl beggaris and 
▼agabonndis daylie traTellis athorte the coontrey, 
and from all pairtis ewest to Uus Burgh of £din* 
burgh, qnhair they pas the tyme in all kynd of 
ryott and filthie and beistlie litcherie, to tlie- offens 
and displesour of God ; as they do lykewiee im- 
portune his nobilitie, counsellouiis, and others his 
Majestie's goode subjectis, with sham^uU exdanh 
atkfms and outciyiSf lyes upon the streitis of the 
Cannogiait and betwin Leythe and Edinbnrgh ; and 
it is lykeaneuch that, when his Majestie comes to 
this cunfarey*this next sommer, they will follow his 
Majestie's conrte, to the ^^reUe disiaredke and dis* 
grace cf the cuMrey ; thairfore the Lords of Se* 
crdt Counsall ordanis lettres to be direct, to com- 
mand, charge, and inhibite all and sindrie slrQBg, 
stoffdie, and idill beggaris be oppin prodmatiooa 
at the Meitat Croces of the heade burghs of ihxB 
realme, and other places needful, that none of 
thame presume to wander athorte the Cunttey;' 
and further) to prohibit all persons dwelling in or 
near Edinburgh from affording them lodgings,- un- 
der the penalty of twenty pounds for eadi offence* ' 
The Privy Council stUl further evinced their an- 
xiety regarding the proper reception of* the King 
and Court, by issuing, on the IStli of Febniary 
(1617), a < proclamation anent ludgeings* ' On 
weir requesting the Magistrates of the Qmongate 
to give in a roll of all the houses wbicfa coold ac- 


eummodate any of the roya! tnilii, those digai" 
taries bed ioformed them, that the whole, such as 
thejr Weve, had already been bespoken by ^ noble- 
nen, barenis, anid gentletnen of this contrey, ana 
^tthaiawes ttotane free honse in ^e Cannogatt^ 
qnhair ony of hi^ Majwtie'B tryne might be Ind^ 
ge^ ' The pwpose of this proehunatien was to 
aieara all each ae * hes tane, or myndis to tak 
liM^einga or etabKa in the Cannogait,' that, aa 
this is * a matter verie offensive' to • his Mijestie^ 
and that can nowayis stand with his' Majei^ie's 
contentment, nor the cradit of the cnntrey, they 
will befrnstrat and disappointit of thair intentis;' 
for, * all the saidts Indgeings and stablis will be 
tabe up and markit for his Majestie's awne tryne 
and fdlowaris.' They likewise iisned an edict 
for the preservation of * muirfowl, pairtridges, and 
{Miit^, ' within ten miles of Edinbniigh, that there 
Biig^l be no lack of sport for the King and his re* 

' The Corporation of Edinburgh displiqred no less 
oeal m the dnty of preparmg for James's recep- 
tiim. On the 9th of April, we -find the Town- 
eomisil ordaining that * ane number of the gravest 
noat aatient bvrgeiMes, and of best rank within 
thie bnigh, sail be wamit to^ attend bis Majestleil 
vntrie iriUiin the saniine, all appatM in hkttk 
vdvetf' the ane half in gowiiis faiced with black 
T$kwtf ' and the Qther half in partisanu. ' Soon 
after, learning that it was * his Majesties will and 
pleaonr that ane harrang and speache bo maid to 
mm al his 'entrie, ' they nominated their Clerk-de- 
pote ' to muk the said harrang, and provyde him- 
fldf ;to that efibci. ' They also resolved upoA 
'fftving the .King a baaqn^ and ordered aban^ 
vol.. lu p 

ass IIFK OF 

qoetiiBg-boiise to be bnilt for tbB pwpoie. WKtB 
(bey ondentoed the King to hafe reaehed Ber* 
wick* they aent their derk thither, to learn * hm 
Jtfajesties will and.plesovr aaeot the maaer of Ue 
^iMUt (reeeption) at his eatrie withia the bugh^ 
and to give inforoiation to his, Majeatie of the 
order takia th^raoeiit be the- Gaid Town. ' Cevkl 
it bet in coBsequeace of any hint giveii on tU^ oc* 
iCasioDt tbat» two or three days af(er» they enaeted 
the following ? ' UaderBtanding that the Kingb 
Majestie, at hia ^rst goipg to. jbgiaadt waa pi»- 
pyait be the hail tooab throw wldcb hia Mijeaoe 
raid, with ane eonp wtlh certaine qaaatity of grid» 
aocordiog to the estate and rank of the town; 
aad» siclyky that the same toonis, at hia Majestiai 
dontt'Cnmrniag, hes rememberit his Mafestie with 
the lyk prepyne; to eschew any iospntation of 
nagleet or dewtie, this bnigh, b^g the heid and 
principel of this kingdome, thocht meet to pro- 
pyne his Majestic at his entrie, with ten thauimd 
tneriiSf m daiMe angeUs rf gold^ and to by ane 
g^t baissin of the grittest qoantity can be had^ tt 
put the same in.' 

These memorabilia are not more illnatfatife ef 
the manners and cnstraas of the age» than are 
some which follow regarding the actaal event ef 
the King^s reception. He adyaaeed from Satan 
on the Idth of May^ and ^ enterit at the Weal 
Poirt of iEdinborgh, qnhair the IVoTest» the fear 
Bailyeisy the haiil conasdl of the tonn» with sna 
bmdreth honest men and maO) war all asaenblit 
in blak gownes* all lynit with plane yelTeW aad 
thair haUl apparell was plane Telret. * The Ao* 
▼est first made ' ane bairaiig' for. hiniself; awi 
tlMsa the clerky < in naasta of iha haiU 


began a speedii whichy for hypurbolie flattery and 
eophaistic exppesBioB) Bttrpassesy by the ct^nfewioik 
of Mr Nichois) all the speeebes of a siiDflar nap. 
tar« coDtaiaed m hb yoltiiiie9« By die ehowiag: 
of this eoortly speaker, the departure of James, 
for Enghmd had beea a kind of political sunset to 
Scotland ; by that event the people were darken^ 
edy ' deepe sorrowe and feare possessing their herts» 
their places of solace only giving a new heate to- 
the fever of the langaishing remembrance of their 
former happiness ; the verie bilks and groves> ao« 
customed of before to be refreshed with the dewe 
of his Majesties presence, ' ceased to pat on * their 
wonted apparell, ' and < with pale lookes repre* 
seated tbair miserie for the departitfe of their royal 
king. ' This day, however, brought back * our 
sunne, ' in the * royal countenance of our new 
PlKenix, the bright star of our northeme firma* 
ment, the ornament of our age ; ' and every thing . 
IB accordingly refreshed and revived. He begs 
patdon, fspon ik^ veny knees cf hu haf% for pre^ 
aomkig to speak before one who is ' formed by 
nature, and framed by education, ' to be himself 
' llie perfection of all eloquence. ' And, after a 
kmg tissue of extravagant adulation, during which 
he takes special notice of the peaceful nature of 
James s government, and of bis zeal in behalf of 
the Protestant faith, which hod ^ battred and sha- 
ken the walles of Rome more than did the Goths 
and Vandals the old frame thei^of by their sworde^ * 
be tiNVwa the hearts of his constituents, one and 
all, at hiS'Ml^estie's feet, along with their lives, 
goods, HbertieSi and whatsoever else is diMr to 
diem I * Thereafter, ane purse containing five 
huodr^ dowble angellis of gold, laid in a silver 


biding dowbld oyergilt* was propynit to fan Mft« 
jtttiey quha with ane myld and gncioas eovnte- 
naiiG6y resavit tbame with thair propyne* ' Alter 
being thoa doubly regaled—with flattery and gold 
-i-the King pAaed along the streets to the cbwcb, 
where he stopped to bear a sermon by Spottis- 
wood) Archbishop of St Andrews. As he after- 
wards passed to his palace, he knighted the Pro- 
vost on the public street* A book of congralnla- 
tory Terses by members of the UntyeffBity, was 
presented to him, along with a Latin speech, as 
he entered the palace court. 
' He was treated with a sumptuous banquet by 
the city of Edinburgh ; but, as some weeks were 
yet. to elapse before the meeting of Parliament, he 
soon after began a progress through some of the 
burghs to the north of the capital. A most amus- 
ing instance of the grotesque taste of the age oc- 
curred at his entry into the town of Linlithgow, his 
first stage from Edinburgh. One Wiseman, tiie 
schoolmaster of the burgh, stood at the raid of the 
town, enclosed in a plaster which was made in the 
figure of a lion, and uttered the foflowing rhymes, 
the composition of William Dmmmond : 

* Thrice royal sir, here I do you beseech. 
Who art a lion, to hear a lion's speech ; 
A miracle — for since the days of i&sop, 
Ko lion till these times his voice dared raise op 
To such a majesty ; then. King of Men, 
The King of Beasts speaks to thee from hia den ; 
Who, though he now enclosed be in plaster, 
, . When he was f ree^ was Lithgow*8 wise 



the whole life of this faracal monarch— -except, 
perhaps, one which is sappoaed lo have taken placet 
as he. was progreasingi by Dunfermline, to Falk- 
land. * There is a tradition, * that Jamea the 
Sixth, hunting in the neighbonrhood of Dmifmn- 
liae, incited the company theii attending upon him 
to dine along with him at a coUier*9 hmtse^ mean- 
ing the Abbey of Culroas, then belonging to Sir 
Geoige Bruce, f The worka at Culrosa appear 
to have been in their most flourishing condition, a 
little before and some time after James's accession 
to the throne of England. They were then wrought 
8 considerable way under the sea, or at least where 
the sea overflowed at fall tide, and the coals were 
carried oot to be shipped by a moat within the sea- 
mark, which had a subterraneous communication 
,with the coal-pit. Being conducted by his own 
desire to see the works below ground, he was led 
insensibly by his host and guide to the moat above 
mentioned, it being then high water. Having as- 
cended from the coal-pit, and seeing himself, with- 
out any previous intimation, surrounded by the sea, 
he was seized with an immediate apprehension of 
aome plot against his liberty or life, and called out 
'< Treason !" But his faithful guide quickly dispel'- 
led his fears, by assuring him that he was in per- 
fect safety, and, pointing to an elegant pinnace, 
that was made fast to the moat, desired to know 
whether it was most agreeable to his Majesty to 
be carried ashore in it, or to return by the same 

• Beftuttes of Scotland, !▼. 295. 

t Uncle to the unfortunate Lord Brace of -Kinloss, and 
a great coaUproprietor in the neighbourhood of Culross, 
4b^ Abbejf of which was his seat. The present Barl of 
Klgin is bis descendant. ,. : 

SS6 riFE OT 

why he came ; iipmi wbich the King, preferring the 
shortest way hftck, was carried directly ashore, ex- 
pressing mnch satisfaction at what he had seen. ' 
' He arrived at Fi^kland on the t9th of May, 
sad once more enlivened, with the sounds of his 
hiinting*horn, that nohle park, which had heen his 
(kvonrite scene of amnsement in youth. On the 
22d, he went to Kinnaird, the seat of Sir John 
Livingston, where he spent eight days, ptrobahly 
in sylvan sports. On the SOth, he advanced to 
Dundee, and was welcomed by the town-clerk, in 
a panegyrical speech, and by two Latin poems. 
It was expected by ^e inhabitants of Aberdeen, 
that he woMd have graced their ancient and thriv- 
ing city with a visit on this occasion ; and they 
had made preparations accordingly. But the ne- 
cessity of returning to Edinburgh, in time to pre- 
pare for the meeting of Parliament, prerented his 
Majesty froin gtatifying the worthy dtizens. To 
compensate as ftir as possible for the want of his 
own presence, he sent them a large deputation of his 
rethiue, all of whom were made bui^gesses, inthid- 
ing Archy Armsteong, his jester — ^who, however, 
BS a late writer remarks, ^ was not dubbed a doc- 

James was at Edinburgh on the Srd of June, 
when the Earl of Buckingham wrote to the Lord 
'Keeper Bacon : * His Majesty, God be thanked^ is 
Tory well, and safifely returned from his hunting 
Journey. ' He spent the time between this date, 
and the^l7th June, when the Parliament was to 
ait do¥m, ' in consultations, by way of preparatioD, 
towards his ends-^that is, to procure better main* 
tettanee than the ministry hath here, and aomc eon- 
formity between the churches «f Seotiand and finjp- 


liftd ill imbHe service, whereof tbe first it is hard 
to guess the success, so many great men are 
interested in the tf thes. Towards the other, hts 
hh^estf hath s^t up his chapel here, in like man- 
oer of service as it is in England, which is yet fre^ 
queated w^ by the people of the country. ' S^ 
vays Sir Dudley Carletbn, who acknow}edges, at 
-the same time, that < we hare here very kind and 
'BM^ificent eatertaioHient. ' Sir Dudley, we sus^ 
^eet, gives rather too smooth an account of the 
-eeli^lishmettt of the chapeh James had resolved, 
en this occasion, to plant such a place of worship 
beside bis palace of Holyroodhouse, as might 
serve as a sort 9f pattern for the style of decora- 
'tkm and wor^p he wished to introduce into the 
tshufches of the land. He had previously sent an 
organ from London (which cost 400/.,) as well as 
portraits of tbe apostles and evangelists, for the 
adornment of the walls. These objects, however, 
vvere regarded with horror and alarm by the 
people, who were possessed by an idea that they 
were the harbingers of the restmation of Popery. 
We are told by James Howell, gravely or not, 
that the Scotch skipper who brought down the 
organ, conceived himself dPected by a singing in 
his head for weeks after ; and as for the singing 
boys which accompanied it, he is convinced that 
* yf God and bis angells at the lasc day should 
come down ia ther whitest garments, they [the 
Scotch] would run away and cry, '* The diildrea 
ef the Chapell are come again to torment us I let 
fis£y from the abomination of these boyes and 
Mde ourselves in tbe mountaynes ! '* ' The seri- 
9QA saraest of all thi& is proved by the circum- 
stance, that ev^a bishops thought proper to remon* 

238 LIFE OF 

■tnite,* agaiiist the introductimf of the imeges kite 
the chapel, on the plea that they gave oflfenee to 
the people ; to which remonstraoce ^mes at 
length gave way ; although not withovt a aeveiie 
aarcasm at the ignorance which could not distia- 
giuflh hetween an object set np for decorationi and 
one Bet up for worship. * To show farther the 
alarm with which the people regarded every eynp- 
torn of returning Episcopacy, an absolute riot took 
place at the funeral of one of the royal gnai4 
which was performed with the English hurial-eer* 
vice, and strong exception was taken by the deigy 
against the appearance of die clergyman on tbt 
occasion in a surplice. The clergyman was Wil* 
liam Laud, now chaplain to an English bishop, hut 
afterwards Archbish<^ of Canterbury. Mr Chsm* 
berlain mentions a circumstance which will ap- 
pear still less equivocal — ^that the Bishop of Gal- 
loway, Dean of the Chapel-Royal, refused to re- 
ceive the communion with the King kneeling* f 
This from a bishop I % 

At the opening of the parliament, James fonn- 
ed part of the equestrian procession, in which, the 
Scottish senate, as usual, approached their house of 
assembly ; riding * in as honourable a fashion, ' says 
an Englishman who was present, || * as I haveever 

* Spotttswoode's History. 
f Winwood. 

I The truth is, the blahops of this reign were scarcely 
wovthy of the ifiaoie, in compsriion to those introduced by 
Charles and Laud about twenty years after. A little As- 
ger of the latter class, according to the droll dedaration of a 
Scotch minister,, was as heavy as the haill bouk (entiR 
bulk^ of one of the former. 

II rfae anonymous writer of a letter to Bscon. — ^Bacoa'i 
Works, ill SSS, 


men. him do ia ilngfauiil ;' the Earl of Baddogham 
attending at his 8timip» < in his collar, but .not in 
his robes* ' In his speech, he made a lengthy de* 
claration of his desires, all of which, however. in- 
jndicions they were to prove in execation, seemed 
to tend to ^e good of the country. His prevail* 
ing object was to redaee the ' barbarity -—such 
was the word he used'— of this kingdom,, to the 
' sweet civility ' of England ; * adding farther, ' 
fays the English writer just quoted, ' diat, if the 
Scotch nation would be as docible to learn the 
goodness 'of England, as they are teachable to limp 
ifter their ill, he might with facility prevail in his 
desire; for they had, learned of the English to 
drink healths, wear coaches and gay clothes, to 
take tobacco, and to speak neither Scotch nor 
English. ' There cannot be the least doubt, diat, 
id endeavouring to establish his supremacy over 
the Scottish church, and. reduce it to a. conformity 
of worship, he was inspired with a sincere wish to 
better the condition of the people, which he justly 
conceived to be deteriorated by the desultory ex* 
ertions of their present ill-pfud and scattered clergy. 
And he must have been equally sincere in the at- 
tempt which he made on this occasion, to abolish 
the hereditary sherifibhips, which tended so much 
to keep the people in a sort of thraldom under the 
gentry, and to substitute justices of the peace of 
his own appointment. But it was not by a visit. of 
six weeks, that he was to smooth away thie ob- 
stinate prejudices of the Scotch, against every thing 
like political or religious improvement. He was 
obliged, at the end of the parliament, to leave the 
objects of lus journey unfulfilled, or, what turAed 


out to be nearly the saibe dung) under te con^ 
aideration of a eet of coiiiixiisBioDera. 

Two days after the first sitting of the parlnment, 
(Jane 19,) he celebrated the fifty-firat anniFenBry 
of his birth, on the spot where that event took 
place, within Edinbni^ castle. Andrew Ker» a 
boy of nine years of age, on this occasion welcom- 
ed his Majesty to the castle gates, in * ane Hebrew 
speech ; ' after which he was presented with se- 
veral short Latin poems. The whole entertain* 
ment afforded at Edinburgh to him and hia tnda, 
aeems to have given mndi satisfiiction, and to hare 
conveyed to the English in general, a more fii- 
vourable impression of the country than they pre* 
viooaly entertained* * The country, ' aaya Lord 
Bacon's correspondent, * affords more profit and 
better contentment than I could ever promise my- 
self by reading of it. The King was never more 
cheereful in both body and mind, never ao well 
pleased ; and sa are the EnglM qf ail oonditwm. 
The entertainment very honourable, very geiieral, 
and very full ; every day feasts and invitations. I 
know not who paid for it. They strive, by dis- 
cretion, to give us all fair contentment, that we 
may know that the country is not so contempti- 
ble, but that it is w<»rth the cherishing* The Lord 
Provost of this town, who in English is the Mayor, 
did feast the Kii^ and all tlie Lords tlua w^ ; 
and another day all the gentlemen* And I con- 
fess, it was performed with state, with abnndaneei 
and with a general content. ' We dare not think 
of the fiure upon which the poor dtiwna must have 
retreated after all th|p prodigality* 

The King progressed, on the last day of JaDe» 
frem Edinburgh to Stirling, where be was wel- 


%omed by Mr Robert Marray, commissary, in a 
speech which contains a strange mixture of deserr- 
«d and nndeserred compliment After comparing 
James to a number of the greatest of the Roman 
Bmperors — particularly to Constantine ! — this offi- 
'cer very properly says, that, under his Majesty^s 
happy government, the laws, which in his minority 
Were like spiders' webs, taking hold of the small- 
est and letting the greatest pass, were become ' like 
nets for lions and boars, which hold fastest the 
most mighty.' Thus, continues he, * the most 
eavage parts of this conntrie have loosed of their 
wyld nature and become tame. Where ' he asks, 
* are now the broils of the Borders ? where the 
deadly feuds and ignoble Auctions of the nobles ? 
the stryfe of barons and gentlemen ? where is the 
wolfish cruelty of the dans in the Isles and far 
'Highlands? Are not all now, by your Majesties 
wyBe and provident government, under God, ei- 
tfier abolished or amended ? And so, jnstlie wee 
may avouch, ScoHam invemsti iaieriHafn^ marmh 
ream fBcisH, * ' He Concludes by stating that, 
'justly as Stirling may vaunt of her naturall beautle 
and impregnable situation, of the labyrinths of her 
delicious Forth, of the deliciousness of her vallayes, 
and the herds ni deare in her park ; though she 
may esteem herself famous ' by the connection of 
her early history with that of Rome, and the as- 
sociation of her name with that of great men, fift>m 
Agricola to William the Lyon ; * yet doth she es- 
teeme this her onlie glorte and worthiest praise, 
that she was the place of your Majesties education, 

*' You foohd ScoUsnd brick, you made St iBart>]e— what 
Bii4 of Augiwtiit rigsi#i^|^ lUnns. 

242 LIFE OF 

and that those sacred browsy which now iietr the 
wei^htie diadems of three inyiiicible nations, wevt 
ein|>a]led with their first here. ' Upon the whole, 
the Stirling speech is superior to most others de- 
liyered to James in his progress through the cooa- 
try, both in point of sense and expression. He 
spent four or fi?e days in his palace at Stirling cas* 
.tie ; days in all probability the most delightAil be 
had spent for many years, since Uiey presMited to 
him the scenes of his infancy and yooth. 

He advanced to Perth on the 5th of Jnly, and was 
welcomed to that ancient and beautifal town in a 
speech, which, among many more refined complir 
ments, informed the monarch that * he had stript 
the strumpet of Rome stark naked, so that, in- 
stead of a two*homed lambe, *she appeared to the 
world, as she was indeed, a ten-homed denl I ' 
Perth was not a town which could be expected to 
suggest the most agreeable ideas to his Majesty. 
It was here that he underwent, seventeen yeam 
before, tbo perils of the Gowry treason* It is 
very probable, however, that that a£bir waa the 
very cause of his coming cut of his way to psf 
the town this visit. The Gowry conspiracy, hpw^^ 
ever strong the impression of its reality waa fixed 
upon his own mind, had been a great deal dmenr 
dited in England as well as Scotland ; and .he 
might now wish to give the testimony of locality 
and of eye-witnesses to his own story, as a means 
of producing entire conviction in his Enj^ 
courtiers. We accordingly find dbat, before visit- 
ing Perth, he had given orders that all the persoas 
who had been present at the tragedy, now snrviv- 
. ing, should meet him on a certain day in the town. 
With these, immediateiy after faiaarrivali heeotef- 


•d Gowty bonte, followed by his suite, and, with 
great oeremony, detailed the whole series of the 
carcnnstanceSy illmtradng each, as be proceeded, 
whb the confiniiatory reriiarks of the witnesses. 
Finally, ascending to the chamber in which the two 
brothers had receitred their wonnds, he knelt down 
upon the floor, (on which the blood was stOl Wsi- 
bie,) and, cansing all his attendants to kneel aronnd 
biro, ' with tears of contrition for his sins to God, 
and thankfulness for bis mercy, using many pious 
cgaenlations, embraced all those actors in the 
tragedy j * with the exception of the poor slave 
Henderson, who was only permitted to kiss his 
band. * This afiair is strongly characteristic of 
the King, and should be held as adding to the pro- 
bability of his perfect sincerity in the original trans- 
action. It had the effect of satisfying the minds 
flf many of the English upon the subject. 

From Perth, James retrograded to Falkland, 
and from thence to St Andrews, at which last 
pli^, the corporation and the university combin- 
ad te overwhelm him with Latin congratulations. 
He spent a few dajrs at that ancient seat of the 
Muses, chi^y in wranglings with the more intrac- 
tMe of the clergy, but occasionally in the more a- 
greeri>le business of presiding at university dis- 
putations. On the 18th of July, be had returned 
to' Stirling, where, next day, he received a visit 
-fmm a deputation of the University of Edinburgh, 
who were to have disputed before him at that city, 
tf public business bad not prevented him from giv- 
ing them a hearing. 

• • • 

» HoirtlVs Stats Worthi«t, fart, * Earl of IToUUmess,'} 
p. 780. 

944 LIFE OV 

This meeting took place in the chapel-fioyel at 
Sftirling Castle^ andwas attended by a greal nwnber 
of the English and Scotch nobililfi and by muj 
learned men* No scene conld be more germaoa 
to the disposition of the monarch, who, according- 
Ijf as we are told, enjoyed it h%hly. The fint 
question discussed by the learned doctoi% was^ 
* Oogbt sberiflb and other inferior magistnites to be 
hereditary ? ' — a question at this time agitated in the 
national senate, where it was the earnest wish of 
King James that it should be decided in the ne- 
gative. As might haye been expected, the op-- 
pngners of the question soon got the advantage ; for 
the weighty arguments of royalty were thrown into 
that scale. The King was highly delighted with 
theirsnecess, and, taming to the Marquessof Hamil- 
ton, (hereditary sheriff of Clydesdale,) vAo stood 
behind his chair, said, " Jamer, you see yow cause 
is lost, and all that can be said for it is clearly an- 
swered and refuted." 

* The second thesis was On the Nature of Local 
Motion. The opposition to this was very giea^ 
and the respondent produced numerous argumenls 
from Aristotle in support of his thesb ; which oe** 
casioned the King to say, *^ These men know the- 
mind of Aristotle as well as he did himself wheft 

* The third thesis was Concerning the Origin of 
Fountains or Springs. The King wasso well pleaa- 
ed with this controversy, tiiat, although the dnee 
quarters of mi hour allotted for the disputatioA 
were expired, he caused them to proceed* eome- 
times speaking for and against both respondent 
and opponent, seldom letting an jaignmenH on €»* 
ther side pass without proper remarks* 


* The disptttatioiM being oreri the King wilh«^ 
drew to sapper; after which, he aent for the dis^ 
potantSy whose names were John Adamaony Jamee 
Fairlie, Patrick Sands, Andrew Young, Jamee 
Reidt and William King ; before whom he leam-i 
edly discoursed on the seyeral subjects centre* 
yerted by them, and began to comment oa tbeiif 
several names, and said, ** These gentlemen,, by 
their names, were destined for the acts they ha4 
in hand this day ;" and proceeded as followeth ; 

" Adam was father of all, and Adam^s son had 
the first part of this act. The defends is justly 
called Fairlie ; * his thesis had some fidrlies in iti 
and he sustained them yery fairly, and with many 
fair lies giyen to the oppugners. And why should 
not Mr Sands be the first to enter the sands ? 
But now I clearly see that all sands are not bar- 
ren, for, certainly, he hath shown a fertile wit. 
Mr Young is yery old in Aristotle. Mr Reid 
need not be red with blushing for his acting thia 
day. Mr King disputed yery kingly, and of a 
kingly purpose, concerning the royal supremacy 
of reason aboye anger and all passions. I am so 
well satisfied, " ' added his Majesty, ' <' with this 
day's exercise, that I will be godfather to the Col- 
lege of Edinburgh, and have it called the (Mege 
cfKing Jafnes, for, after its founding, it stopped 
sundry years in my minority; after I came to 
knowledge, I held -to it, and caused it to be eeta- 
blisfaed ; and although I see many look upon it 
with, an eril eye, yet I will haye them know that^ 
baring giyen it my name, I haye espoused its quar- 
rely luid at a proper time will giye it a royal god- 

* Ferijf u the Scotch for winder^ • 

J46 • ' LIFE OF 

bahm gift, to' eil1at|pe ite reTetmes. " ' The King 
being told that there was one in company his Bla- 
jeitjr had taken no notice of, namely, Henry Char* 
teris, Principal of the College, who, though a man 
of great learning, yet by his innate beshfnlneBs, 
was rendered unfit to sp^Jc in such an angnst as- 
•embly, his Majesty answered, " His name agrees 
well with his natare, for charters contain mncb 
matter, yet say nothing; and, thongh they say 
ndthing, yet they put great things into men's 
months.'' The King having signified that he 
would be pleased to see his remarss on the Pro- 
fessors' names ▼errified, it was accordingly doaei 
as follows : — 

- / As Adam was the first man, whence all beginniDg tak, 
So Adamson was president, and first man in this acb 
The Thesis Fairlie did defend, which though they tics 

Tet were fiur lies, and he the same right fairlie did matn* 

tein. • .** 

The field first entered Mr Sandfly and .there he made me 

That not all sands are barren sands, bdt that some fer- 
tile be. 

Then Mr Young most subttlie the Jhesea did Impagne', 

And kythed old in Aristotle althogfa his name be 

To him succeeded Mr Beid, who, thogh Rcid be hb 

Needs neithir for his disput blush, nor of hia ipcedi 

think shame. 
' l4Mt entred Mr King the lists, and dispute like a )t&§» 

How reason, reigning like a king, should anger un^r 
bring. • 


' Tp tbeir deserved praise Iwre I thus p^^atpon their 
And will. their C9]ledge lieoceiie called The CoUeigc if 
JSmg Jawm>* ^ 

It being the Xing's nitetitioii to retnrn to Bng- 
'lnid'1)y the finest road, lie left Stirling for Gln- 
gow, m^here be arrived on the 22nd of July. At his 
' entrance into this city, since rendered so eminent 
hf comnerce, btj^t which at the period in question 
Wto described 'as * nee opium- ccpi^, nee esdium 
^^kltdorej nee mctnium tmUniu^ nee etviumdigni' 
tdOef ctmspicutti * be was tr^leomed, in b comjHi- 
mentary «]^eecb, < by Mr William IRlty of Barro, 
eommissar of Ghogo, ' who described hhnsdf as 
being, on snch an impressire occasion, like '^ one 
tonched by a torpedo, or seen of a wdf, ''though 
he neirerthdeps ioiuidapeech to describe the royal 
visiter, as being, * among the Princes of bis tyme, 
like gold amongst the metals, the diamond amongst 
loe'gemmes, the rose amongst the Coweta, and 
the moone amongst the stars/ Here Janes was 
also complimented with b h>ng Latin speech, which 
Robert Boyd of Trochr^;, prineq^ of the College 
of Glasgow, delirered'to 1^ in Ae nanse^ tlAt 
institiition. He spent two days In the Brebiepis- 
copal'Ctty, 'a bri^f ^period, 'but correepondent'per- 
'^iaps to -its importance in the ye^ 1&17. It Is 
proMile 'that he did not 'fed mtfi4i<iaierested in 
'Glasgow; for, daring the whole of his ScotlMi 
rejign, though ^enemtly liring witfiin fhbrty «r for- 
"ty mQes of the city, 'he is only fomid tohaiVB entfe 
visited it-^on bis retirement from Edinburgh, af* 
ter the murdcar 6f the *Earl of Moray, in 15^. 

* Muses' Welcome 
▼01*. II. Q 

S48 L>FE OF 

He advanced, July 24, to Paisley, * where, in 
the Earl of Abercorne his great ball, was gratioua- 
lie delivered, by a prettie boy of nine yeerea of 
age, ( Williame Semple, son of Sir James Semple 
of Beltries), a speech ia the vemacnlar tongue, ' the 
most fantastic, perhaps, of all the fieuitastic ora- 
tions which had yet been uttered in his presence. 
Having reminded the King, that when the people 
of. Rome were saluting Csesar, ' a sillie pye among 
the rest, cried " Ave, Caesw: ! " too, ' tbia youth 
.proceeds to say, that he, an equally humble crea- 
ture in comparison, presumes, in the name of his 
fellow-subjects ' in these parts,' to lift up his * sil- 
lie voice ' in congratulation of his sacred Majesty. 
He 'Swears by the Black Book of Paisley that his 
Miyesty is welcome. 

' Thus have I said. Sir, and thus have I sworn ; 
Performance tak from noble Abercorne.* 

Flying to Ovid for metaphorj he compares the 
King to Phosbus, and makes out Scotland to be 
his Clytia, because it was bis first love. He has 
already passed the head, neck, and arms of his 
Clytia; but it is only now that he has at last reach- 
ed her heart. • * Why ? because, in this very parish 
is that anncient seat of Sur William WaUa%* that 
worthie warrior, to whome, under God, we ewe 
that you ar ours,. and Britaine yours* In this ve- 
ry parish is that nob)e house of Daimley I^eimax* 
whence sprung your Miyestie's most fiunoua proge- 
' aitors; in the city you came ficom^f the bedsit 

* William Wallace, the Scottish patriot, was the jouof- 
er sou of Wallace of Elderslie, near Paidey. 
f Glasgow. 


. bred you ; in the next yoa goe to, * that : noble 
.race of Hamilton, wherein your Higfaness's royal 
. stem distilled some droppes of their deak^st blood ; 
^and in this very house is your Majestic s own no- 
: ble Abercom'e, a chief sprigg of the same roote, 
. removed only a little by time, but nothing by na- 
ture ; ' And much more stuff to the same puf * 
' pose. 

On the 28th of July, the King was at Hamii- 
ton, the seat of James, second Marquess of. Hamil- 
tpn; on the 31st, he was at Sanquhar Castle, the 
seat of William Lord Crichton, cousin and suc- 
. cesser to the felon lord ; on the 1st of August^ he 
. was entertained at Drumlangrig, the. seat of Sir 
William Douglas, ancestor of the Queensberry la- 
. mily-; and on the 4th of August, he . reached the 
. town of Damfries» where lie was. welcomed with 
a flaming speech by Mr James Halliday, the com- 
missary. There is a tradition at Dumfries, ithat, 
. at ap entertainment given to him by tbe.citiaens, 
some black fishes of an unusual kind were set be- 
fore his Majesty* Tliere being something sttange 
in the smell as well as in the colour of this didb, 
the sagacious nose which smelt out ^e ganpowder 
treason, took alarm, and its royal proprietor, sus- 
pecting a design to poison him, started up, ^ex- 
claiming ** Treason ! " , Nor could he be -prevail- 
ed upon to re^seat himself at table, without a j(reat 
deal of difficulty. The fishes were probablyafrom 
tbe neighbouriiig lake called Locbmaben, wMckto 
; th» day produces a species known no where eke 
. ia Scotland. % 

• The King was to advance next to HaniltpiL 
i Called Vendicet, 


After a fkreweil'teittdtfn, preached to him by the 
Bishop of Galloiva^, which, aeeoidisg to ^e re- 
port of Spottiswood, caoBed tlfe congregation to 
-bant oat into tears, the King passed over the ber- 
•der of his natire kingdom, and lodged, on the night 
-of the 5th, at Garlbte. It is a carious anecdote 
>af the nattoflaVspint of Scotland, and of the «n- 
compromisiDg system of retribution maintained by 
'its nalf*einlized inhabitants, that a gentleman of 
-the same of Ker, a kinsman or clansman of the 
^degraded Somanet, was here qjprehended for a 
design of assaasinathig the new4avoiuite Bnckhig- 
ifaam, whom'he'had supposed to be the main ia- 
•atroment of his friend's dowafafi. The King;pro- 
oeeded, on the 6th, to-Bnnigham Castle, tiieieeat 
of the Earl of Camberiand ; on the 7th to Apple- 
bye ; on the "SAifo Wharton-Hall, the mwsion of 
Lard ''Wl4arton;«on the 9th ^ Kendal; on the 
:11th to lioinby Castle, the seat tt Sir Conyen 
Bamqr; and onifae 12th to Asblon-HaU, a house 
mi hord Oeiard. 

While progresshig in this easy'&^on Aroagb 
Lanoadiire, James received - a peiitionf from a great 
niMbiBr of the peasanls, trsidi»Mnen, and aerraats, 
:teqiiaituig thtt they might be allowed to lAe their 
xliveffsion, ^ as ^ old accustomed,' "after dinae 
:8ernaB««i 'Sundays ; a circanHamioe trifling in it- 
mtH, (bat wfaiich «is supposed to %are been followed 
ibyefleots af great importance in the hisHoiy of 
Eagiaad. It'aiast be nndetataod, that» -for some 
9miipi«v4aaaeoithe«4eatht>f Blmabetli, andaven 
since James's accession, the Puritana bsjd'beea i>- 
trodncing a fashion of observing Sunday with tbe 
Judaical'^degm^f-atrictnessi forbiddhgig'dip peo- 
ple, on that day, to enjoy any of the recreations 


which formerly distiiigmsbed it» devotiag H eiif* 
tkely to religioiw piirpos^B, and* widi an affeicUir 
tioQ which partly. reaiaiiHk. a|b this day, terming it 
the^ SaiUUhi. to if it hiid^bieQii the re^ day of raat. 
of: the old dispen^atioo* A«< a, ipattei; of course,, 
tba Poritana ware, opposed ift tbeir viewa hy the-, 
mom. liberal rdigponista of tbe eatahUsbed cbnrebr 
whof wkb more mipnidity» a day sely 
apart: for purposes. purUy of. piety awl* partly of- 
reat and- recnBati<m» need iti a^oordingly. Thaftr 
King Jaroea was of the latter way o£ thinking, ia. 
proved, by an anecdote which ia^ related of him. 
He htd.ordl^red bis coaches to he btonght through 
the city of Lmideni one Simday, that they mighli. 
be ready to attend him on a progress which, be in<» 
tended to oemmeace nest mOming« The Loni 
Mayor^ offended at the indecent noise which they, 
made, ordered them' to be staipped by his officers ; 
which intelligenoe being oarried to the King, he 
swore that he. thought there had been no moire 
tdngs in England than himself, and, in a fit of paa- . 
siott^ sent a peremptory order to the Mayor to re- 
lease the carriages. The magistrate obeyed the 
reyal commands; only remarking^ that he thought 
to do his duty so. long as he* offMf but,, a. higher 
power coming in hia placet, he found himself na* 
cessitated- to yield*; a declaration so respectful, and; 
at the same time so judicious, that James cgould. 
not help applauding him for it. But, indeed^ 
when we reflect^ on the joyous temperament cS- 
King James, and his antipathy to. every thing that 
smacked of preeiseness oc puritaniftmi we can be- 
at no. loss to predicate the si<te which he wes to^ 
tidfis in this controversy. 

At.tbe present time, perhaps aftfur having, wi^ 

262^ LIFE OF 

oe«ded the horrors of the Scotch Sunday, he was 
jofit in that mood of mind, that a circtunstanee like 
the petition of the Lanctohire peasantry was suffi- 
cient to decide him in favour of aetive proceed- 
ings. He now resolved to publish a Book of 
Sports, as it was called ; namely, a description of 
certain games, such as dancing, archery, leaping, 
vviulting, May-games, Whitsnn-ales, Morris-dmices, 
and the setting up of May-poles, which he thought 
the people might innocently recreate themselves 
i^th, after divine service ; containing also an in- 
junction, to be uttered by the ministers from their 
ptilpits, that the people should forthwith proceed 
to enjoy these recreative amusements, after they 
should have attended public worship. There can 
be no doubt that this was an injudicious measnre ; 
because, by leading the people to the very border 
of propriety, it tempted them to transgress the 
litae. ' It would have been enough if such sports 
had been tacitly permitted — for, in that case, a 
consciousness that they were discountenanced by 
the Itiw,- would have' caused the people to mix the 
proper degree of trembling with their mirth. Yet, 
after all, the adoption of such a measure by the 
King, was prompted merely by the spirit of die 
age, which dictated violent remedies for violent 
diseases ; and there was nothing more extmonli- 
nary !n the promulgation of a book of sports, than 
there was in the absurdity of constraining the mtnd 
on Sunday to an uticeasmg series of devotional ex* 
ercises, which were abstractly disagreeable to h, 
and for which there is no injunction in the Scrip- 
tuines* On this subject, as on most othen of a 
speculative nature in this age, public opinion went ■ 
to extremes; one party exclaiming in favaiH* of tiie 


gfbomy mode of keeping the Saiiday» and thb o- 
tber defending the expediency of making it partly ' 
a' day of festive enjoyment ; and all that can pro- 
perly be said of the afiidr of the Book of Sports, 
which' has excited bo much rancorona feeling a*' 
mong the more serious part of the community' 
against King James, is, that it was the principid, 
symptom or declaration of opinion exhibited by 
the latter body of Christians. It is said, how- 
erer, that this measure, though adopted expressly 
in compliance with the desires of a portion of the 
people, and intended for the happiness of the 
whole, gare general and deep offence, and had 
great effect in bringing on the crisis of the civil 
war. ' During that unhappy contention, when it 
several times happened that the King lost battles 
\Y&ich took place on Sunday, the victors never 
failed to refer to the Book of Sports, enforced by 
hi8''father, as the cause of his misfortunes; observ*' 
iog, that the day which the House of Stuart had 
first caused to be profaned by sports, to the offence 
of theiir people, wiis now profimeil^ by fighting to 
their own disadvantage. * 

* The following are M. D'IsraeU's remarks on this, 

* Tbe King found the people of Lancashire discontent- 
ed, from the unusual deprivation of their popular recrea- 
tions on Sundays and holidays, after the church-service : 
** With our own ears we heard the general complaint of 
oar people. " The Catholic priests were busily insinuat. 
iog amohg tbe lower orders, that the Reformed Religion 
was a sullen deprivation of all mirth and social amnse- 
ments, and thus ** turning the people*s hearts. " But 
while they were dented what the King terms " lawful re- 
creations,'* they had substituted some vicious ones. Ale- 
houses were more frequented, drunkenness more general, 
talc-mongery and sedition, the vices of sedentary idleness, 

In. pioMlGiaiag Ua jouiief t« Loadoi* 
e4>f|trMr«i)i ta m||0]f a* gm^ ^epL of hk^ AMWuiilii 
a mmom ^pty; bf <Hreetiiig his conraa ttuvn^- Um- 
rayal- foresui oft SberwMMi and. Naednrood,* nUr 
iher^ba lad, pymoiwly canard ki» b^aodst W b* 

*' James, our itoTall Kin^ woald ilde a huntiiig^ 
To the greene fbrett so pUasant and faine ; 
1V> see tbe hatt skipping and dahity does trippiiig'^ 

Unto meny- Sherwood bh nobles ivpa^ : 
' fiiawke and bound were unbound and all things pro- 

' pared, 
' Jn>r^tf gtime, in th^ same, with good regard. 
A\i a tOD^ summer day rode the King pleaisantliry 

' With sSt Ms PHnces and Nobles eache one, . 
Gnsing the hart and hinde, and the bucke gallantly^ 
Till' the dark evening forced them all to turn homew** 

Hawtorned te LoodoH on IbAysncd d«f (the ISA 
d 9epbtubet)f kmng' bean onctijr six: mantbi 

' It netir temubam Uk be mcb lAat 8iicoe« he wm 
destined to bare in tbe prajeet of vedaeiag die 
Scotch church to conformity with that of Eii§^d 
■^-^the grand' object' of His jonraey. 

The present writer presumes it to be' an «ti- 
dent facty. that, since. tbe Reformatibn, the ten- 
dency of'popalar feetin§p-in both ee«nitnea'faM;tt* 

prevailed; while a fhnaftieal gloom was spreadi ng wi flie 
country. The King^ whose gaiety of' temper instantly 
sympathised widif the multitude,, and perhaps alarmed it 
this new shape which PViritanisBfi was assuming, pnbli^ed 
'* tbe Book of Sports,*" which soon obtamed the coailtnip> 
tnous term of •* the Dancing Bo9ki " * 

• JBaffad^fme^JRn^andMUUrofJianfflda, 


th«r hma fimnifible to a fivtber excMon Af oorer 
ttitmwt and exfternftl aymbofe fron lefigieii) thaft 
laafettim W aay whiob were eat off attlwi'fli% 
and llal iho leformed Chwch of Englandy witli 
Ua amnroiia abases, er at least knitititie^ haa rar 
ther baea indebted for its oantmiiad'eiisteiice^ t» 
ibe inextrieaUe admixtnre of ila pana witli. tha> 
framavork of tbe stete^ tbaa to any fiiToir wfakkt 
iteigoya anoDg the people aa a meana by whidi 
diejr aagr pvacure reiigkraa inaftraetioiu l^aae 
poiita beings grantedf he^scancelf reqwrea to poioti 
oat bofr diffieoitt a task it aMist bare been for Kkf 
James,, to impoaa upoa. At. expreasiy popolae 
Charob of Sootlan4 snyof the cfaaraeteriatica o( 
an eatabliahBMnti whidi haa altvayr beea, oanfoaar* 
adljvy little Biora tbaa aa^ engine c^ state. 

The form in which heJatdbia wishes befoce>tho 
Soottbh Parliament, was a pvoposal for an ad^ 
ampoveriag Uot) witb biafauhops^. to ftarae the 
km and cosloma of tbe eboreb. EventaaUy,.oA 
diacoFering that a number of' tba«clergy iataadad 
to praftest agamat a«eh a atatate^ be thoogbti pan* 
par. to forbear preaealiog^y^ and.waa indiuced^ for 
tbe sake of aootbiag all: existing pnjiidieefl^ toanbf 
mit liia> desires ia thefimt: phnep to the oonsiden^ 
tioik- ofi a Genaral AMenblp^. Having by thia 
neanaf gotrJiim to leawa tho-eowitry, the clerg y aa ^ 
aeodiled'. at. St A'ndaew8> in) Ifioramber ; wbaoi 
being recovered » little fromi the overpoweriag in^ 
inenea of bjaparponal pusaenoe, they ceold' only 
be prevailed iqion by oommissionOTa to sanction 
two. of the points of oeafomiity that he desired of 
thai to I ariminiwter the sacrament in private to 
sid& persona^ and^ inats ordinary dispensation^ to 
gireftfaaieJementBifsom thebaiMb of the miniaMa 

25B tlFE OF 

at a table; This Bdini^imr, so far short 'of WhatT 
lie eicpected, drew from him m angry letter, where** 
ia he informed them, that he * was come to that age 
when he woald not Be content to be fed with broth> 
av'one of their coat was wont to speak, ' and that, 
smce they had so fiar contemned the moderate mea- 
sares he had taken with them, they shoald now 
find what it was to draw down the anger of a king. 
He proceeded to pat his threat in execation, by 
suspending the additional stipends which he had 
gninted them, and by imprisoning one or two 
whose violent opposition had brought them onder 
the censnre of hiscoart of high commission. The 
tfectof this severity was sach, that, in a second Ge- 
neral Assembly, held at Perth in Angnst 1618» 
they sanctioned fire innovatory articles which he 
presented to tUem — for keeping up five holidajrs 
in the year, kneeling at the sacrament, confirma- 
tion of children, and the administration of the two 
sacraments in private booses. With this, and with 
the virtoal ascendency which he had obtained over 
the clei^, he was for the time content. But it 
is said that, in hardly any parish in the kingdom, 
were the Perth articles really observed. A thoo« 
sand expedients were devised for evading them. 
Men in office absented themselves from dmrch on 
communion- days, on pretence of sickness ; no chil- 
dren came forward to be confirmed ; people never 
called the clergy to their houses to administer ei- 
ther sacrament ; and not a shop was ever shut on 
the holidays, Christmas and Easter not excepted. 
When an individual of the present age considers the 
innocent and perhaps laudable nature of these iono- 
vations, and observes with what loathing they were 
regarded by the people of Scotland, he ia ^t to 


be reminded of the exclamations of the French 
cook in the novel, forced to prepare a feast after 
the manner of the ancients ; who, as we are told, 
was heard exclaiming, from the profundities of his 
kitchen, while his master stood over him with a 
drawn sword, " Spare me — spare me the garlic 
and oil I" 

This is the last circumstance of note that took 
place in regard to Scotland during the reign of 
King James. With the exception of the detesta- . 
tion in which, his attempts upon the church were 
beheld, it may be said, that his reign over that 
country between 1603 and the period of his death 
was a popular one, as it unquestionably was hap- 
py for his people. If his successor could have 
prosecuted the design of equalizing the Anglican 
and Scotican churches with the same moderation 
and gentleness of spirit, we should never have 
heard of the Covenant or its wars, and might have 
seen the civilization of the people began nearly a 
century earlier than the time when it afterwards 
did actually commence. 

259 UFK OF 


■TrcDinoir or iir waltir raehoh.-^dsair or Qvm- 
▲moc-^CAfKor uust: lakx*. 


For. ntarl^ a. twelvenontli after the Kiogp's. viiit 
to Scotland^ lii& life wm spent in its woal tranqui- 
lity and' noteleMneae^ ocwas only enlivened by tbe 
negQtiationa which he thonght proper to carry on 
for. the nuurriag^ of hia son Cbarlai to one of the 
dangfateie of the King of Spain* In die enmniery 
however, of 1618, he wa« vexed by & cmel neoee* 
sity which occnrred, of inflictiag^ legal vengeance 
on Sir Walter Raleigh. 

This knight had l^en condemned. It will be re- 
collected, in the very year of the King's acceasimi, 
for his concern in the mysterions plot of the Lords 
Cobham and Grrey* Since then, instead of aoAr* 
ing the death to which he was sentenced, be had 
been kept in close confinement in the Tower, for 
the grei^r part of the time, in enjoyment of Us 
estates. James has been mnch censored fior Us 
cmelty to this gifted individnal ; and a saying of 
Prince Henry is often quoted, that none bat Us 
ftther would have kept such a burd in a cage. Bat 
as nothing is known of the secret stale 

KING jAlttES miE FIRST. S59 

VfhiHk the King xnoAt lfft«e had for his seTerity, 
censure ought to he hesitatingly applied. In 1616, 
by a concarrence of fiavouniible eircnmstaiices, a- 
mong which the pnrehased iutet^ferenee of some of 
'Buckingham's relations was not the least, Sir Wal- 
ter was able to. persuade the King to liberate him 
from the Tower, and at the same time to gire him 
'a royal commission' to conduct an expedition to a 
certain part of Guiana, in South America, where 
lie was confident of being able to work a gold 
Mine, with which he was acquainted, to great ad- 
vantage. Though this commission conferred upon 
iiim a power <^f life and death orer his "satlors, h 
'diA^iiot comprehend a pardon of .his own offenees, 
^flieSing'liiinking it prudent to retain the sentence 
tva kind of check oipon him, -the more iiece68a#}r 
m be suspected him of entertaining designii of 'a 
'less innocent nature than those of working a mine. 
"How James yielded to gi^^ any trust to a "man 
qmder vuch circumstances, and of whom he enter- 
taiued suspicions, is only to be accounted ibr by a 
reference to his easy nature, which eould seldom 
^Ssotndly lesBt continued aoHcitatioafs, tuid partly 
peAqM by the compact wfaidi Raleigh made witib 
Inm, to gire up to ^ royal treasury u fifth -pan 
df 'ifl liie gold that might be fbund. df JaJDaes 
was imposed upon in aught by 'the pteusible te^ 
p r es e n tations of his prisoner, be had many compa- 
liions in deception ; for Raleigh gathered into his 
«ttmipany some scores of the younger'sons of ilie 
%est gentry, who vmbsirkend their whole fiirttmes in 
Us prejeet But the truth -is, ih» King never eir- 
lertained any high expectations of what Sir Walter 
iborifl do.' Re seemaidl^longtbhare penetrat- 
ed into the fanciful and unprincipled character of 

260 LIFE OF 

this man, which has passed with -posterity for 
something so mach the reverse of what it really 
was. It b said, that, on being released — which 
event happened about the time that Somerset was 
imprisoned — he remarked, that * the whole history 
of the world * had not the like precedent, of a 
king's prisoner to purchase freedom, and his bosom 
favourite to have the halter, but in Scripture, in 
the case of Mordecu and Haman : ' which being 
reported to the King, his Majesty drilv replied, 
that ^ Raleigh might die in that deceit ; a saying 
which he caused to become prophetic. It is just, 
indeed, likely, that a character like Raleigh's, 
which was simply that of a clever and unscrupu- 
lous adventurer, would be at once the most odious 
possible to the open, honest, unpretending nature 
of the King, and the most pervious to his extrap 
ordinary power of unriddling hidden characters. 
In a declaration which James afterwards publish- 
edf to explain his conduct in the case of Raleigh^ 
he mentions, that he did not think it proper to 
forbid an expedition which was undertaken at the 
expense, and for the profit of his subjects, espe^ 
cially at a time when the peaceful and prosperous 
condition of the country afforded so good an op- 
portunity of estabUshing distant colonies, and pro; 
secuting remote branches of trade. 

There seems little reason to doubt that Raleigh, 
from the first, rather contemplated the design of 
acting as a privateer in the Spanish settlements, 
than of peacefully digging the mine which he bad 
described to King James. Facts, at least, ru^ 

* He had just been engaged in the oompoaitioB of t 
work under that tide. 


•IroQgly agsiiitt him. He ner^r had qeen.this 
mine in question : ,he was only informed of it by 
a sailor of the name of Keymisy whose sole proof 
iOf ita^ezistence was a lamp of ore which he exhi- 
bited! He also knew that the Spaniards ha^ 
settled and planted a town, at the place describe^y 
80. as to. destroy, of course, the obsolete and vi- 
sionary claim which he set forth to the coast, on 
the plea of having. landed qpon it twenty- three 
years before. In the fitting out of his expedition, 
he decidedly manifested hostile intentions ; for h^ 
carried with him thirteen armed Tessek. He had 
always talked of receiving a .number of. miners 
.when he should rendezvous at Plymouth ; but he 
eventually sailed witbout taking one on board: 
the whole company was of a military description. 
He was also heard, before he quitted London, to 
drop hints of a certain town in those parts, * upon 
which he could make .a saving voyage in tobacco^ 
if there were no other spoil. ' ^ 

So strong were appeai:^ces against hiip, that 
the Spanish resident, Count de Gondemar, foun^ 
it necessary to remonstrate, in the most earnee^ 
terms, against his bein^ permitted to sail; and 
James was obliged, before he. went away, to exact 
a solemn engagement from him, that he should not 
offer the least molestation tO eoy of the settlements 
of that nation. The King has been a thoussmd 
times ridiculed for showing so much Reference to 
^pain, while Raleigh has been applauded for. his 
intentions, supposing he enteitained them, of atj- 
lacking its settlements. .But, even allowing that 
.the King, displayed weakness in his matrimonial 
negotiations with Spain^ could he be considered aa 
•doing a wrong or a weak thing, if he took m^ 


Mih^ iHuiktf of "vriiith rivar the mine-win eaid.ta be* 
Rftieigb, beulg^eitber siek or pcetending to be so^ * 
eeM €fe yesselsvp the riv«r» vndev the commaad 
^ Keymis, each venel being' maimed with fifi^ 
men^ As thk -ddtBdmaent passed alongy it was as*? 
Miled with shot fired by ^e Spaniards from th^ 
shiwe ; Ite setdeis being naturally alarmed at this 
invasilDii, which was the more mrjostifiable as there 
was eaoQgh of room along the coast of the nei^ 
wserid fdr colonists ofaU 'coantries» withofit. thn^ 
Jostimg etth other. ' On airinog at the place wher^ 
tbemme was described to bi^ a Spanish towi^ 
called iSt 'Ihomas'waa foond tcoccupy thejshore; 
aad it eeemed thAt there was no chance of attain? 
iagtbeir-endstritbont first. fighting with the inha- 
bitants^ whfi were ranged on the banks to xeceiFe 
Aem. Whether iodi'an encounter had .been conr 
templated'lrom the beginaiiig, cannot be ascertaiiv* 
ed'; bnt itis-eefftaintbat'lltde deliberation or ce- 
remony was nsed in putting it * into execution-. 
K^ymis, assisted by Walter Kaleigh, son ^ the 
<k>ttinander, led the troops ashore> and commenced 
a- Bpirked attack l^oaf the ' Spaniards ; i^he latter 
crying', it ie said> tliat ^ this (meaning the toym) 
m» me teal mine liiey had come to explore,. and 
notae but fools' ever expeoted any «othen ' The 
Bnglish-'beatheck the cdloaists with great slangfa^ 
'ler, plttifdered'thev^ town, eet fire to it, and soon 
lili waste a scene, which had but a little bc^- 
fbre eifaibUed ein^ry symptom of prosperity. and 
happiness. The son of > Raleigh the onse^ 
K4^ir#Dda<aiBer made an attempt to reach the 

. >^ ]EBS'pretSBCe:of .being 9iek on bis jpurney to Londoi^ 

pmvet tbat h« was capsble of also pretending in this case. 

VOL. If. R . . .' ii 

284 tlFE 09 

mine ; tmt, being beaten in a chance skitnittli witb 
a party of tbe flettlen, be lest heart before attnn» 
tDg ^e desired spot, and, retreating on bcwrd his 
ships, returned to Raleigb^ to inform him of the 
death of his eldest son,, and thefaihire of the whole 

So general' was now the impresston of Raidgh's 
tnrpitnde among his associates, that he no longer 
conld exert any command oyer them> far leea per- 
anade them to renew the atten^ vpon the Sp»* 
nish settlements. He wonld have gladly canW 
Ihem to France, to Newfoundland, or to any odier 
place than Great Britain ; bnt they compelled him 
to retnm to that country — ^though perhiqps withont 
entertaining die wish of bringing him te condign 
punishment. He arriyed at Hymontb, with a 
ruined fleet, and a much reduced eempany, in July 
1618 ; before which lime, in consequenoe of the 
representations of the Sjpanish geyemment, the 
King had issued a proclamation, condemning his 
pro^dings in the most unqualified limguage. Ne 
sooner was it known at London ^at he had arritedt 
than Sir Lewis Stukely, Vice-admiral of the oomH 
ty of I>eyon, a kinsman of his own, was sent down 
to take him into custody. Being aeiaed at Aab- 
l>umham, on his way to London, he was qieedtly 
rxmyeyed towards that city, but not without mar 
king seyeral attempts by the way to escape, aome 
of them under such mean eiroumstaneea c^ artifice 
as eould scarcely be beMeyed by those wIm hold 
Tip this man as a pattern of English bravery; Sir 
Lewis Stukely, with a meannese fern less joatifiahit, 
permitted him on one occasion to escape so te, for 
the purpose of proytng to the public ihtX be 
not confident of his own imidcettce^ 


He was enee more commitlecl to^ tIie>Tow6rt 
from wliicb) two yean before, he bad been liber* 
afeed under each esEtraordutary circnoiBlaaceft;. and 
il was soon evident that he could entertain no 
hope-of escaping death. ^ For these hts great and 
heinons offences, ' says the King in bis declara* 
^n, ^ in acts of hostility upon his Majesty's con^ 
federates.; depredations, and abases, as well of his 
commission, as of his Majesty's subjects under his 
eharge; impostures, attempts of escape, declining 
bis Majesty's jastice,. and the rest, eyidently proT^ 
ed, or confessed by himself, he had made himself 
vtterly unworthy oip his Majesty's further mercy ; 
§ad because he could not by law be judicially call* 
ed in question, for that his former attainder of 
treason is the highest and last work of the law, 
(whereby he was civiliier mortuus), his Majesty 
WBs ipforoed>(unless attainders should become pri- 
'Hleges for all subsequent offences) to resolve te 
have him enecuted upon his former attainder. ' 

Raleigh accordingly suffered death in WeStmia- 
star Palace Yard, October 29, which day was se^ 
lected, it is>smd, because the Lord Mayor's- showv 
occurring at the time of the ezecution,^ was ex- 
pected to draw away the people from witnessing 
an instance of public justice in which they could 
not bo expected to sympathize. Raleigh, from the 
many brilliant points in his character, and from his 
being supposed to suffer chiefly at the instigation 
of a detested foreign power, has been held up as 
Aext thing to a martyr ; but,, till it can be proved 
that he entertf^ned no piratical intentions against 
the Spanish settlers, or that the people of that na- 
tion are not men, and entitled to. the rights of men 
as well as the English, k must remain a fixed 

266 LIFE OF 

point with the writer of these pages, thai the King 
did'iio more than jnsttoe in-pattiag^ death. 
The probability is, however, that^ hat for the sym- 
pathy which literary men in geiMral bear towards 
a suffering indindnal of their own ordeE:«-4mt for 
the respect which all men entertain for talent, in 
whatever character enshrined-— we should have 
niever seen it questioned that Raleigh only anffefed 
what was due to his crimes. * 

The King's life, for two or three years after this 
affair, is distinguished only by private or domestic 
incidents, or by the symptottw of age and dotage 
which were now fast advancing upon ham. That 
dotage was e^mplified by nothing so lemarkaUe^ 
as by the mordinato affection he entertained Isr 
Buckingham, * who was about this time oroated 

Buckingham,, as already rdated, was a yonng 
man of singularly prepossessing exterior^ iamh 

* '/hie Mr Wiemaik, a wealthy man, gveiit novflant 
[Puritan], and constant PauPs Walker, bearing the news 
that day. of the beheading of Sir Walter Raleigh, ^'HIs 
head, " said he, '* would d6 very well dn the ibduld«n'«f 
Sir Robert Nannton, Secretary of Statew " ' [£ir Botert 
was a good man, bu^ according to a saying here very ap- 
propriate, no great headpiece*"] * These words were com* 
plained of, and Wiemark summoned iti the Privy Coundt, 
where he pleaded for lumself, ' that h6 iiMended tib diiae- 
spect to Mr Secretary, whose known worth was above aU 
detraction) only, he spake in reference to the oldpro- 
▼erb, Two headt are better Vian one : And for that pre^ 
sent he was dismissed. Not long after, when rich men 
were called upon for a codtributiim to St'Pakil^, W^aoMtk 
at the Council«4abtB subscribed a hundred pounds ^ bet 
Mr Secretaiy told him two hundred were better than out^ 
Which between fear and charity, Wiemark was lain Sssaib- 
.sctibep '— i^w/fer'j Worthie$, 


Modii it is said, as to be abniost all tfania deyont 
imafinatioii could Iwre esaceiFed . of an angel. 
The King, it will be recoUeded, had been strock 
hf his delicate regnlar featoies, > which he esteem- 
ed the surest index of an ingennons and amiable 
chamcter ; and had been induced by that notion, 
which he partly foond justified by acquaintance, 
todevate him from his obscure condition: to the 
nearest seat beside the throne. Sir Simon D'Ewes, 
who- is genendly esteemed a sensible writer, justi- 
fies .the moBarch so far in this strange proceeding,, 
by saying that the countenance of. Buckingham 
wae such as. to impress a strong oenviction.of the 
efiabiHty and gentleness of his> nature. • He was 
also justified) fu some years^ by the excellent con- 
duct tef the youth. Bnekiagham was originally 
possessed of the sweetest dispositions, and acted 
to all persons with 'the greatesti generosity.: it was 
only when bosdened with more weighty affidrs 
than he had abilities to manage, and when the 
tongues of flattermg courtiers had, as it were, 
licked away the feet from his understanding, that 
bel>eganto desenre.tbe historiGBl maledictions he 
has since received. - 

The anecdotes related by aews»mmigers of the 
period, to show how completely James reposed 
upon .his. £s¥onrite, would seem to indicate a great 
eaEtent of weakness. At a dinner which Buck- 
ingham gave him, in July 1618, he drank particu- 
iM'ly to every one of the host's numerous relations, 
and afterwards sent to each individual some mes- 
sage of affection. When dinner was done, he rose 

* Sir Shnoii loforaa us, tiiat the kandt of Bucking(- 
ham were especially curious and beautiful 

269 XiFEoir 

«p, tBd,'«|lphMob^|^ Hbe table wime all the g^eala 
besides faimself vereeeatedy dtank a cemniOTi faealA 
to them all otrer ; eayng, that he desired to ad* 
vanoe the family of VUHen «bofe all othen, ihU 
he Uved but for that endf and that he hoped hie 
posterity would perfect itso'fiEur as he should leaife 
it imfiiiiahed. At another feast, given by Lady 
HattoD, * the principal graces and fmTonm Kghted 
on Lady Compton (mother of Bnckingfaani •) nnd 
her children, whom the King piaised and kiesed> 
and blessed all these that wished then welL'f 
The person who records this cireomstanoe, Infioraia 
us that, in December 1617, he was afiKded with 
s fit of moroseness, on aoconnt of deia&ged iMahh; 
'yet was never so much out of taaoi bat the very 
sight of my Lord of Bnckingfaam wonld settle aftd 
^et all. ' He also tells ns, that his Mijes^ onee 
nearly killed aLoid Mayor by the vehemenee and 
indefatigability with which he.perBecnted the poor 
man to get his danghter as a match to one of dm 
fanmrite's brothers. Sir Bebaatian Ibfffey, aajfo 
he, * was prevented from attending, % being very 
side and surfeited npen messages sent him by the 
King about his only daughter, whom theCoMilsm 
of Buckingham will needs have for her affia Chris- 
topher. The Mayor, a wilfal dogged man, \nSk 
not yield by any means, &ir or fool, aa yet^ and 
wishes himsdf and his daughter both dead, lathsr 
than be compelled. The truth is, she ie not psst 
fourteen, and very little of growth, so that be pea- 

. * Afterwards madt Coonten of BiickiiighMB ^ibar 
own right. She is here called Lady CWipton, fram her 
second huabaodt Sir Thomas Compton. 

f Wiiiwood's Memorial 

I A civic ceresumj. -, ^ 


leffts lie wUl not ttanry lier 4be8e four or five yeaie 
ky-bia wyi. Bat yet he bath taken the King's 
ifieeMigee so to heart, that he hath been at death's 
4oor» and is not yet recerered ; though the Doke 
of Lennox and Matqnis of Bncidngfaam have been 
severally with hinii besides divers others from the 
King, to comfort him/ James afterwsrds paid 
the worthy Mayor a personal visit on the same 
neconnt, but without success* 

^ It is one of the most surprising things about 
^is system of favouritism, that we find Bucking- 
bam, to appearance, almost as acceptable to the 
Qneen, the Prince, and the most eminent person-^ 
ages «bout -the Court, as to King James. There 
are many letten extant, between Anne and Buck- 
ingham, written in a tone of kind regard on the 
one hand, and devout respect am the other ; the 
queen generally addressing the favourite by the 
epithet, * Dear dog. ' From many circumstances^ 
bat especially that of Bucldngfaam's continuance 
ia.iBiv<Mur after James's death, it is also evident 
that a real friendship subsisted betwixt him and. 
Prince Charies; the latter of whom, in 1618, 
was gkd to employ the former, in interceding for 
a> restoration, to his Majesty's good graces, after 
having lost them for a small offence. * We also 
find m intellectual Bacon, and the most ancient 
and haoghty of the nobility, gladly prostrating 
ibemselves before this bandsome, but ordinary- 
minded npstart. 

, There were some exceptions to the general 
cendueti chiefly in persons who had hi^ipened to 

* Tbe cffesace of having taken measures to preTail upon 
the Queen to make him her chief legatee. 

270* Lire OF 

<Iilarrel tritb the uiiiioii. Such kMlvtdiidt, imeir-' 
ing ihty cdold nerer reaeh tlie King't ear, or par-> 
titke oPbis ptttronage, so long as Baddng^am was 
trhunphaoty' took a lesson from • the ckeoaastsuiees 
of his rise, and endeavonred to oast him, by eiH 
gaging the King's affectioiiB upon some other ob« 
ject. It will perhaps be scarcely believedy ^t 
many hononrable persons employed themadres, 
for this end, in trimming up and poshing forward 
lads with smooth faces and handsome persons, 
whom they took ander their charge, and who/ 
they thonght, might p^ihaps be saoeesafbl in- 
catching the royal eye. Among others were Snr 
Henry Mildmay, (afterwards one of the judges of 
King Charles,) William Brooke, son- of the George 
Brooke executed at Winchester in 1603, and one^ 
Monson, son of Sir WiHiam Monson. * This 
mastering of minions, and pressing so Cast fw? 
ward,' says Mr Chamberlain, in a letter dated 
Febmary 21, 16 18, * makes the wodd suspect it 
is toward a turning water. ' No conjecture, how- 
ever, could be more erroneous. James, blind as 
he was to Buckingham, was perspicacious cfnong^ 
in regard to his rivals. On the 28th, Mr Cham- 
berlain writes, * Most of our young court gentle* 
Inen are vanished like mushroons ; for the day be*' 
fore the King's g^ing to Theobald's, the Lord 
Chamberlain, by Express order,- told young Mon- 
son, that the King did not like bis forwardness^ 
and presenting himself continually about him. His 
education bad been in such places, and with such 
persons, * as was not to be allowed of. There- 
fore bis Majesty willed him henceforth to forbear 

* Probobly ForitstiiB sre meant. 


bit presence; and, if he would foUow his (the 
Lovd Chamberiain's advice)» be would forbear* the 
eoort.ako* This was a shrewd leprimand aad 
cross .blow to some who, they say, made aceomit 
to raise and recaFer their fortanes hy setting up 
this idol, and took great pains in pricking and 
psanking him np, beddes woMkmg his face toety. 
day uM jpossei-^utd / ' * 

* In the Advocates' Library are many original letters 
#ritlett by Buckingbam and King James to each other, 
some of which have beenprinted by Lord Hailes, whUe 
others, by coarseness of language^ are quite unfiled £09 
publication. Buckingham always addresses the King by 
the epithet, ' Dear dad and gossip, ' and generally sub- 
scribes himself, * Tour majesues most humble slave and 
dog, Stinie. ' Aecording to Dr Welwood, who (in m 
note, Compleat History of England, il 697.) alludes toi 
these or other letters, James generally addresses Buck*, 
ingham as his dear child and gossip, and subscribes him- 
self his dear dad and gossip, or dear dad and steward. 
Here is a specimen of Jiimes's part of tiie correspondence. 


' * Bleaskig, blessing,- blessing. On thy heart's xoots^and 
all.t^ine, thia Thursday morniogt Here is great store dP 
game» a& they say* partridges and stoncouleurs : I know 
who shall get their part of them ; and here is the finett 
company of young hounds that ever was seen* God blesi 
the sweet master of niy harriers, that made them be so 
well kiqit all this summer ; I mean Tom Badger. I as* 
sure myself, thou wilt punctually observe thfi dyet anA 
journey I set thee down in my first letter from .Theo- 
bald's. God bless thee and my sweet Kate and MaU, to 
the comfort of thy ' 

< Dear dad, 


< P. fi. — Let my last compliment settle to thy heart, 
tin we ha%e a sweet and comfortable meeting, which God 
send, and give thee grace to bid the drogites adieu thie 
day. • 

The following pewage from one of Buckingham's epis« 

878 . WJPE OF 

• The people ef England t^ere .tHanned to « great 
degree in the fall of the year 1618, by a comet* 
«i^ch appeared in the constellation Libra, and 
was to laige aa toeztead orer fnrty-five degreea of 
the Jieavena* At that period, the appeannoe 
of such strangers in the sky was unirenally he* 
Kered to prognosticate e?ii to the inhabitants ef 
the earth ; and the present was. of such an alarm-' 
ing appearance, as to excite peculiar apprehensiims. 
James alone, it would appear, out of all his people* 
liad <the strength of mind to discountenance aach 
antions. Sir Philip Mainwaring in a letter, slates, 
as a wonder, tha^ ' he takes no more notice of the 
hiaaing starre than he has alwayes done of the day- 
atarre, nor will allow it be any other, ' This is so 
much exculpatory endence against those who ao- 
^ose his Majesty of unwonted superstitiousness. * 

ties, may be quoted as a correspondiqf specimen of kit 
s^lc^ more espedaUy as it includes a daracteristic trait 
of the King. 

I have gott a good stomadLe since 

ymor being tkera ; but I fere your libemlitie dotii net gite 
yon leave to eate a good bitt, being well acquainted with 
Aat ould castom of yours of ever giving away ike tof • 
We both (i. e. he and his wife) have fed of nothing tA^i 
and tlxN^h they have all proved fiit and tender, yet not 
being eten at your sonde luckie tables they want«d that 
•aoci^ which makes all savourie. * 

' It is curious to observe here the Scotch phrases which 
the<fiivourite^ probably out. of compliment, bad taken up 
from the King. It should be mentioned, that Jamsi^s 
superscription as Buckingham's * dear steward, ' was a 
pun on ins oWn name. The King was perpetually seod- 
^picsents of game, &c to his favourite ; hence he call- 
ed himself his steward. Hence, also^ Buckingham eaHs 
the Kag his * kind purveyor. * 

* It is so much more, that, for many yean towsMli til^ 
cpdofbislifc^hehadfenoimcMithe baUefia wiMhsn^t 


Hie«omet of 1618 figares in a small poetical ef- 
fort of Prince Charles, which, in consideration of 
the author, we shall here introdnce. In the conrse 
•f fli progress in Fehnuuy 16 19, the conrt Spent some 
days at a house where there* happened to reside for 
the time, Miss Anne Gawdy, a young lady of ex« 
tnu>rdmary heauty, daughter to Sir Bassingbonme 
Gawdy, of Harling in Norfolk, hy a niece ef the il- 
lustrious Bacon. This interesting person excited 
die admiration of all who attendeid the King; but 
no one entertained so enthusiastic a regard for her 
as Charles, at this period in his nineteenth yearr 
and whose heart is supposed to have hitherto been 
Vttoccnpied by any such panion. He expressed 
his estimation of Miss C^wdy by the following 
quatrain, containing an anagram upon her name^ 
and inrolying, if no fine poetay, at least a ?ery pretty 
^mplknent : 

^ HeaT«n*8 wonder late, hut now Eailih's gloiious ray. 
With wonder shines ; that's gone, this, new and ga^f 

» Stitt'gBsed on : in this is more than heaven's light ; 
Day obscured that ; this makes the day more bright. * 

Ihe catastrophe which the people betieyed to be 
most immediately foretold by the comet, was the 
danise of Queen Anne, which event took place 
dn the ensuing 2d of March. Her Majesty had 
been afflicted for more than a year with an inclin- 
ation to dropsy. The progress of her illness was 
obserred by the public with great concern. * She 
is generally welUwished, ' says a notator of pass- 

4a «fibrt of ioteUect in which he was alone among his peo» 
ple» and that almost for a century. His acuteneas in de% 
teetiat^impottittes had probably enabled him to see through 
Ibis miMnbls 8uperttition.-.>Fiiifer. 

274 LIFE OF 

ing erents, * [October 22, 1617], and the care 
of. her welfare .makes the .world more fearfiil/ 
' Once theoe is hope, ' says the same writer, [Oc- 
tober 14| 1618 J < she cannot. do amiss that has 
so many good wishes. ' Notwithstanding all their 
gQod.wishes> her disorder ended fatally, on the day 
mentioned, at Hampton-Conrt Palace. Her Majes- 
ty would not believe that she was in senons dan- 
ger tin within a ^ery few hoars of her death ; so that 
there, was only time for a rerbal wiU. By that 
docament, she left the balk of her fortnne, sappos- 
ed. to amount in yalne to nearly 800,OQ02>| to her 
son* The King was confined at the dme with se- 
rera illness at Newmarket : ^ He took her death 
seemly^' says Sir Edward Howard in a letter; 
bat it is known that the melancholy event greatly 
aggraya.ted his distemper. Her Majesty^ who died 
in the forty-fifth year of her age, received a fane-> 
ral which was devgned to equal that of Queen £li- 
' zabeth in n^agnificence and expense. 

Anne was one of those persons of ^ whom it is 
almost impossible for an historian to say any thin^ 
on account of the perfect qotelessness of their cha- 
racter-^one of ^hose persons who, h&ng only allied 
to history by marriage, or by accident^^ve Uttle be- 
side their names to adorn the historic page. The 
Qnly good quality of her person wsa^ fikst of a fine 
^kin : almost the only good quality of hei; mind 
was a pleasant disposition. The rest may \^ given, 
in the words of Wilson.. '* She was in her great 
condition a good woman, not tempted from that 
height she stood on, to embrmi her spirit mack 
wi& things below her (as some busy bodies do), 

• Bircb*8 MSS. apud NicfaoIl*B Fh>gresMi. 


only giving benelf content in her ovini house with 
ench recreations abb might not ntake time tedtons 
to her : and thongh great ponsons actions are of^ 
ten pried into, and made enyy's mark, yet nothing 
could be fixed npon her, that left any great'impres«> 
aion, but that she may have engraven npon her 
monument a character of virtue. ' She was a re* 
markably a&ble queen, and very gradow to the 
people when she appeared abroad, frequently bow^ 
ing, smiling, and talking to them, from her carriage; 
which caused her to be called < the good Queen 
Anne. ' There is a portrait of her in Stmtt*s Cos- 
tumes, representing her in the dress and decora^ 
lions of the age — a long waist, wide sleeves, and 
enormous farthingale, all bedizened over with 
strings of jewels— the whole figure as stiff and un- 
natural as a peaicock. It is said to have been she 
who introduced the &rthingale into England* and*, 
by consequence, the hoop. Her jewels are stated 
to have been valued at her death at 400^000/1 ; the 
half of her whole fortune. Her property, however, 
was much dilapidated by servants, before it came 
into the hands of her heir. 

The ostensible ailments of the King at tins time 
were gout and defluxions upon his knees ; ** which 
almost deprived him of the use of his limbs. ' But 
the chief malady was probably knore of a menial 
than of a bodily nature, arising out of grief for bis 
wiife's death, vexation about the imprudence of his 
son-in-law the Elector Pblatine^ and troubles on 
the subject of the Spanish match. ^ The world, ' 
says Mr Chamberlun, * is tenderly affected to- 
wards hkki, and I aastire yoii all men apprefaenft 

* About this ttme be had « second sttAck of stone. 

276 I-IFE OF 

what a loBfi we ftbovld bare if God should ti^e ham 
Irom nsy and do earnefttlj eaqnire, and in general 
heartily wish md pray, for his welfare. * On the 1 Ot& 
of April, about six weeks after the Queen's de- 
cease, the symptoms were so violent, that he him- 
self apprehended immediate dissolution, and * pre- 
pared to settle things as if he were to leave alP, 
and to that end made an exceUent speech to the 
Prince before all the Lords then present ; ' in par- 
ticular, recommending him to keep company with 
bishops. His conduct on this occasion was man- 
ly and king-like. On getting somewhat better a 
few days afterwards, he removed to Roystoun^ 
carried all the way in a chair by his guard. Sub» 
sequently, he was transported to Theobald's in a 
litter ; where, ' as weak and weary as he wa^ he 
would not settle within doors till he had his deer 
brought to make a muster before him ; ** a remark- 
able instance of the ruling passion, strong undisr 
. the most discouraging circumstaoees. Here he was 
fortunately able to recover the use of his limbs, to 
a certain extent, by a strange expedient — ^bathing 
ihem amidst the warm bowels of the deer after the 
animal was hunted down and cut open. With his 
-usual imprudence, he was no sooner a little relrev- 
ed than, spite of all that his physicians could say, 
he resumed his habitual bad practice of ead^ 
Iruits and drinking sweet wines, f 

* Mr Chamberlain, Wtnw9od. 

f May 1619. The King was at this time more than once 
way^laid in his parks by religious madmen, who deliver- 
ed messages to him as £rom God in loud oracular yoices-^ 
nq doubt, to his M^esty's great annoyance. One WeekM, 
who had -been a soldier abroad, came up to him one day 
in Theobald's Park, crying, <« Stand, O King, " and««id> 
ing/wlien ^e King stopped, ** Thus saith the Lord, bare 
I not brought thee out of a land of famine and hoogcr^ 


He dbes not seem to have long worn inoarniagv 
lor his consort. On the Ist of June, within three 
Atontfas of her decease, he made his first entry ia« 
to London after his illness, ' fresh in a suit of 
watchet satin, laid with a hlae and white feather ; 
as also his horse was fiimiBht with the like, both 
before and behind ; insomvcb that all the company^ 
was glad to see him look so gallant, and mare Uho 
a wooer than a mourner J On this occasion, almost 
all the pnblic bodies in London testified their jay 
in his recovery, by congratulations — including the 
whole choir of the judges and lawyers^ as he wae 
pleased to term them. 

James, about this time, exerebed his faculty of 
detecting impostures, in one of the most reuNffk* 
able cases of defamation that ever fell under the 
notice of English law. The Earl of Exeter, elder 
brother of the late Secretary Cecil, married in hie 
old age a young and amiable lady, who unfortaL<!i 
nately quarrelled soon after with Lady Roos, wife 
of the Earl's grandson, by his first mamage« This 
liady Roos was a daughter of Sir Thomas Lake^ 
one of the King's Secretaries. She, in concerl 
with her mother Lady Lake, formed the diabolical 
design of ruining the Countess, by accusing hev 
of having had aa intrigue with Lord Roos^ wha 

tBto a land of plenty and abundance? Ought'st thou aol 
tlrarefore to have judged my people ^ith righteous judg- 
ment ? But thou bast perverted judgment, and not reliev- 
ed the oppressed. Therefore, unless thou repent, God 
bath rent the kingdom from thee and thy posterity aftev 
thee ! ** Bemg taken into custody and examined, he de* 
dared himself a priest of the order of Melchisedec. From 
bis description of Scotland, no Scotchman could doubt for 
a moment that he was a lying prophet, or mad. Such vtasi 
the imme^ate impression of the King, and the pooi wreteh 
was consigned to Bedlam* .^ < ^^ 


«i4 fi^ bom 9X a lliae* The retilk wuft a TercHet 
HI £ftf our of the iojiuvd CoaateM, irith heavy fines 
inpoeed upoa the guilty ladies. 
' The cinwBStmice most to be lamei^led aboAt 
this €Me» wasi that all the paniebinait fell npoa 
Sir Thomas Lake, who was a ndaa of great worth 
md lespectabilityy and only nafortttaate in haviog 
•nob a wife and daoghter. The King had preTi<: 
^osly advised him not to take .part in the acGnsa* 
lipn laid by the ladies ; bat he noUy said, that he 
conld not refuse to be a hnsband and a fitther, and, 
90 patting his name with ^eirs ia a cross hill, was a party, and onerated to pay all the 

fines. The affi^reost him altogether 30,OO(UL, and 
lost him all his placesi as well as the King's fa- 
yr^uTm James took occasion, in pronouicing judg- 
ment, to pass a severe censure upon the fkir sex; 
and especially upon such of them as, like the con- 
^nmed parties present, were of the Roipish reli- 
gioiu * He exhorted the judges,' says an uncere* 
flMmious court gossip, * to have a special care of 
the Papists, and likewise of their wives ; for ]bo 
laid the women were the nourishers of Papistry ii( 

this kingdom, and a Papist woman and a 

were voces cimvertibiles ; , which our Catholic la- 
dies ta]ce very ill. ' What strange language, the 
Header will say, to be used by a prince who was 
ia treaty for a Catholic princess as a wife to his 
SOB ! . But his persecution of the sex by no means 
stopped here. For some time after, we find him 
laldiig every opportunity of declaiming against 
what he caUs * hi^-haaded.women.' He ac^taally 
•et ,a fashion on the subject in sodety. * Our pul- 
pits, ' says a letter>writer, February 1620, ' rii^ 
continually of the insolency. and impudence of 
T0&. II. a 

ISO* ^ ztnon^ \ 

ftien; and, to help forward, tiie(Jcy«M faa^e'like' 
WMe taken theai to tti8k( so 4b«t -tbejr oati eame 
no where but their eara titiglet And all this wiH 
not aerve ; the King' thtvaiena to ftA npon their 

C rents, husbands, or ftiends^ that hni« or abovld 
re power over them, and make ikem pay iw it' 
James's amipaUiy to the more masculine of i^e ses 
haa already been remarked^ It is exoeedii%)i^ a- 
mnsing to observe, thai, in a oonvevsation' abeat 
this time with the Earl of Salisbary, who- bed an 
audience on the occasion of his manriage, beorasa-* 
questions the young peer about his wife* from a 
wish to ascertam whether she was a simple good 
matron, or a ' hMgh*k<mdBd* datte»» * 

- * His aadj^atby or ixkdkBamKB> to wmam was pailif 
natural ;- but it wag xunch 0xagg^rajte4 at thia p^od, ,|ij 
an attempt which was made by a Roman Catholic lady, to 
found a female school of Jesuits for the propagation of 
their feithk Sottke curious tntits of M<*behat i od > r t<y laliio 
sfe feood IB the foUowinfr extractiiom ar'HaaUiilii naoBb 
■cript, ^hicfa refers to the ipceUag of .the parliaaatfi|t of 
1621 :— 

' < In the King's short p/osress from Whheball td' West- 
imnster, these p aeoagea folloWHig "wei^ acooiMt^ toiBe^ 
what remarkable :-»«rast, ttMt'be8pal»;aft«iLawlJb^iglsr 
to the people .ataoding ihiclt and threefold on all aidaa to 
behold him : <* Goa bless y^ ! God bless ye \ " contrary to 
his former hasty and pa^sioitate custont, winch' often, in Ms 
ttidden distemper, wdidd bidte pdx or pbgo* on iadr«t 
flocked to sec fain. .Secondly, * tbat though the ■iwJiira 
'^ere fiUei^ with inany grea^ ladiea<«a be rod9. a^oog, ytt ba 
spake to none of tliem but to the Marquis of Suclung- 
bam's mother and wif6. Thirdly, that he ^ake particu- 
larly and bowed to the Gouiit of Goodettiar, thtf ^Malali 
airibasaa dor ; land.fouithly, thai:, lookingup l» mm urMov 
4a be passed, full of geoJjemen and ladia«|y iUl ia ye^pw 
bands^ he cried aloud, ** A pox take ye, are ye there i.*" at 
which^ being much ashamed, they all withdr«^ tbemselVtt 
suddenly fnanlb^ window. ? 

u . . 1 ... . / 



• • -■ • ' . •. 


• •- « ■ ' » I -. 

Jt ha» jatt bm^mealioiied^i thm JaiDes.^xpwnM- 
«ed mocli imctBiBen absnt thktiinei^ra.tlie double 

tbrMla^ne, aadicif ^e Spaaiab oMAeb wUdb .^ 
mhhed to' obiakt for iik aon. The. caae wm min- 
fl}E«»l»Uoir8;-^TlMt EfectoE.PalaliBc, .tbo.Rlo- 
twtmt ndee.of una-Df ^pDomoiftiof jGavomi^ 
iMri^bMi iadaoedto (tut Ua^df at ihfi.:lM)9dr tf 
the neighbonriiig nation of the Bohemians, wb# 
w«re>aiL» slate Si rebeUion .agMmt' ihavf. B|i|!t|ior 
tb* Bvpsior of Gemuoiy; : By^taUng >ithal stiqpb 
it will be observed Uiat.ibe Eleoter.was gnUty 19^ 
tbeiane indiscretionaathe .Bobemiaiiflf bediaM 
lie^was alse the mssal ni. ^ £m|MH>r« Beisf wir 
MTOcenM in Ins «tseiiipt^iba.was>. qvite in the 1^ 
tural dMoae ctf things^' expelM BOtonfyfrow hk 
i^snrped mle ov«r Bohemia^ hot also from bis pat 
^■leenl- doQffloiwiB •» the Ahkie. . 
' llie'eharacaer ofi the: Elector Fallitioe vaa Mt 
OBf eakhlaiad to iaCeeest the . feduigB. Ha ««9 
•ei4idand.BBMai)h8|^ed» tbe BMSt nnkingly «if.sA 
«iee8» and. thoaa which are. jiotfaapBrnloil d^i»fid 


iKiag la Iiesttate before (hrowifig fakmi^f and Ui 
{»e9ple toto ft war, the object of which, ev«ii if 
iuJif and vtdtorioasly accomplished, covld, after 
^V <^Aty gratify their desire of cutting and slash* 
Aug a different denomination of ChristianB. Where 
^WM the money to carry oa a war? What was 
flio end to be serred by it ? 
. It might' be die salject of a deeply interestiBg 
treatise, to inqaire into the motives which the £^ 
iish have had for all their wars since the Reforma- 
Itioft. First, there come the wars of EUsnbeth'a 
lime, nndertalcen for the purpose of enabling the 
•Dutch to praise God and cheat mankmd in their 
own cold-blooded way. Thai there was the war 
with Spain, in the end of James's* Teiga and the 
Ifeginnkg of that of Charles, the object of which 
was to give the Firotestant spirit of persecutioa 
some exercise against the Catholics. Next) were 
the Civil Wars, which, like the stroke of God up- 
on Egypt, took a victim from every family in the 
natien, and left it at the Restoration under deeper 
tyranny than that from which it had been strug- 
^ing to free itsell Then Uiere were wars against 
the scoundrel Dutch, for the purpose of undoing 
ail that hid' been done sixty years before. The 
wars of King William follow, which again grati- 
fied the public with the pleasure of belabouring 
the Catholics ;*-and here came in the grand no- 
teHty of fightmg upon credit. The wars of Queen 
Hiine had the same end, and were carried on by 
fte same means. We stilt have the pleasure of 
^ying a yearly sum for the gradfication and the 
i^iyrfi which our great^grandfikthers derived Irom 
tbiifBbmeer We^till pay mA our penoj fsr thi^ 
Ifcwftdka heiUHviBdhy Mariboroogh upon the Ao^l*' 

*T y 

^84 • -I'li^ W 

tiers df the Grtmd Mmilirqtie. The'Mn of GMnrgi 
th6' Second, in Bopport of th4 Emfieffor ef 6«niHir 
lijr, were all of the Bfttne comple^on ; still thd 
gnKfid obfe(5t Was to Tent our spHe at liie ehfldMa 
t^ the Pope, tuid advance ^e iBterests of dieae 
mrho, like oufself^s^ iMive had the goodaonsoto 
abjure him. The war^ mnce that period lisvo hid 
letods paitaking more of tins worid. Yet it is sor- 
prising to think that men may still be alive wb* 
fotfght agaSiist the ancient bugbear of Rwkie-^ 
Against an idea which, in the ptesent genefatHMT^ 
%anfit8 onlf the mittds of old women. It ia edr* 
prising to think, that the historf of the Motion for 
two oentnfks should be that of retigioos eoat6B«> 
tions, i^dfng in no good result \ and that, tlU vef^ 
latei^, men dented the biest taergies ef lib^ 
minds, And did not scruple to impost peconitty 
%t>lij^tions upon their remotest posterity, for the 
iUMie purpose 6f gratifying merely derotienal pret 

As tbe w^ld now enters into wars for ends' « lil^ 
tie mot^ diseti^et tfaitii foitoorly^ it may betft tf lesi 
to oonteire the popolaf feeling of the age vnd^rye* 

- * OaegMti&eKtion^ tre muflt aUow, if. left to'iiskriia 
psy fin* these frolicft ef our forefatbers. It is iii||^iiMjF> 
.after the lessons which those respected personages have 
left to us, that another drop of blood will ever be spilt in 
Europe on the same account. Hie wortd, * older now and 
•riser grdwn,* lfs»)st length, to stt appeanaee»-NgoS rtaf»m 
bflbit'Of coasidariog e?6ry thing with an czpness view l» 
Its pix)bable /effects upon the real, practical, solid intere^ 
of the community. And' it is imprubabte that we shau 
^er again Biscompose oli/selTes, to challenge "a nMion ^ 
ivtltuaihni onitbe'otber mde'of « narrow chnmsi^ «r liM 
di|rfi«i|| ^«gr^«rhi6li if^4A)i^gg\a» of ypiuiiig . lOCi .%9^ 
g«.vn*.. ..,.,. 

KINO JAtCflft ICaE FIRST* 88ft 

Hi^iRrktch UmdMno. ^eiMif fanrardft « OQAt^el 
iwlli Ae'CfttMwppi^en of Eoroi^, The truth i3i 
faglaiiii «t thalt time was like » num. wbo> having 
j<i9l, emsBsped ftom .a great, and imminent dangerj 
atarti and draws hia 8iiirard» for aome time aft^r^ %% 
•reiy Uttk ooiae he hears, or eyery time his.elbpv 
isvlonohed by M«ident« The iiati<m still tingled iii 
tair7:.fibra from. tha^eveitemeDt of the xwo agea 
wUch Bi c ccaded the fieformalion : they still xet 
adlacted with •horror the frights oC St Bartboloi 
pew and the AnAada; and, although the Catho- 
iWs^venimeats and indiyidaals bad alike, to'aSi 
appoanftcet long ^^ven up all potion of proselyti^- 
Iqgi Britain by force, still the naticm dreaded tbeic 
tniohinatioBs, .still thought itself far from safet 
Giom tUs inur^ mingled with religious malice and 
Uie, desire of reyenge, the people with one voiee 
uxged that a waraboold be deGlare4 against Spain 
and Anstiia, an behalf of the Elector Palatine^ . 

Janea^ who could hardly erer procure the ne* 
oassary. money for bis ordinary peacee-stablish* 
nenti and. who was animated (by wise^ and. less 
asufauauntio Tiewsy.heabatod to gratify his 8ul\jecl9 
oii this score, and adopted themore. gentle expe? 
dMffit of: eadeammiing to reriasti^ his son*in-law, 
hy. matching his son Ghaiiea to the daughter of the 
King of Spain, who, from his near eonneotion 
with the House of Austria» seemed ahle to pro- 
«»e him that favour* It is generally assected# 
^t he hetffayed an ttUBaturai degree i)f ^indiffer* 
eince to the interesta of his daughter and her «in* 
faftqiiafea Jiutband;. andaatory is toldi that, on 
Ua forbidding sbePalatina to be piayed hia 
aoattwed aisle in ^ehHBebea» thefrmceof OraUga 
mnprked him lobe a almge.peKBOii«. who. woi^ 

986 hut%4^ i 

neither fight nor ^tuf for hi* ddUraa* Tfcene^iii) 
be no donbty bo«[ever, that k r^eUtf » thmigk eeo* 
flible of' the fMf of that Brioee, he toi^ a einMi^ 
iatereet in bis fortanes, and indeed- exited ^faiai* 
self as mach, in his own partieular wap^ in hia 
favoor, as a man of more wariyce eharoeter eoidil 
have done by anas. Tbo nmnerooa expeaaitB 
embassies which' he fitted out in his behri^ aaA 
the great troubles he enconntered in negotialiag 
the aUisnce with Spaini are sensible proefe of tkM 
A particriar anecdote majr also* be mentioned i Qii 
the 'Lord Mayor and Corporation of Lmidim ap* 
plyipg to bim to inquire if be would aaaetioQ thmr 
raising a loan of 100,000^, which the. Paktine had 
begged of tbem, he answered tbat^ though he couM 
not expressly countenanee such a proceediagy ba 
should be extremely glad to see them do thi^ o^ 
any thing else, to serve his unfortnnato relatise» 

James's line of conduct in this basinessi it miMl 
be observed, as in many other tnuisactioBa of hia 
life, was*mofe apt to be of real practieal aerriee to 
the natiOD, than to excite its admiration or gmta* 
tude. The public, I am afoid,,will alwaya think 
more highly of the man who defends hia head hf 
hard blows, than of him who saves it by the law^ 
or by soothing words to the assailant* PMbably»tf 
the religioas desire of war with the Catholic powwa 
had been altogether out of theiqnestioa, Ua coih 
duct could, not have given satisfiactioa to so hig^ 
spbited a nation as the English. It is notthaae* 
fore to be wondered at, that he was now asaailadi' 
in addition to his ordinary miseries, moral aadi|ili|{y 
sicsJa with the. stinging one of pnUic saiifawa< wi 
ridiculo—thal^ in soma^caiicativesthe j/fm^^f^ifn^ 
•anted with a aoablyud wUdi i|fuil(4«°«wni>d^i^^ 


itltM98y ifitfa IT twvyfd which tefvfil next MWiiiAd 
iiT'vauk^adeaToiitiiig ta withdraw from ^ acrik- 
tenlt ttid ia 8 third spedes, the humoiir of «4ridi 
-WW* still uMwe malicioiis, with b cradle in his aftm^ 
whidi Iw wft8 loggisg alongaftef'hia unhappy daugfa* 
tor, the in her tnni hmng eet forth in the dresa, 
er nditt* nndreaa, of a poor Irishwoman, with her 
bttr hanging about her ears, and her child on her 
bttek* Or that, in some plays at Bmsselsy part of 
the dominions of liis proposed ally the King of 
Sjiain, messengers were representedi as Wilson in^ 
toms tts,*< bnnging news in haste, that the Pala* 
tmate was likely to hare a Tory formidable army 
shortly on foot ; the King of Denmark *was to fur- 
Irish hini with a hmdred thousand pickled herrings 
the Hollanders with a hundred thousand butter 
hozes,' and England with fr hundred thousand an»- 

* It vMls jnst whetti in the midst of tfais disagreeable 
€oncaiattatton of circamstances, (16121), that be was 
obliged^ after an intmral of seven years, to call a 
nowptfiiamentfor the purpose of nosing suppliea. 
^» pt^Kamente of lliat time, it must Ira remaric* 
td> wenfe amaaingty fiiir representations of the pub* 
lie mind. They were, as expressly as could be 
enppoeed, the month'^ptece of the nation. As 
a(%htbe emijeotared, he experienced from them 
nothing but censure for his foreign- policy, and 
petitions against the Spanish match. The Hon8<$ 
of. Commons thought it necessary to present a very 
fiW'femottstfanee to him, in regard to* his' l&te 
0(^^«t in'th^se matters ; ^ Hberty #hich he wari 
d^sed to resent in the sharpest terms. When 
the dapmalioff oMne to 'present it» he bustled AticL 
m^rgtmt pasmiiiy ^ho«gh4ieephijs'«p a livce of tbtf 

•<farte thitwehe kmg^ iiviia^^ad'<cfnDe<t6 vkil him I 
dirwrnincfi altogiftber whiwiit omM ihal^ hirreaeteted 
.the iiDpeitiiieiice> of iflww pia^iftnettlMy jffobfliis. 
- Aff an -nntanee tdf the abBorditjroC their -demands, 
iliey grvrely reqaested tibait rhe ^bld take jtbe 
xMldeeiv of Galholics-oiit of the haadaef'fefaeuriM^ 
Teits^ and faroiblf edneale ^lem aUder ProtestaDt 
■cheohnastera. They also pointed ont the small 
Protestant princesses of •Germany aa pt caea teng a 
good dioice of mistresses for his soov Jamea had 
too macb "sincere liberality of feeling to* adopt ^tfaa 
£r8t measure* -and was too proud to adapt, the ae»' 
•eond*— ^which was, moreover, tnaospieiDasforaitha 
fiste of the Princess EHsabeth aa wtfe of the £lec» 
tor FbJatine. Afifeer a great deal of mprafitaUc 
wrangling, he femid it neceasary to disscdTe tiiis 
turbulent assembly. 

" ' Tliese unpleasilDit <^ronfdstanoes»' joiiied to the 
pains of various acute diseasea^-^seem, to harvneai^ 
ly-broken the formerly senme teinper«f the King ; 
and he is said, by Wibon, to-faare giran weay, at 
this time, to the following, ankong otheor inatances.of 
iU "humour. It being one day nece ssary to refer 
to some papers of'importanoe relating to his aego* 
tiationrwith Spain, which hod. not been f<Mr soom 
tiBM^ m bis hands, he set IniHelf to reoollaet 
where, or in* whose bands, he'had depoaitedtheaa; 

but, probably .fram the diaCempeiied eoaditioa of 

..... , ^ 

' « TM prvjadise whifH canted the King ftij^ject sum^ 
mopopal pfainajtchfor. bis.son under rojral raniE, wu^ 
branch of bis grand prejudice about the divinity of Kings. 
Re thought that it was nece^uury, in order to ttreflerre'tbn 
4Mtatyto hi* ipott«rttf , tfuKTUiere shoald'be v» :jdniia« 
%^^ia£MU]fUleadin>liie^rgB<v ... - 

KIKG J^iMn^im^ FIRST, SS9 

iMr'tbi^v^WAfl'iiMUrlbr « ibnif \Mih> to Miife» 1l» 
^ttijr'^olHidtMioii fegwding^ tbeok At :l6B|^ iit 
Jliimt bint tiiat hs lnMl.fiTeiiitba.papBntQ.MNI 
«kUi, €11^ «f bis oldSfasottebfMfvaati. Gib, how- 
kimr^ 'dttiied'bavbig :et«r TMeked tbem* Tb0 
fSn^BMrned «c tbu, and penufted im assaVcratN 
itt^ tfatt <jrib want faaye diAra.; whkb canaed the 
vkia&'ie «brow biknaetf at bii M^est^'e feet, wid 
^ffer hbnself^fei* innaediato dealb^ in the efent .ef 
ito^bdMif foiiBd tbat he'badtold anmitnilb. Jatnea 
pnt eiilyidiMregiirdvd'tbe aflbeveiBtibn, fant ma ac^ 
tadly provoked^ in tfae> heat of the ndonealy to 
(^ire Gib a^kiek ia -passing. On tins the servant 
MMB-ttp, with dignified and just anger, and said to 
^le fLiiig, <<. Sir^ I hwm serted yon from my yontli, 
iittd yon nsTMr found me nnfaitbiiil ;' I haine not 
des^rved^ this from yon> ner can I <litre longer: with 
yfdn aiter this disgrace: kte ye well,' Sir; J will 
ifeyer see ytoi^ 'fikce more* " And aocon&igly he 
Mt' the royal presenee,- took 'bono for LondoOi 
tiii was soon finr on his way. This udbappy af* 
isnr was no :sooii0r talked of in the eonrt, tbin it 
enmevto the ears of findymion Portei^ aBOthf r ;ef 
Jlitoes's' oenfidential servants, who, tmmediatelf 
mexAleefaog that the King had f given htm the pa* 
pen, went imd bnoght them to his Majesty. Tbd 
liehamar of the monarvh, on diseovering lus mta^ 
tike, 'showed that a generous aatore was at the 
bmMkif'^'«ll< bis* fdfsnrdtties. He; immedidtely 
(Sdled for-Qib. . AntFimr was made: that he bad 
g^iiwa M LwftdDtt. '^iHhen bit him be^rtaken, 
Ifed ^nailed back witb «ill expeditbm,'' anedrtb4 
Kfngi' ^ for» L pvotostr.I shall derer again «at( 
Maki orelei^ ijlllsee btm." Gib beiia^ acv 
•iidingly;biiK^'jbaok,..Janiea.knek^ downiopoft 

%96 • %\vitW r 

iii»laiM8 belbiieliiiD (ioreditey fMCm !) attd, < mlA 
^ grftre and. raberfiBise/ as Wibmfii f«latetihe 
jfrtofy^ * entreated h» pardoD^ declaraig to dhofokl 
tioc rise till .he olita&ed it. ' Gils pat to ahatae 
hy this-'atrange revwral of poetaiaa, endeaToaoted 
ijl»iatte hia'Diaaier; Imt Jamea^wotdd) upon no 
«oeoiiofty rise till * he heard* the words 4ii abaohi* 
tion proaoonced.' It is-added^lhathemadeGft 
aR> loserby the temponay demiatfion of hie plated 
' We .are oow arrivod at that nfoat femaricahle 
part of Jaaaea's fife, the- joamef whitk hia aoD 
made to Spain, in 162S, to aee Iha Infeota* The 
•King had noir been treating for sereral. years with 
Spaia, for the doable porpose of marrying IVinoe 
Charles, and getting the^ Elector Fialatiiie re-ia- 
stated. He Ittd spent mach money and modi 
pains open the negotiation, the only efieet of 
which, . as yet, was to render him onpopalsr 
and misenble. The Spanish coort, eithar «- 
rene at heart from the match, or smcerely seia> 
polooB ctt accoant of the di£brent creeds of the 
parties, had pat him off- from year to yeari ander 
the pretext ^ difficahy as to the necessary dis- 
penaation from the Pope. His Catbolie Majestf, 
the brother of the yoong kdy, had now been 
farooght almost to his last shift; and the ttoaty 
was on>the pmnt of being sw cces s f ally dosed by 
the Earl of Bristol, the Irtish ambassador at Ma- 
drid, when a new. torn was giviHi' to die vMb 
afiir by the ronaantiG adventaveof Prineedhsrias. 
. The character of this personage seems to haaa 
haen; conmderably diffiwent id yoath from triml -It 
sms in advaaeed life. It was now duefly liistlA* 
faished for a pecaliar >d»clility andgeattobei^ 
wUah vsadaflsd him the date trf eraiy HsoHgar 


]i«Bit.soft ^ui^ing to obtervie dm inereaiiiig iafirnui 
ties 4d the Ktog, bad for seme timo past attach^ 
biauelf rery mndi to the hew^pjiarent* Hie ag)» 
b^og.a^few yean groater thaa that of tbe.prin^ey 
be beeame his tutor ia all tbose braaebeB tji know* 
ledge whicb tbe youth just springiog into njaa* 
hood naturally seeka from bim who baa roeently 
attained iu Tbey bad become inseparable friends* 
Charles^, besides being, a youth of soft ebaracterjr 
was giTen .to .romantic adventniie. Like most mei^ 
of taste and genius^-and be certainly was one o( 
ihe two-^fae. was not disposed, at least; at this 
eariy peciod .of hia life, to act in a manner ejeactly 
accordant with the usual routine of existence*) The 
ton of chivalry, whicb set two ages before, «ti& 
abed its soft twiligbt oyer him ; and^ though not ao 
enthusiastic, probably, aa to wish to become aa 
actual mailed knight^errant, be cherisbed- a gQO<|| 
deal of tbe sentiment of that lustrous phrenzy,: aiad 
ooined his thougbtSj at least, bis hopes, and wishes. 
In tbe moulds wbicli it had left. 
.ijiBuckiagham had begun to fear that, if Bristol 
sfaonid be permitted to accomplish the match by 
himself, he would thereby acquire so much layonr 
and eol&t as to proye a serious rival. He reiK^yed 
that it.sbould not be so ; and the only e^tpedieat 
boHcould tbink o^ was to ioduce. tbe prince to ao^ 
^enq^y him to Spain^ and there, with bis mora 
imme&te assistance and counsel, conclude the 
negotiation in person* It required little pennuh 
.tion^o {Hocnre Cbarles'aeonsent toeuch a achevve* 
jieibadiOttly' to xepreaent.tbe. pleasure therewoidd 
he. lataeeing the IViacesa. before merrii^faad 
tgainbig liqR-iieart .Mo«..pio«iiripg.lie9jiwi4»7tlio 

fjt&ty irtiicb w4Mld result ^fam 'tnch a* Violni^ ce# 
eeiiftrictty m tha imttl eomfSMp of priiiisei,.«Bd 
fbe cbarm of m tOnr throii|^ twitpoi^c lini^-iit 
that age, k nraet bo remomb^recl) ibe femwite 
field of romoQce— ui order to make bia Royal 
Higbnees as mttch in love with ih» project aa bioN 
self* Tbe only difficulty tbat t^en rematncd^ waa 
to procure tbe King's cooseiit.' 
• Clarendon has fortunately left a moatinnnile 
and ebaracteristie accoimt of ibe antenriewa wittdi 
Ao two youig men had mib Migesty beinra ^ob' 
ttiniBg bis permission* Taking an opportanty 
when nobody was with him- but- tbemaalineBi 
Charles threw himself upon his kaeas befiore Ua^ 
and, explaining bis wishes, entreated, in the. meat 
passionate kngvage, for leave to carry them into 
Oxecntion* Jamea was less* snorprisod at the {mnh 
pcisal thaA' Aey expe^tecU-^being probably hmikf 
fiarined with the idea, iii conseqaeaoe of the aaaaaa 
w^t similar advontniia of bia own yonth. Ho 
only Iooked,iin .his nsoal simpdo way, tb tbe Maiw 
qness of Buckingham, as tf to hear what hesh^uM 
say in regard' to tho ^cheaso. . Baddnghiun -Am 
g»ve Ins eontisel at somolengtfa, the gist of lihiia 
IfPBS^ Uiat Biabj^ Gkeurlig^'^Jkit so bo vaaa called hf 
the King and Buckbighain^-^hould "bop ermt tta i 
logo, because he bad^tooeajrheailysathia.haart 
upon it, to be- safely forbidden. Charlisiv then 
perceiving somo signs of a ftivonrablo diapasilfas 
ki^ his ittber's ebnntenance, struck in with % detaii 
of all the good eft»eta which^ ang^t result teias \k 
own personal presence m the l^mnish oomrtJ-«llia 
Impt^ which it would' give to- tfaenagotialioBi 
and tho success it might have in sociffiiigtha n»^ 
n^imaen of th^ lUath^tOb- . ' OoHq^letelf ia|«D.irfi 


bjft gW^ a^mwfiiKch gaine a kiad of bewiklere(| 
OMIseiit to his Bon 8 entreaties, in which at the firat 
\im was unable to ^ee any thing but what they had 
represented} a .{irospect lof speedily, accomplishing 

EimX for some yea» haa been the chief end of al\ 
la foreig^ policy. 

A single night» however, served to make Jame^ 
sensible of the difficulties, and dangers of th^ 
acheme* and when the two adventurers again ap? 
prqacbed him next day, he broke out into a pas? 
sio9 of tears, telling them that he was undone} 
and should break his heart if ^ they persisted iu 
ttiQir repolutiouy that not only would the prince f 
penpn be hazarded by it^ but the prospects of th^ 
ipatch would probably be destroyed, while he hiitt« 
9el| should incur the reprobation of his subjects fos 
copseQting tp it;, a^d be ended i^ long haryigue, 
a^k he bad begun» wiUi a violent fitof grief. Her^ 
upoAitbe Marqfieps assumed a tone, which may well 
9if|ke na vfonder at the extreme simplicity of th^ 
vpyal character*. He told his Majesty, that nor! 
body could believe a word he said ; that he must 
have been fiinushed with those pitijui reasons he 
aU?g94 .ag^in^^ ^be journey, by some rascal to 
whcm be bad conprnunicated their secret ; and that, 
if ^e peirSisted ii\ refusing ,to give his consent, i^ 
ni^t. GKoate an irreparable breach between him an4 
1^ son*. James could not bei^ this. Rude lan^ 
gf^BS^ fyom Budcingham^ and the fear of giving 
dMpaa^e tp bis son, were too much to be endured 
^,0|ioe». I|e itherefore, a second time, gave ^ nn^, 
willing .asBont totl^e proposal. 

. It being, th^n resolve^! that die Prince and Duka 
ahp^jldtset ,off i^oiibediat^ly in disguise^ and^ witl^ 
Mly iftV0»(Hi9da»i(fi tbe King ^exi i|K Sir frf^ck 

^^ » 

t9C i.iF£ar 

Cottington, liie Frince^i Secieteryy^rlio, from bftr* 
ing heea long hi Spain, was jailged fit to be of Uie 
party. Sir Francb haying entered tbe reoniy Jamee 
aaid to him, '^ Cotiingtony here isBabjrCharlee 
and' 6teeaie» whohaye a great' mind. to go to Spain, 
to letch home the In&nta, and will hare bni two 
more in thfeir company,' and haye chosen you for 
ene» What think yon of the jonrtfey ? "' Cotting- 
ton,'a0he afterwards acknowledged, tremUed eo 
violently at the impradence of the pitopeedl, or the 
fear of offending some t>ne or other of- the paitiefr 
preaent^ ^t he could scarcely speak* * On reco-' 
▼ecing a litde, he candidly expressed a&oniayoanMe 
opimon of the scheme, repres^iting that it would 
leinpt the Spaniards to take adyaatage of- theb 
IKMsession of the prince's person^to force hiiti into 
such terms* as they pleased on- the acore^oi te*^ 
ligion ; by which the people of En^and woddhe 
impla<»Aly offended. Upon tins the King'* for* 
mer fears reyiyed, and he thv^w faims^ apoii jue 
bed in a renewed passion of tearB,-€rying that h^ 
should lose Baby Charles, and be utterly undone.' 
-Bnckingfaam now fell mto a rage ^with- Cotdag- 
ton, and made no scruple tP insult him with a 
tonent of abii9iye language. This- gaye a new 
turn to the poor King^s emotions." He^feaied lest 
Co^tington, for whom he entertained deseffrediea- 
pecti should come to taischief for his honest an* 
awerw " Nay, by God, Steenie^ " cried he^- **-yoa 
are yery mudi to blame, to use him so*" He^at 
ewered me>directly to the question I asked Um, 
and yery honestly imd wisely; and yet youioiiw 
be siiid no more than I told yon befofe^he^wif 
called in.'' After this strange Mene, tbe King 
igatn yidded to the w^hechof this two babies, «ad 
the plan of the journey was fully agreed vf^tu 


^ ' IIm^ Mft Arwwil an TaMi7> te IMi «f ff^ 
Mteyv dUi0Hi80d wilb fias^ bmrdsr uni iii th» 1m^ 
Idlitttfoto •f ofdiaiaygmlleaifiH the MarqtMMi 
IftftHnit Ibe same •f MrThmiiM Smith, aad |k» 
FrifllBt dwi of Mr Mm. Their ody alteiMiaiil Ali 
im^^wte Sir Riefaud Grriiam, roMtar of ^oft« tv 
tb9 ftfikrqoBraL As tfaoy^ cnoned the ThanM «b 
Gu t i^ j w d, (fbrit was from NewhalU ift Bnez, "^ 
tiiat'thef set outyy thejr were obligedy for want oi< 
ailtefv ^ p^ the* feRymaA: a gold piece ; whtob 
getterMitjr over|^Dwered him ao completely, that; 
thfciking they were abool to creee the teas i^ fighli 
»diiel» atid Mag qmxm melted with pity at anoh 
a; theQght,^ he gave laliMniatioaof them to the pvbt 
Ka aKtooritiee of ilie towiu A peroon was accords 
ingly dispatched after them to Rochtoater, to ameist 
ihitt;^ and they ooly escaped by not baltiiig at thatr 
town. On the. brow of the UU beyond RochesK 
tar> they wete grsatly perplexed at seeing thoi 
Branch ambaasador ooming in thai opposite dinsoi* 
tibn in his ooaeh, attended by the King's oamme-. 
alid'fr wamber el others ; however* by leaping » 
fel^ feneesy and taking n eiicnit throngk the fields, 
they also escaped that danger. < At Canterbnry/ 
ssfs Si^ Henry Wotton, in bis Hfe of Budd^ 
Wtt^ *^ whither aome Toioe^ > aa it shoidd aeeas,* 
wiarvntiii'befopa, the Mayor df the* town oaausL 
haHseff fie eeiae on them, as they were taUng ftesk 
hands, in a Mont manner, allegmg finit a wamntt 
to et^ them